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Sparse Euclidean projections onto convex sets Volkan Cevher Laboratory for Information and Inference Systems – LIONS / EPFL joint.

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Presentation on theme: "Sparse Euclidean projections onto convex sets Volkan Cevher Laboratory for Information and Inference Systems – LIONS / EPFL joint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sparse Euclidean projections onto convex sets Volkan Cevher Laboratory for Information and Inference Systems – LIONS / EPFL joint work with Stephen Becker Anastasios Kyrillidis ISMP’12 TexPoint fonts used in EMF. Read the TexPoint manual before you delete this box.: AA A A A

2 On the “sparse” model Sparse vector only K out of N coordinates nonzero sorted index support:

3 On the “sparse” model Sparse vector only K out of N coordinates nonzero Many important applications<>model-of-choice regression (linear / nonlinear), classification, density estimation, principal component analysis, compressive sensing, spectrum estimation, denoising, deblurring, data mining, sketching, demixing / deconvolution, geophysics, medical imaging, compression, source localization, speech, function learning… Great theoretical backup explaining empirical success –provably effective in circumventing the ill-posed nature of inverse problems –provably essential in containing the generalization errors in learning –provably necessary in keeping transaction costs low in portfolio design –…

4 On the “structured sparse” model Structured sparse vector only certain K out of N coordinates nonzero Many important applications<>model-of-choice regression (linear / nonlinear), classification, density estimation, principal component analysis, compressive sensing, spectrum estimation, denoising, deblurring, data mining, sketching, demixing / deconvolution, geophysics, medical imaging, compression, source localization, speech, function learning… sorted index

5 On the “structured sparse” model Structured sparse vector only certain K out of N coordinates nonzero Many important applications<>model-of-choice regression (linear / nonlinear), classification, density estimation, principal component analysis, compressive sensing, spectrum estimation, denoising, deblurring, data mining, sketching, demixing / deconvolution, geophysics, medical imaging, compression, source localization, speech, function learning… sorted index

6 Applications require Optimization with the sparse models data fidelity term; mostly convex, smooth. typically: Difficulties: non-smoothness, non-convexity, and large dimension sparsity-based regularizer/indicator; maybe convex and non-smooth; or non-convex...

7 Goal: Non-convexConvex Encoding Ecombinatorialconvex relaxation Example Optimization with the sparse models

8 Goal: Sparsityinherently discrete non-convex encoder+simpler description of the model and its structured variations +projections with combinatorial algorithms with optimal time and space bounds -difficult to analyze / no-scale convex encoder-harder description of the model & struct. +efficient/general convex projections +easier to analyze / known scale Optimization with the sparse models Non-convexConvex Encoding Ecombinatorialconvex relaxation Example

9 Goal: Modus operandi:convex > non-convex * key lessons:ell1 encodes sparsity extremely effectively + convexity (a rare condition) is powerful Optimization with the sparse models * for simple sparsity models Non-convexConvex Encoding Ecombinatorialconvex relaxation Example

10 Goal: Modus operandi:convex > non-convex* * for simple sparsity models CLASH/NP: the power of the two frameworks for quadratic convex problems Optimization with the sparse models [Kyrillidis and C, 2011] Non-convexConvex Encoding Ecombinatorialconvex relaxation Example sparsity & structure + geometry

11 A preview CLASH Structured Sparsity Norm Constraints [Kyrillidis, Puy, and C, 2012]

12 A Real Clash of Sparsity Models

13 If ell1 is already taken, what do we do? Density estimation Examples: sparse mixture/kernel models with small sample size, nonparametric density estimation, aggregation of density estimators Markowitz Portfolio optimization Examples: minimum variance portfolio with no-short positions minimum variance portfolio with short positions Many other applications boosting classifiers, NNMF, ED, etc… [Bunea, Tsybakov, and Wegkamp, 2010; Willet and Nowak, 2007] [Brodie et al., 2008] C encodes constraints f 1 : convex sparsity is still required!

14 If ell1 is already taken, what do we do? Density estimation Markowitz Portfolio optimization Many other applications boosting classifiers, NNMF, ED, etc… Sparsity is still required! [Bunea, Tsybakov, and Wegkamp, 2010; Willet and Nowak, 2007] [Brodie et al., 2008] C encodes constraints sparsity-based f 2 and the constraint f 3 can conflict with each other!

15 If ell1 is already taken, what do we do? Density estimation Markowitz Portfolio optimization Many other applications boosting classifiers, NNMF, ED, etc… Sparsity is still required! [Bunea, Tsybakov, and Wegkamp, 2010; Willet and Nowak, 2007] [Brodie et al., 2008] C encodes constraints sparsity-based f 2 and the constraint f 3 can conflict with each other!

16 If ell1 is already taken, what do we do? Density estimation Markowitz Portfolio optimization Many other applications boosting classifiers, NNMF, ED, etc… Sparsity is still required! [Bunea, Tsybakov, and Wegkamp, 2010; Willet and Nowak, 2007] [Brodie et al., 2008] C encodes constraints sparsity-based f 2 can bias the data-fidelity

17 If ell1 is already taken, what do we do? Density estimation Markowitz Portfolio optimization Many other applications boosting classifiers, NNMF, ED, etc… Sparsity is still required! [Bunea, Tsybakov, and Wegkamp, 2010; Willet and Nowak, 2007] [Brodie et al., 2008] C encodes constraints sparsity-based f 2 can bias the data-fidelity 1. de-biased solutions are not necessarily sparse stationary points of f 1 + the constraint C 2. it may not sparsify the solution enough!

18 Objective: Problems where ell1 is already taken and beyond…

19 Objective: in general, NP-Hard! Problems where ell1 is already taken and beyond…

20 Objective: Motivation:convergence of the forward-backward algorithm for non-convex sets −obtain stationary points of convex optimization objective* Problems where ell1 is already taken and beyond… [Attouch et al. 2010]*with Lipschitz gradient

21 Objective: Motivation:convergence of the forward-backward algorithm for non-convex sets −obtain stationary points of convex optimization objective* Key actors for hire: −convex projector −sparse projector Problems where ell1 is already taken and beyond… [Attouch et al. 2010]*with Lipschitz gradient

22 Examples −ell1 ball −simplex −positive-simplex combination of the two Convex projectors* soft thresholding *I will abuse the term and use it also for prox operators. coordinate-bias

23 Examples support of the solution <> modular approximation problem Sparse projectors [Kyrillidis and C, 2011]

24 Examples support of the solution <> modular approximation problem where Sparse projectors [Kyrillidis and C, 2011]

25 Examples support of the solution <> modular approximation problem where support of the solution <> integer linear program Sparse projectors [Kyrillidis and C, 2011] : support indicator variables

26 Examples support of the solution <> modular approximation problem support of the solution <> integer linear program Sparse projectors [Kyrillidis and C, 2011] matroid structured sparse models 1. uniform matroid<>simple sparsity intersection with the following matroids (result is still a matroid!*) 2. partition matroid<>distributed sparsity 3. graphic matroid<>spanning tree sparsity 4. matching matroid <>graph matching sparsity *: in general, the intersection of two matroids is not a matroid. projector: Greedy basis algorithm A and b<>integral first row of A <>all 1’s first entry of b<>K when A is totally unimodular, projector: linear program clustered sparsity models 1.clustered-tree 2.clustered-line model projector: dynamic programming

27 Algorithm: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets

28 Algorithm: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets piece of cake.

29 Algorithm: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets seems tough.

30 Algorithm: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets ditto.

31 Algorithm: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets is this what we wanted to solve???

32 Algorithm: Example: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets

33 Algorithm: Example: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets by inspection! Error = this is hard by inspection in high-dimensions!

34 Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets by inspection! Error = Algorithm: Example: this is hard by inspection in high-dimensions!Let’s stage the actors!

35 Algorithm: Naïve approaches: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets Error = 5.5 so, non-convex followed by convex does not work here. 0000

36 Algorithm: Naïve approaches: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets Error = 5.5 well, neither does convex followed by non-convex!

37 Algorithm: Naïve approaches: Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets 5 2 surprisingly, our algorithm obtains the correct solution! our algorithm Error = 4 00

38 Algorithm: So, what do actually we do? Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets &

39 Algorithm: So, what do actually we do? Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets &

40 Algorithm: So, what do actually we do? Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets &

41 Algorithm: So, what do actually we do? Sparse Euclidean projections on convex sets &

42 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme More on the algorithm

43 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:online optimality More on the algorithm straightforward to establish for

44 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition: efficiency More on the algorithm monotonicity of boundedness of bisection

45 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:online approximation guarantee More on the algorithm bisection

46 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:optimality More on the algorithm bisection +monotonicity +continuity +equivalence

47 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:optimality More on the algorithm For simple sparsity for p=1,2, and inf

48 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:optimality More on the algorithm For structured sparsity for p=2 and inf

49 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Intuition:sub-optimality More on the algorithm For structured sparsity

50 Algorithm: Highlights: 1.optimality / online optimality / online approximation guarantees 2.efficiency of the scheme Alternative: proximal alternating minimization algorithm a general hammer for such problems with sublinear convergence rate More on the algorithm [Attouch et al. 2010]

51 Kernel density learning: Experiments

52 Markowitz portfolio selection: Experiments

53 Simplex: Experiments

54 Structured sparse projections on convex sets highlightsonline optimality / approximation guarantees efficient scheme 1-shot projections for certain combinations* needs more workcase-by-case analysis more than one-parameter projectors Upshot sparse stationary points of constrained convex objectives fixed sparse solutions (t,C(x t ))-curve reveals the difficulty of the projection conjecture monotonicity is preserved if C is convex Analysis generalizes to argmax Conclusions * 1/k problem!

55 Postdoc LIONS / EPFL contact:


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