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The Kinect body tracking pipeline Oliver Williams, Mihai Budiu Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley With slides contributed by Johnny Lee, Jamie Shotton.

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Presentation on theme: "The Kinect body tracking pipeline Oliver Williams, Mihai Budiu Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley With slides contributed by Johnny Lee, Jamie Shotton."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Kinect body tracking pipeline Oliver Williams, Mihai Budiu Microsoft Research, Silicon Valley With slides contributed by Johnny Lee, Jamie Shotton NASA Ames, February 14, 2011

2 Outline Hardware overview The body tracking pipeline Learning a classifier from large data Conclusions 2

3 What is Kinect? 3

4 ~2000 people 4 Caveat: we only have knowledge about a small part of this process.

5 Input device 5

6 The Innards Source: iFixit 6

7 The vision system Source: iFixit 7 IR laser projector IR camera RGB camera

8 RGB Camera Used for face recognition Face recognition requires training Needs good illumination 8

9 The audio sensors 9 4 channel multi-array microphone Time-locked with console to remove game audio

10 Prime Sense Chip 10 Xbox Hardware Engineering dramatically improved upon Prime Sense reference design performance Micron scale tolerances on large components Manufacturing process to yield ~1 device / 1.5 seconds

11 Projected IR pattern Source: 11

12 Depth computation Source: 12

13 Depth map Source: 13

14 Kinect video output 30 HZ frame rate 57deg field-of-view 8-bit VGA RGB 640 x bit monochrome 320 x

15 XBox 360 Hardware Source: 15 Triple Core PowerPC 970, 3.2GHz Hyperthreaded, 2 threads/core 500 MHz ATI graphics card DirectX MB RAM 2005 performance envelope Must handle  real-time vision AND  a modern game

16 THE BODY TRACKING PIPELINE 16

17 Generic Extensible Architecture 17 Expert 1 Expert 2 Expert 3 Arbiter Stateless Raw data Sensor Skeleton estimates Final estimate probabilistic fuses the hypotheses Statefull

18 Background segmentation Player separation Body Part Classifier One Expert: Pipeline Stages 18 Depth mapSensor Body Part Identification Skeleton

19 Sample test frames 19

20 Constraints No calibration -no start/recovery pose -no background calibration -no body calibration Minimal CPU usage Illumination-independent 20

21 body size hair body type clothes furniture pets FOV angle The test matrix 21

22 Preprocessing 22 Identify ground plane Separate background (couch) Identify players via clustering

23 Two trackers Hands + head trackingBody tracking 23 not exposed through SDK

24 The body tracking problem 24 Input Depth map Output Body parts Classifier Runs on 320x240

25 Training the classifier 25 Start from ground-truth data – depth paired with body parts Train classifier to work across – pose – scene position – Height, body shape

26 Getting the Ground Truth (1) 26 Use synthetic data (3D avatar model) Inject noise

27 Motion Capture: -Unrealistic environments -Unrealistic clothing -Low throughput Getting the Ground Truth (2) 27

28 Getting the Ground Truth (3) 28 Manual Tagging: -Requires training many people -Potentially expensive -Tagging tool influences biases in data. -Quality control is an issue contractors ~= 20 years

29 Getting the Ground Truth (4) 29 Amazon Mechanical Turk: -Build web based tool -Tagging tool is 2D only -Quality control can be done with redundant HITS $0.04/HIT -> 6 $80/hr

30 Classifying pixels Compute P(c i |w i ) – pixels i = (x, y) – body part c i – image window w i Learn classifier P(c i |w i ) from training data – randomized decision forests example image windows window moves with classifier 30

31 Features depth of pixel x in image I -- parameter describing offets u and v

32 From body parts to joint positions Compute 3D centroids for all parts Generates (position, confidence)/part Multiple proposals for each body part Done on GPU 32

33 From joints positions to skeleton Tree model of skeleton topology Has cost terms for: – Distances between connected parts (relative to “body size”) – Bone proximity to body parts – Motion terms for smoothness 33

34 Where is the skeleton? 34

35 LEARNING THE BODY PARTS CLASSIFIER FROM A MOUNTAIN OF DATA 35

36 Learn from Data 36 Classifier Training examples Machine learning

37 Cluster-based training 37 Classifier Training examples Dryad DryadLINQ Machine learning > Millions of input frames > objects manipulated Sparse, multi-dimensional data Complex datatypes (images, video, matrices, etc.)

38 Execution Application Data-Parallel Computation 38 Storage Language Parallel Databases Map- Reduce GFS BigTable Cosmos Azure SQL Server Dryad DryadLINQ Scope Sawzall,FlumeJava Hadoop HDFS S3 Pig, Hive SQL≈SQLLINQ, SQLSawzall, Java

39 Dryad = 2-D Piping Unix Pipes: 1-D grep | sed | sort | awk | perl Dryad: 2-D grep 1000 | sed 500 | sort 1000 | awk 500 | perl 50 39

40 Virtualized 2-D Pipelines 40

41 Virtualized 2-D Pipelines 41

42 Virtualized 2-D Pipelines 42

43 Virtualized 2-D Pipelines 43

44 Virtualized 2-D Pipelines 44 2D DAG multi-machine virtualized

45 Fault Tolerance

46 LINQ 46 Dryad => DryadLINQ

47 47 LINQ =.Net+ Queries Collection collection; bool IsLegal(Key); string Hash(Key); var results = from c in collection where IsLegal(c.key) select new { Hash(c.key), c.value};

48 DryadLINQ Data Model 48 Partition Collection.Net objects

49 Collection collection; bool IsLegal(Key k); string Hash(Key); var results = from c in collection where IsLegal(c.key) select new { Hash(c.key), c.value}; 49 DryadLINQ = LINQ + Dryad C# collection results C# Vertex code Query plan (Dryad job) Data

50 Language Summary 50 Where Select GroupBy OrderBy Aggregate Join

51 Highly efficient parallellization 51 time machine

52 CONCLUSIONS 52

53 Huge Commercial Success 53

54 Tremendous Interest from Developers 54

55 Consumer Technologies Push The Envelope 55 Price: 6000$ Price: 150$

56 Unique Opportunity for Technology Transfer 56

57 I can finally explain to my son what I do for a living… 57


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