# Designing Projection Systems

## Presentation on theme: "Designing Projection Systems"— Presentation transcript:

Designing Projection Systems
& Utilising the PISCR Standard in Your Work Johnny Jensen dnp denmark

Introductions & Agenda
Introductions & learning objectives Determining image size Measuring light Front projection Setting up, aligning & calibrating projection systems Practical PISCR exercise Test & award certificates

Who’s Attending? Integrators? Clients/end users? Project Managers?
Consultants & specifiers? Live events techs? IT professionals? Others?

Learning Objectives Understanding of correct design principles for a projection system Know which measurement units and tools to use for which measurement type Understand of correct procedures for installing and setting up a projection system Ability to apply the PISCR Standard for projects

Determining Image Size
Parameters: Viewing requirements of the task Text size (or detail) to be displayed Viewing distances Image (and hence screen) height Aspect ratio of image The maximum viewing distance is based on the amount of detail we need to see in the image, not the resolution of the image State that the appropriate image size is determined by evaluating each of these parameters. The task is what we are viewing on the screen. What do we need to see? Text size is incidentally linked, you need a screen big enough to show the text so you could read complete words. The distance is how far away the farthest viewer will be when viewing the information. Height of the screen is the measurement we will compare to the distance from the screen. Aspect ratio of the image rarely comes into play because we generally use the height as the limiting factor. If a screen is rotated 90 degrees as in signage applications, aspect ratio may now become a factor. State that the designer must keep in mind the maximum viewing distance when laying out the viewing area. Resolution only really comes into play if the resolution of the image is so poor (no likely) that it can’t reproduce the image in a clear fashion. Resolution may be a factor if the pixel count is so low that the image becomes blocky.

Viewability – Image Size
Depends on Furthest viewer Amount of detail in image These determine image size In turn defines nearest viewer Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Determining Image Size/Viewing Distance
Image height depends on: The distance to the furthest viewer The detail that must be seen Based on the task Distance to the furthest viewer depends on: The image height State that the appropriate screen height for an image is based on what is displayed and the task required of the user. Given the last row of viewers you can figure out how a tall a screen should be. Note: That the view-ability is determined by the distance of the user from the screen. Given a screen size you can figure out where the last row of viewers should be located.

Image Height – Text Height Method
Furthest viewing distance = Maximum of 150 x text height Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Image Height – Content Type Method
4x 6x 8x Inspection Clues General

Nearest Viewing Distance
Minimum viewing distance equals the image width An additional criterion is based on the vertical angle of view 30° max to top of image 15° Max to centre of image Image Width I.W. State that a useful rule of thumb is to ensure that the distance to the first row be no less than the image width, which allows viewers to see the entire screen with natural field of vision. This will allow the user to view the entire screen without moving his/her head. Closest viewer - No closer to the image than the width of the viewed image (53o) State that the height of the image is another issue to consider for front row viewers. We do not want the front row to have to turn their heads up the whole day. This will hurt their neck or they will have poor posture in their chair, which will cause other issues. Note that ensuring view ability for persons within the front row can be a difficult challenge. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Viewability – Viewing Angle
How far off axis? 45°, unless brightness drop off (due to high gain screen) makes it less Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Illuminance & Luminance
Light falling on a surface e.g. light falling on a table Luminance Light coming from or transmitted through a surface e.g. light entering a camera Luminance: “Light reflected from, or transmitted through a surface in a given direction.  Measured in footlamberts (fL) or candelas (cd)” Luminance the quantitative measure of brightness of a light source or an illuminated surface, equal to luminous flux  per unit solid angle emitted per unit projected area of the source or surface. Dictionary.com Note that luminance can be direct from the light source or from a reflective surface. It is the light that goes to our eyes. “Also known as photometric brightness, luminance is a measure of the flux emitted from, or reflected by, a relatively flat and uniform surface.  Luminance may be thought of as luminous intensity per unit area.” – Minolta’s The Language of Light “The quotient of the luminous flux at an element of the surface surrounding the point, and propagated in directions defined by an elementary cone….”  The luminous flux may be leaving, passing through or arriving at the surface.  Formerly, ‘photometric brightness’”.  – Lighting Handbook, 8th Edition “Also referred to as ‘measured luminance’ or ‘photometric luminance,’ it refers to light reflected from, or transmitted through a surface in a given direction.  It is the light actually perceived by the eye and is independent of viewing distance.” – Fundamentals of Lighting for Videoconferencing Illuminance: “Light falling (incident) on a surface.  Measured in footcandles (fc) or lux (lx).” Illuminance written a different way IL-luminance or Incident Light-Luminance. “This is a measure of concentration of luminous flux falling upon a surface.  It is expressed in lumens per unit area.” – Minolta’s The Language of Light “The areal density of the luminous flux incident at a point on a surface” – Lighting Handbook, 8th Edition “Light falling (incident) on a surface; measured in footcandles or lux (metric).  The eye does not perceive illuminance, but rather reflected or transmitted light.” – Fundamentals of Lighting for Videoconferencing Root of Incident: 1375–1425; late Middle English  < Middle French  < Medieval Latin incident-  (stem of incidēns  a happening, noun use of present participle of Latin incidere to befall), equivalent to Latin in- in-2  + -cid-  (combining form of cad-  fall) + -ent- -ent; compare cadence Light befalling on the screen. It is the light before it strikes a surface on its way to our eyes.

Units of Light Measure Incident light – Lux (US/imperial – Footcandle) Reflected light – Nit (US/imperial – Footlambert) Instructor Note: This graphic gives only the US/imperial units of measure. In metric we use Lux for incident light, and Nits for reflected light. Light is measured using two types of meters: incident and reflected. Incident meters measure light coming directly from a source such as a light bulb, projector or monitor. Reflected meters, or spot photometers, measure the light that bounces off an object like a projection screen or work surface. These types of meters can also be used to measure the light emitting from a monitor, rear projection screen, or LED sign. Using an incident light meter, one can measure the brightness of an emitting light source. US / imperial units: Incident – Foot-candle Reflected – Foot-Lambert Metric units: Incident – Lux Reflected - Nit Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Introductions & Agenda
Intros & learning objectives Determining image size Measuring light Front projection Setting up, aligning & calibrating projection systems Practical PISCR exercise Test & award certificates

Projection Surfaces Reflective Light bounces off the screen to the viewer Front projection Most common Variety of surfaces Front Projection Surfaces Reflective screens—Front projection screens in which light is bounced off of the screen and returned to the viewer. With front projection, the image is viewed from the same side of the screen as the projector’s location. A front screen is simply a reflecting device. It reflects both wanted (projected) and unwanted (ambient) light back into the viewing cone, so front screen contrast is dependent on the control of ambient light. This type of projection generally requires less space than rear projection. It offers simplified equipment placement. However, having the projector in the same space as the viewer poses noise problems because most projectors have cooling fans. Another downside is that people, especially the presenter or instructor, can interfere with the image by walking in front of the projected light. Front projection may be used because of its lower cost or due to limited space behind the screen. A front projection screen is a passive reflector of light. Its light reflection can be manipulated to improve brightness by changing the screen’s surface, position, or contour. State that front projection screens are the most common. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Front Projection Surfaces
Passive reflectors of light Smooth, non-gloss surface Good colour rendition Reflects light back at source Best if viewers are near same level as projector Reflects light at same angle it strikes the screen, but on the other side of the screen's axis A front projection screen is a passive reflector of light. Front projection screens can be made of a variety of surfaces and are usually chosen based on application. A matte white screen evenly disperses light 180 degrees horizontally and vertically, creating a large viewing area. A matte screen has a smooth non gloss surface similar to a white sheet. They provide good color rendition and are the best for data and graphic applications. Angularly reflective screen surfaces provide performance similar to that of a mirror. The light is reflected back at the same angle that it strikes the screen, but on the other side of the screen's axis. If a projector is mounted at a height equal to the top center of the screen, the viewing cone's axis would be directed back at the audience in a downward direction. Most screens with a gain greater than five are of this type. This screen type works well for video. Demonstrate: Indicate screen material activity center for exploration at breaks. Booklet made up with all of screen surfaces.  The samples are roughly 6"x6" and they are adhered to a card that gives gain, viewing angle and surface description.  Intro: Front projection screens can be made of a variety of surfaces and are usually chosen based on application. A front projection screen is a passive reflector of light. Screen can manipulate how it reflects the light to improve brightness. Matte white screen - evenly disperses light 180 degrees uniformly - both horizontally and vertically, creating a wide viewing cone and wide viewing angle. Smooth, non-gloss surface similar to a white sheet Provides good color rendition Glass bead screens - covered with tiny glass beads, each of which provides a spherically reflective surface. Reflects light back at the source best used if the viewer's eyes are near the same general level as the projector, such as when the projector is positioned at desk top level and the viewing audience is seated. Angularly reflective screens – light is reflected back at the same angle that it strikes the screen, but on the other side of the screen's axis. performance similar to that of a mirror If a projector is mounted at a height equal to the top center of the screen, the viewing cone's axis would be directed back at the audience in a downward direction. Most high gain screens (with a gain of greater than 5) are of this type. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Projection Surfaces Transmissive Light passes through the screen to the viewer Rear Projection Instructor Note: Due to time limit for this workshop this is the only slide about rear projection, because the practical exercise is not using rear projection. If students want to know more say that you will discuss it with them at the end if there is time. Rear Projection Surfaces Transmissive screens—Rear projection screens in which light projected from behind the screen passes through the screen to a viewer in front of the screen. Generally, better contrast and color saturation are possible in environments of high ambient light when a rear projection is used. Rear screen projection is more dependent on screen materials and installation design than front screen projection. For rear screen configurations, there are a range of screen materials available, each with different gain and directional properties. In general, rear screens have a narrow cone of viewing. These cones can be either very bright or are wide viewing cones with a less bright image. Diffusion screen material is used in some rear projection screen applications. The screen substructure may be: • Rigid acrylic. • Glass. • Vinyl fabric for portable applications. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Screen Gain Characteristic which determines apparent brightness of screen within usable viewing area Screens do not amplify light Gain is a result of the screen focusing light Unity gain screens have gain of 1 Matte White High gain screens have gain >1 Aim the light at the viewer Gain is inversely proportional to maximum viewing angle Screen gain is the ability of a screen to redirect light rays in a narrower viewing area, making projected images to appear brighter to viewers sitting on axis to the screen. The higher the gain number of a screen, the narrower the viewing angle over which it provides optimal brightness. A matte white screen evenly disperses light uniformly in both horizontal and vertical planes, creating a wide viewing area, up to 180 degrees in both axes. These screens provide good color rendition, can be matched to specific color temperatures, and are the best choice for all projection applications with sufficiently bright projectors. Ambient light rejection generally increases as the gain of the screen increases. This is because as the screen gain increases, the angle at which light hits the screen becomes more important. Ambient light that is not on axis with the projector and viewer is reflected away from the viewer. This makes the screen appear darker, increasing the contrast ratio. State that screen gain refers to the amount of light reflected by the screen materials, not amplification of light. Screen Gain A screen is a passive device and does not have the capacity to amplify or create brightness. But the surface of a screen can increase reflected light to multiply projector brightness. Screen gain is the ability of a screen to redirect projected light to make the image appear brighter within the viewer axis. The higher the gain number of a screen, the brighter the picture viewed on the axis. A screen should provide uniform brightness over the entire image area, with no dim areas or hot spots. This is referred to as a unity gain screen, meaning it disperses reflected light evenly and equally in a spherical pattern of 180 degrees with the same brightness. Ambient light rejection generally increases as the gain of the screen increases. This is because the light becomes more directional as the screen gain increases. Reflected ambient light then appears outside the viewing cone. Ambient light will have its own viewing cone, which should be outside the projected image’s viewing cone. If this is not the case, the lights need to be adjusted. Note that a Gain of 1.0 refers to a matte white screen surface that does not absorb or channel light, is completely uniform reflective and can be seen from all directions. A glass beaded screen that has a Gain reading of 1.3 or 1.5, highly reflective, is less uniform reflective and has more hot-spotting. Ask students about the implications of reflective screens compared to matte screens (responses can include off axis viewers will have reduced view-ability. Use an focused flashlight to illustrate the concept, with the focused beam brighter than the wide beam. Ask students where each type of screen is most appropriate? What issues affect the type of screen selected by a designer. For example, should a designer specify a high gain screen in an auditorium? Show students the samples of screen materials. You may be able to use the doc cam light and shine it through the material for the hot-spot effect. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Projector Positioning
There are three dimensions to projector placement - all in relationship to the desired image dimensions and location Use projector manual to determine location State that the projector must be in the proper position in order to achieve an accurate and undistorted image. State that designers should use the projector manual to determine the specific characteristics for creating the desired image size. The Y axis is how far above or below the projector needs to in relation to the screen. If keystone is used it degrades the picture. The Z axis is the zoom ratio. The X axis is to the positioning of the projector to the left or to the right in relation to the screen. State: The center of the projector is not necessarily the center of the lens. The AV designer will need to specify a mount that allows for a shift on the X axis. Ask students to identify examples of the effects of moving the projector location due to room design or client demands (e.g. keystoning correction, zoom, etc.). One ceiling tile model for mounting a projector: Chief 440. It has cables that the installer can adjust and stabilize the projector. Keystone Demo: Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Throw Distance Distance from projector to screen (Z axis)
Throw distance is the distance between the projector and the screen. Improper throw distance causes the image size to be different than required. Most projectors today come with a zoom lens. The zoom lens allows you to create the same size image from a range of throw distances. The closest acceptable distance from the projector to the screen is called the minimum projection distance. Likewise, the farthest the projector can be from the screen and still create the same image size is the maximum projection distance. You can determine throw distance by referencing a projector's specifications, where multiple formulas are given. Each projector formula is different. If the projector has multiple lenses, data will be given for each lens. There is a formula for minimum distance to the screen from a specified point on the projector, like the tip of the lens or the front faceplate. There is a formula for maximum distance to the screen from a specified point on the projector. There may be a formula for the "offset." The offset is the distance vertically that the projector can be from the bottom of the screen. To make things easier, some manufacturers provide software that calculates throw distance for you. Most projector manuals will include a simplified chart showing minimum and maximum projection distances for selected screen sizes.

Keystone Error and Correction
Correct projector position (X and Y axes) ensures correct image Projection axis must be perpendicular to screen to eliminate keystone error In order to provide an accurate, focused image on a screen, your projector must be set up in the proper location. If the projector is set away from that position, the image on screen can become misshapen and lose its focus from corner to corner. This is due to increased distance to a portion of the screen allowing the projected light to spread out and cover a larger area. This would occur if you set up a tripod screen, put the projector on the floor, tilted the projector’s legs up high and aimed it at the screen. There are adjustments you can make to correct keystone errors. They include: Electronic keystone adjustment, which reduces the number of activated pixels in an attempt to "square" the picture Optical correction by lens shift: Some projectors have motorized lens shift available in both vertical or horizontal. Vertical lens-shift keystone correction is the most common. This method of keystone correction is preferable to electronic keystone correction because it does not remove any pixels Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Digital Display Alignment
Adjustment for best performance Focus and zoom Centring Clock and phase Auto adjustments Focus and zoom A projector lens typically doesn't have an auto focus feature, so it needs to be manually focused for a sharp image. You adjust the focus on some lenses by twisting the focus ring. Others are motorized and can be adjusted by pressing a button on the remote or the projector itself. The same is true for adjusting zoom; you may need to move the zoom ring or manipulate a motorized zoom using buttons. Centering a display does not mean centering a projected image on a screen. It actually refers to centering the signal onto the imaging device – the LCD or the DLP® inside the projector Inside the projector, there is a "clock" that defines the digital timing. The clock is the master timing for putting a picture on a digital display. The clock's frequency needs to be synchronized with the incoming signal to display the image properly. After centering the display and adjusting the clock, it is time to fine tune the image. If less than a pixel of visual information is "falling off" the edge of the projected image, it can be adjusted with the phase function. The full range of a phase adjustment is generally one pixel; larger adjustments are made with the centering function. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

The Projected Image Additive vs subtractive colour Projection is used when large images are necessary and lighting can be controlled. The design of a projection environment is critical to creating a successful projection system. The environment significantly impacts the perceived quality of the displayed image. In projection systems, room lighting designs are very important to achieve quality images. Projected images use additive color; adding colors makes the image brighter. The projection system's brightness is extremely important. The dark areas of the images are equally important. Black cannot be projected. This means the screen can get no darker than when the projector is turned off. A projection system includes the projector and its optics system, screen and quality of setup A projection system includes the projector and its optics system, screen and quality of setup You may have learned by playing with paints and inks on a piece of paper that yellow and blue make green, and mixing all your paints usually creates brown. The colors of light, however, combine differently. White is the perceived color when red, blue and green light are added together in equal proportions. Black is the absence of light. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

System Black Display systems create light, they do not create dark The screen’s ability to reproduce black is limited to the darkness of the screen when it is displaying a black image System black is defined by three parameters: Display screen material Ambient light level Light from the display with a solid black image input State that the bright projected image “tricks” the brain into perceiving a black area. Discuss how black level affects contrast. If available use a white projection screen to support a discussion of black on a screen. System black is defined by three parameters: The material of the display screen The ambient light level The light from the display with a solid black image input Describe the interplay between each of these elements. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Ambient Light Any light other than the displayed image Can be minimised by good design Sometimes necessary e.g. on presenter area near screen Ambient light is any light in a presentation environment other than light generated by the displayed image. Ambient light may strike the screen or the walls in the room and reflect into the viewing area, competing with the displayed image by reducing contrast and washing out the picture. The amount of ambient light in a display environment significantly impacts the quality of the displayed image, just as the acoustics of a room affect the sound quality in audio. You can take precautions to minimize ambient light. For example… Please note that there are times when some ambient light is necessary to see some visual displays (i.e., a flipchart), or to read/take notes. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

State that this is a black image. Use the projected image to illustrate each of these points. Raise and lower the light in the room to illustrate the effect of ambient light on black levels. Use a light meter to measure ambient light , black output from the projector, etc. Ask students to note the readings on specific areas of the screen, and off-screen. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Projector Calibration
Greyscale Colour bars Done with lighting set for normal system use NOT with lights off and windows covered The projection system needs to be set up so the customer has a proper image when they arrive. It should be set up so it has proper grey scale (sharpness & luminance) then color bars (hue and saturation – for NTSC). This calibration should be done with lighting set as it would be when the system is in use – see next slide. Explain how greyscale and colour bars are used, and iterative nature of process for setting black and white levels. (Need to do this for any display, not just projection systems) Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Contrast Ratio Simultaneous comparison of maximum brightness relative to the ability to represent black Calculated by averaging readings from 8 black and 8 white zones and comparing them High contrast images: appear crisper appear to have more depth easier to read text Task Light All Ambient Light Sources Screen Projector It is recommended that a projected display meet the viewing requirement (white to black) . Having a high contrast ratio will make the projected images appear crisper and appear to have more depth. High contrast ratios will make reading text easier, as our eyes will be able to find the edges of the characters. Lower contrast text is hard for our eyes and brain to define the edges of the characters. The checker board pattern projected on the screen shows eight areas of white and eight areas of black. Using the light meter, measurements of white and black can be made. The white areas are averaged and the black areas are averaged. These two numbers are the contrast ratio, white:black. By dividing the white average by the black average we can show white level compared to black level. Black will now be represented by 1 and white as the greater Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

System Contrast Ratio Contrast ratio of the total light our eyes receive Includes the entire light path Projector Screen Ambient light PISCR requires system contrast ratio Task Light All Ambient Light Sources Screen Projector System includes all of the parts including the screen. We want to measure the light that goes to our eyes. This is what we measure for PISCR conformance testing. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Introductions & Agenda
Intros & learning objectives Determining image size Measuring light Front projection Setting up, aligning & calibrating projection systems Practical PISCR exercise Test & award certificates

Image Contrast Ratio For business applications: What is an acceptable projected image contrast ratio? State that there is an InfoComm standard for contrast ratio. DEMO: Use this graphic to show contrast. Turn the room lights off and see if the image improves. Can you make out the detail in her black shirt? How do the colors look with the lights on/off? Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M-2011 Title: Projected Image System Contrast Ratio 4 options for viewing task 5 viewing positions Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Four Viewing Tasks Passive viewing – minimum 7:1 Basic decision making – minimum 15:1 Analytical decision making – minimum 50:1 Full motion video – minimum 80:1 From the ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M-2011 Standard on page 2: Passive Viewing The viewer is able to recognize what the images are on a screen and can separate the text or the main image from the background under typical lighting for the viewing environment. The content does not require assimilation and retention of detail, but the general intent is understood. There is passive engagement with the content (e.g., non-critical or informal viewing of video or data). B. Basic Decision Making The viewer can make basic decisions from the display image. The decision are not dependent on critical details within the image, but there is assimilation and retention of information. The viewer is actively engaged with the content (e.g., information displays, presentations containing detailed images, classrooms, boardrooms, multi-purpose rooms, product illustrations) C. Analytical Decision Making The viewer can make critical decisions by the ability to analyze details within the displayed image. The viewer is analytical and fully engaged with these details of the content (e.g., medical imaging, architectural/engineering drawings, forensic evidence, photographic image inspection). D. Full Motion Video The viewer is able to discern key elements present in the full motion video, including detailed provided by the cinematographer or videographer necessary to support the story line and intent (e.g., home theatre, business screening room, broadcast post-production). For more examples of where these viewing requirements are relevant see chart on page 19 of the Standard (which has been copied into the instructor version of the ANSI/INFOCOMM contrast ratio activity). Requirements A system may comprise one or more of these viewing requirement categories. The user of this Standard shall determine the appropriate viewing requirement category contrast ratio or ratios before beginning measurement procedures. These contrast ratios shall be achieved within the viewing areas defined by the usable space and application. The minimum contrast ratio shall be achieved at five points of measurement. Measurements taken shall be luminance measurements and shall be taken under conditions that reflect the conditions at time of application or under conditions that simulate the application environment (i.e., if projecting at night, test at night, if viewers are seated, take measurements at seated positions). Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Five Viewing Positions
Viewing Area Plan must identify Image width and height Centre of image (horizontal centre line of screen) Plane of screen (vertical) Height of screen from floor Five measurement locations identifying distance to plane of screen and centreline of screen The standard calls for measurement in five viewing locations. Closest left and right, farthest left and right, and center. If there is an obstruction in the center, like a table, use the first available position behind the obstruction. Refer to the earlier discussion about ergonomics. The technician will measure the 16 position checkerboard test pattern and will calculate the contrast ratio at each location. Information on slide (and below) is from PISCR, page 6 “Preparation of a Viewing Area Plan is Required”. Preparation of a Viewing Area Plan Is Required. The required Viewing Area Plan must identify: Image width and height B. Centre of image (horizontal centre line of screen) C. Plane of screen (vertical) D. Height of screen from floor E. Five viewing locations identifying distance to plane of screen and centre line of screen. The viewing location positions shall be defined as follows: Viewing Location 1: Viewing location closest to the screen and farthest to the left in the plan view. (The viewing location closest to the screen, situated laterally to the left of the vertical centre line axis of the screen). 2. Viewing Location 2: Viewing location closest to the screen and farthest to the right in the plan view. (The viewing location closest to the screen, situated laterally to the right of the vertical centre line axis of the screen). 3. Viewing Location 3: Viewing location at the central point of viewing locations 1, 2, 4 and 5. In the case where this central viewing location is obstructed (e.g., by a conference table) the measurement location shall be the first available viewing location on the screen centre line behind the obstruction. 4. Viewing Location 4: Viewing location farthest from the screen and farthest to the left in the plan view. (The viewing location farthest from the screen situated laterally to the left of the vertical centre line axis of the screen). 5. Viewing Location 5: Viewing location farthest from the screen and farthest to the right in the plan view. (The viewing location farthest from the screen situated laterally to the right of the vertical centre line axis of the screen). At each of the five viewing locations identified, 16 luminance measurements shall be taken, ensuring that each measurement is taken at the average eye level for the viewer. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

System Setup Criteria Install projector and screen Room lighting set as in normal use Set up & calibrate projector Image size & geometry Pixel clock Levels for black & white Colour settings Note: Designers need to specify a display, and or projector, that can be calibrated to meet the Standard. From PISCR, pages 6 & 7: Mandatory Projected Image System Criteria The projected image system shall meet the following criteria: Screen: Screen shall be installed according to the designer’s and manufacturer’s specification; B. Lighting: Luminaires shall be on and functioning, and if a room dimming system is present, the appropriate lighting pre-set should be selected; C. Projector setup: Projector shall be set up and operating as it would be for intended usage. The following items shall be checked and adjusted according to the manufacturer’s procedures: 1. Warm-up: Allow projector lamp to reach standard operating temperature according to manufacturer’s recommendations. 2. Setup: a. Check image size and geometry; b. Select projector’s internal colour settings as required (or perform colourimetry calibration according to the manufacturer’s or otherwise recognized procedure); c. Set pixel clock and phase as required; d. Use a PLUGE (picture line-up generation equipment) pattern (or similar) to set proper black level (point at which pixels illuminate out of black); e. Use a greyscale pattern to set proper white level (point at which pixels dim out of full white); f. Iteratively check items d. through e. (above) as required. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Ask students to identify what they think is a standard contrast level for a display system, and note responses on the flipchart. Student answers typically range from 25:1 to 3000:1. Student frequently make the mistake of determining projector specs. Guide the student to address this misconception, including that contrast ratio is an issue of a display (not of the screen.) State designers can expect that target contrast level will depend on the viewer task. From PISCR, pages 7 & 8: Measurement Procedure This procedure shall be documented for each lighting environment that may be required of a venue based on the viewing category requirements. Step 1 Display a 16-zone black and white checkerboard test pattern on the projection screen as illustrated in the figure below under conditions that represent actual viewing environment. Step 2 From the first measurement position identified on the Viewing Area Plan (Viewing Location 1), measure and record the luminance values at the centre of each of the eight white rectangles. Step 3 From the same measurement position, measure and record the luminance values at the centre of each of the eight black rectangles. Step 4 Calculate the average of the eight white measurements and the average of the eight black measurements. Step 5 Divide the resulting average white value by the average black value to obtain the contrast ratio at that measurement position. Contrast Ratio = Luminance (average max) / Luminance (average min) Step 6 Repeat the contrast measurement procedure at each of the five measurement positions identified on the Viewing Area Plan. Step 7 Record the resulting contrast ratios for each of the measurement positions on the Viewing Area Plan and determine the level of conformance as defined. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International® 36

PISCR Test Report The Measurements Results Form includes the collected data, and the result of the data analysis in one place This can be included in the project documentation, and be provided to a client Note the 16 data points for each of the five locations Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Conformance For the required viewing category: CONFORMS: All five measurement locations meet or exceed the required contrast ratio PARTIALLY CONFORMS: One but no more than four measurement locations falls below required contrast ratio by up to10% FAILS TO CONFORM: At any one of the measurement locations contrast ratio is more than 10% below the requirement Conformance means you meet the standard. Your contrast ratio matches the standard from all the viewing locations. Quoted from the ANSI/INFOCOMM 3M standard p8 CONFORMS: The contrast ratios at all five measurement (viewing) locations meet or exceed the contrast ratios required by the identified viewing category. PARTIALLY CONFORMS: The contrast ratio of one but no more than four measurement (viewing) locations falls below the required ratio for the identified viewing category by no more than 10%. Should the space partially conform, probable cause shall be noted on the measurement form. FAILS TO CONFORM: The contrast ratio at any one of the measured locations falls below the identified viewing category by more than 10%. Should the space fail to conform, probable cause(s) shall be noted on the measurement form. Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Hands on PISCR Identify an appropriate screen location Identify viewing location measurement positions Set up the projection system, both mechanical and image alignment Measure and record the luminance values for each location Calculate the contrast ratio for each location Determine whether the projection system conforms with the Standard Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Questions?

Learning Objectives Understanding of correct design principles for a projection system Know which measurement units and tools to use for which measurement type Understand of correct procedures for installing and setting up a projection system Ability to apply the PISCR Standard for projects

Test 12 questions Multiple choice 15 minutes Pass score is 9/12 Copyright 2013 by InfoComm International®

Introductions & Agenda
Intros & learning objectives Determining image size Measuring light Front projection Setting up, aligning & calibrating projection systems Practical PISCR exercise Test & award certificates