Presentation on theme: "An invitation to sociology"— Presentation transcript:
1An invitation to sociology The Sociological Perspective
2What is Sociology?the scientific study of social structure
3Social Structure The patterned interaction of people in social relationships
4People who commit rape and sexual assault are mentally ill. Sociological Findings Verses Common SenseTrue or FalseMore U.S. students are killed in school shootings now than ten or fifteen years ago.The earnings of U.S. women have just about caught up with those of U.S. men.When faced with natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes, people panic and social organization disintegrates.People who commit rape and sexual assault are mentally ill.Most people on welfare are lazy and looking for a handout. They could work if they wanted to.Compared with women, men maintain more eye contact while they are conversing.The more available alcohol is (as measured by the number of places to buy alcohol per one hundred people), the more alcohol related injuries and fatalities occur on U.S. highways.Couples who live together before marriage are usually more satisfied with their marriages than couples who do not live together before marriage.When husbands of working wives get laid off from work, most take up the slack and increase the amount of housework they do.Students in Japan are under such intense pressure to do well in school that their suicide rate is about double that of U.S. students.
51. Someone who can’t find a job is ___________________. Homelessness is the result of _____________________.Illegal immigrants come here because of ___________.Personal Societal
6Sociological Perspective Looks at the behavior ofgroups, not individuals
7Are More Heads Better Than One? How many pennies are in the jar?Class average?How many came closer to the actual numberthan the group?Conclusion: Many times groups solve problemsbetter than individuals
8Why do people conform?Groups tend to think, feel and behave in similar wayselevator conformity
9The Social Sciences Sociology – investigates human behavior from group (not individual) perspectiveAnthropology – closely related, focus on pre-literate societiesPsychology - mental and emotional processesand functioning of the individualEconomics – studies production, distributionand consumption of goods and servicesPolitical Science – organization, administration,history, and theory of governmentHistory - past events in human societies
10Sociological Imagination The ability to see the linkbetween society and selfC. Wright Mills
11Who was August Comte, and why does he matter? Frenchman Father of Sociology1st to advocate scientificstudy of society (positivism)Positivism: the belief that knowledgeshould be derived from scientificobservationBelieved people’s behavior within a group cannot be predicted by theirpersonal characteristics (bronze)
12Comte’s Big Ideas Social Statics: the study of social stability and orderSocial Dynamics: the study ofsocial change
13Harriet Martineau… the first feminist? EnglishwomanPopular writer, Society in Americadrew link between slavery andoppression of womeninspired future feminist theorists
15Herbert Spencer and Darwinism Social Darwinismnatural social selection and survivalof the fittest societyopposed social reform – to interfere wouldbe harmful to society in long run
16“What is not good for the hive is not good for the bee.” Marcus Aurelius Antonius ( )occupy movement
17Karl Marx & class conflict German scholarpoverty and inequality ofthe working classbourgeoisie: class owning themeans for producing wealth(capitalists)proletariat: working class,those who labor for bourgeoisie
18Class Conflict eventually wage workers would overthrow capitalists result in communistic society(one without classes)
19Emile Durkheim Consensus (solidarity) of society mechanical solidarity FrenchmanConsensus (solidarity) of societymechanical solidarityorganic solidarityStudied Suicide: believed suicideis related to the strength of sharedbeliefs among group members(solidarity)
30Symbolic Interactionism What is a Theoretical Perspective?Theoretical Perspective: a set of assumptions accepted as trueConflict PerspectiveSymbolic InteractionismFunctionalism
31Functionalism Emphasizes the contributions (functions) of each part of a societyA society is a relatively integrated wholeA society tends to seek relative stabilityMost aspects of a society contribute to thesociety’s well-being and survivalA society rests on the consensus of its members
32FunctionalismFunctionalism: approach that emphasizes the contributions madeby each part of societyFamilycontributes to society by providing forthe reproduction and care of its newmembers
33Functionalism Thou Shalt Not… kill steal…. Religion contributes to society by emphasizingbeliefs and practices that are sacredReligionThou Shalt Not…killsteal….
34functionalism Education Contributes by ensuring Survival of society by passingOn essential knowledge/skills
35“Religion is the opiate of the masses.”Agree or disagree?
36FunctionalismEconomics: contributes to society by dealing with the production,distribution, and consumption of goods and services
37Functionalists: see parts of a society as an integrated whole a change in one part of society leads to changes in othersExample: pre and post-Industrial Revolution
38What do functions do? …If they didn’t, they would disappear. Most functions exist to promote a society’s survival and welfare(like family, economy, religion)…If they didn’t, they would disappear.
39Manifest and Latent Functions Robert MertonManifest functions: intended and recognizedQ: Manifest function of school?A: Education
40Latent Functions: unintended and unrecognized aspects of societyQ: Latent Function of School?A: development of closefriendships
41Dysfunctions: negative consequences of an aspect of society Consensus of society that these two aspects were dysfunctional
42Conflict Perspective A society experiences inconsistency and conflict everywhereA society is continually subjected to changeA society involves the constraint and coercionof some of its members
43Conflict PerspectiveConflict Perspective: approach emphasizing the role of conflict,competition, and constraint within asociety
44Conflict and Constraint Who gets what?Who has the POWER?Those with the most power are able to constrain (or limit)the less powerful.
45Functionalism Conflict Perspective A society is an integrated wholeA society tends to seek relative stabilityA society rests on the consensus of its membersA society experiences inconsistency and conflict everywhereA society is continually subjected to changeA society involves the constraint and coercion of some members by others
46Conflict Perspective and Social Change Balance of power changesMen -WomenWhites - Minorities
47pencil = clock pen = stapler paper = projector desk = closettablet = shoe write = dribbledown = up snack = door handleparty = nosebleed year = waffle
48I want you to take out a clock or a stapler and some projector and put it on your closet. It’s OK if you leave it in your shoe for now. I want you to dribble up your favorite door handle for a class nosebleedat the end of the school waffle.
50Symbolic Interactionism Focuses on the actual interaction among people throughthe use of shared symbolsSymbol: anything that stands for something else and hasan agreed upon meaning attached to itaunts, uncles,brothers, sistersemployers, employeesteachers, students
511. Three Assumptions About Symbolic Interactionism We learn the meaning of a symbol by the way we see others reacting to it.
522.Once we learn the meanings of symbols, we base our behavior (interaction) on them.
533. We use the meaning of symbols to imagine how others will respond to our behavior
54Dramaturgy as theatrical performances Erving Goffman approach that sees human interactionas theatrical performancesErving Goffman
55Assumptions of the Major Theoretical Perspectives FunctionalismConflict PerspectiveSymbolic Interactionism1. A society is arelatively integratedwhole.A society tends to seek relative stability.Most aspects of a society contribute to a society’s well-being and survival4. A society rests on the consensus of its members1. A societyexperiencesinconsistency andconflicteverywhere.A society iscontinuously subjected to change.3. A society involvesthe constraint andcoercion of somemembers by others.People’sinterpretations ofsymbols are based on the meanings they learn from others.People base theirinteraction on theirinterpretation ofsymbols.3. Symbols permit people to have internal conversations, behaving the way they think others expect of them and the behavior they expect of others.
56Comparing Theoretical Perspectives FunctionalistPerspectiveConflictSymbolic InteractionistEmphasisis on…Society isviewed as…Key questionis…Major criticismsare that…order and stabilitya system ofinterrelated partsHow does a partcontribute tooverall functioningof a society?it defendsexisting socialarrangementsconflict over scarceand valued resourcesdominant andsubordinate groupsin conflict over scarceWho benefits from apattern or socialarrangement, andat whose expense?it exaggeratestension anddivisions in societyshared meaning ofsymbolsa series ofinteractionsdependant onshared symbolsHow are symbolicmeanings created?it offers no systematic explanation for how meanings persistor change