Definition It is a device used to view a filmstrip. The term filmstrip refers to a roll of 35mm transparent film containing a series of related still pictures shown one at a time.
Advantages It provides visual stimulation and motivation to the learner. Filmstrips are easy to store. Compared to slides, the filmstrips fixed sequence of the frames ensures the presentation to be in order, without fear of having any of the picture out of sequence or upside down. Pace of viewing can be controlled by the user. It lends themselves well to independent study.
Limitations The permanent sequence of the images makes it impossible to alter its sequence without destroying the filmstrip. Sprocket holes get damaged or torn if filmstrip is constantly used or not threaded properly.
Definitions It is a device used to view photographic slides. The term slide refers to small format photographic transparency individually mounted for one-at-a-time projection (Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russel, D., 1993). Slides are made by taking pictures with a slide film, processed, and then mounted in 2 by 2 – inch mounts. Because of the complex nature of this projector, its price is quite high.
Advantages Amateurs are now able to produce their own slide because photographic equipment has become simplified. Compared to filmstrips, slides are more flexible because they can be arranged and rearranged into different sequences. Automatic projectors can hold sets of slides in trays and feed them in sequence. There are even projectors with remote control and timer. Slides can be integrated into individualized instuction program. Audio may accompany the slide show.
Limitations Slides can become easily disorganized. Jamming of slides in the slide-changing mechanism. Dust or fingerprints may accumulate on the slide if not handled and stored properly. Not effective in a fully-lighted room. Since the room needs to be darkened during the preparation, there is no face to face contact with the learners.
Definitions This is device that has the capacity to display opaque materials on a screen. The projector works with a very strong incandescent light which is reflected on a mirror that aims the light beam through a series of lenses onto a screen.
Advantages It is possible to have colors protected. Small objects magnified that it can be viewed by a group. Valuable prints or pictures viewed with minimum damage.
Limitations Opaque projectors are heavy and bulky. The room usually needs to be very dark. Heat from the projector can damage the materials being projected. Opaque projectors are expensive.
Definition This is a type of projector that can display video, images, or computer data on a screen or any flat surface. For this projector to work, it should be connected to a computer. Slides for this kind of projector are also easy to prepare because of the presentation tools that are readily available.
Advantages Since its slides are stored as files in the computer, storage is not a problem. This kind of projector enables to show motion or have accompanying sounds.
Limitations It needs electricity and computer for the it to run. Other projectors have poor contrast, some colors are distorted. The room needs to be dimmed so that the projection can be seen.
Definitions It is a box with a large “stage” on the top surface. A lamp from inside the box is condensed by a special type of lens and passes through the transparency that is placed on the stage. A transparency may be composed of photographic film, clear acetate, or an transparent material capable of being imprinted with an image by means of chemical, heat processes or direct drawing method.
Advantages It is simple to operate. The rate of presentation can be controlled by the teacher. It is usually placed in front of the classroom, therefore the teacher can still face his / her students. Transparencies can be prepared through a variety of simple, inexpensive methods. It can be used in large groups. It is effective in a well-lighted room.
Limitations It requires electricity and special equipment. OHPs are heavy and bulky to transport. Framed transparencies are bulky and difficult to store. It is instructor dependent. It requires preparation since nontransparent materials cannot be projected.
Practices and Reminders to Teachers When Handling and Using OHP 1.Position the projector at least 2-3 meters from the screen. 2.Avoid projecting on glossy surface. 3.Check if the lenses and glass plate are clean. 4.Place the transparency on the stage as you would normally view it. 5.Do necessary adjustments with the head assembly and focusing knob in order to ensure that the projection can be read by your learners who are seated at the farthest part of the room
Practices and Reminders to Teachers When Handling and Using OHP 6. Make sure that your learners can see what you are projecting. Do not stand in front of the screen. Stand on the side of the projector where the on/off switch is located. 7. Since your learners attention is divided between you and what is being projected, speak with more volume than you normally use. 8. Look at either your class or your transparency and NOT at the screen. An exception is when you are using a laser pointer.
Practices and Reminders to Teachers When Handling and Using OHP 9. Place the transparency on the glass plate before turning on the projector. Turn it of before removing the transparency. 10. Use dim lights. 11. When using an OHP pointer, point it to the transparency itself and not on the screen. You may also rest the pointer on the text. 12. Gradually expose the contents of your transparencies through masking.
Practices and Reminders to Teachers When Handling and Using OHP 13. Use the OHP like a chalkboard if some materials have to be drawn or written. 14. Turn off the OHP when you are not using it during dsicussions. 15. Make sure that the lamp has cooled before moving the projector. 16. Carry the OHP by its body and not by its post and head assembly.
Preparing Transparencies 1.Print horizontally on the transparency. 2.Use a large text size. 3.Use standards font size. 4.Color of the text should be black. Use red sparingly. 5.Do not overload your transparency. Use the 66 rule – 6 lines per page and 6 words per lines. 6.Use topical outlines and NOT sentences. 7.Do not reproduce a typewritten page or page from a book.
Preparing Transparencies 8. Write notes on the frame of your transparency. 9. Vary your presentation with the use of overlays (for complex topics that needs to be explained step-by-step by flipping on a series of overlay one at a time that add additional features to a diagram or illustration), masking (strips of paper cover the transparency and content is shown one at a time), silhouettes (any opaque object), and cut-outs.
Ways in Creating Overhead Transparencies Direct Drawing Method. A method wherein content is drawn or written directly on the transparency using a marker or pen. Thermal Film Process. A master is prepared on an ordinary paper using heat-absorbing material such as India ink, ordinary lead pencil, or any substance containing carbon. The image on the master is then “burned into” (with infrared light) a specially treated acetate film.
Ways in Creating Overhead Transparencies Electrostatic Film Process (Xerography). Transparencies are prepared using plain paper copying machines. A master is prepared on plain paper and then photocopied. Black and white, as well as colored transparencies ( for some machine models only) can be produced using this method. Computer Generated. Transparencies are prepared with the use of computers and then printed on an inkjet or laser printer.
Steps in Preparing an Overlay Transparency Prepare a sketch of the content. Decide which part of the sketch will be the base and which will be the overlays. For each separate part, prepare a master drawing. To make sure that the base and the overlays align properly, mark two corners of each master. Prepare transparency from each master. Prepare the frame. It can be made out of a folder or an illustration board.
Steps in Preparing an Overlay Transparency Mount the transparencies on the prepared frame. The base will be placed under the frame while the overlays are placed on the top of the frame. Before taping the transparency, make sure that the transparencies are properly aligned – use the two corners of each master that you marked for proper alignment.