Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byKatie Oakland Modified over 2 years ago

2
N =4 Supersymmetric Gauge Theory, Twistor Space, and Dualities David A. Kosower Saclay Lectures Fall Term 2004

3
2 Course Overview Present advanced techniques for calculating amplitudes in gauge theories Motivation for hard calculations Review gauge theories and supersymmetry Color decomposition; spinor-helicity basis; recurrence relations; supersymmetry Ward identities; factorization properties of gauge-theory amplitudes Twistor space; Cachazo-Svrcek-Witten rules for amplitudes Unitarity-based method for loop calculations; loop integral reductions Computation of anomalous dimensions

4
3 Why Calculate Amplitudes? It’s an easy way to while away your professional time It leads to great opportunities for TV hosting slots There are strong physics motivations: LHC physics There are strong mathematical physics motivations: study of AdS/CFT duality

5
4 LHC Is Coming, LHC Is Coming!

6
5

7
6

8
7

9
8

10
9

11
10 CDF event

12
11 CMS Higgs event simulation

13
12 D0 event

14
13 Guenther Dissertori (Jan ’04)

15
14 Hunting for New Physics Compare measurements to predictions — need to calculate signals To extract measurements, need to understand backgrounds — and they are often huge! Predicting backgrounds requires precision calculations of known Standard Model physics

16
15 Precision Perturbative QCD Predictions of signals, signals+jets Predictions of backgrounds Measurement of luminosity Measurement of fundamental parameters ( s, m t ) Measurement of electroweak parameters Extraction of parton distributions — ingredients in any theoretical prediction Everything at a hadron collider involves QCD

17
16 From the Formal Side String theory Understanding the nature of quantum gravity Gauge theory at strong coupling Old idea of ‘t Hooft: large-N QCD at strong coupling should be a string theory

18
17 AdS/CFT Duality Type IIB string theory on a special background, AdS 5 × S 5 is dual to N =4 supersymmetric gauge theory on the boundary at spatial infinity Maldacena (1997) Same theory, seen through different variables Special example of holography in gravitational theory: can be represented by degrees of freedom on the boundary ’t Hooft; Susskind; Thorne

19
18 IIB string theory on AdS 5 × S 5 N =4 SUSY gauge theory ’t Hooft coupling Same symmetries: SU(2,2|4) SO(4,2) conformal SO(6) isometries of S 5 = SU(4) R

20
19 Planar Limit in Gauge Theories ‘t Hooft (1974) Consider large-N gauge theories, g 2 N ~ 1, use double-line notation Planar diagrams dominate Sum over all diagrams surface or string diagram

21
20 Computations in the gauge theory good for testing duality Understanding string theory better Computing in low-energy QCD

22
21 Review of Gauge Theory Take an SU(N) symmetry and make it local. Introduce connection Structure constants Gluon transformation Covariant derivative

23
22 Construct a field-strength tensor in terms of components: Squaring it gives us a kinetic energy term, and the Lagrangian The m = 0 theory has scale invariance classically

24
23 Scattering Scattering matrix element Decompose it Invariant matrix element M Differential cross section

25
24 Lorentz-invariant phase-space measure Compute invariant matrix element by crossing

26
25 Functional Integration Compute operator expectation values Gauge theories have redundant degrees of freedom Need to freeze the unphysical degrees of freedom ‘gauge fixing’ Faddeev–Popov trick: functional delta function gauge transformation

27
26 Change variables, the observable is now Choose a covariant gauge-fixing condition and use the ’t Hooft trick to average over all w s Our observable is now

28
27 Lagrangian

29
28 Feynman Rules Propagator (like QED) Three-gluon vertex (unlike QED) Four-gluon vertex (unlike QED)

30
29 The Functional Determinant Delta function leads to functional determinant Infinitesimal gauge transformation determinant In QED, this is independent of G over-all normalization of path integral, cancels out of Green functions

31
30 Represent the functional determinant as a path integral anticommuting scalars or ghosts Propagator coupling to gauge bosons

32
31 Light-Cone Gauge Only physical (transverse) degrees of freedom propagate physical projector — two degrees of freedom

33
32 Color Decomposition Standard Feynman rules function of momenta, polarization vectors , and color indices Color structure is predictable. Use representation to represent each term as a product of traces, and the Fierz identity

34
33 To unwind traces Leads to tree-level representation in terms of single traces Color-ordered amplitude — function of momenta & polarizations alone; not not Bose symmetric

35
34 Symmetry properties Cyclic symmetry Reflection identity Parity flips helicities Decoupling equation

36
35 Color-Ordered Feynman Rules

37
36 Amplitudes Functions of momenta k, polarization vectors for gluons; momenta k, spinor wavefunctions u for fermions Gauge invariance implies this is a redundant representation: k: A = 0

38
37 Spinor Helicity Spinor wavefunctions Introduce spinor products Explicit representation where

39
38 We then obtain the explicit formulæ otherwise so that the identity always holds

40
39 Introduce four-component representation corresponding to matrices in order to define spinor strings

41
40 Properties of the Spinor Product Antisymmetry Gordon identity Charge conjugation Fierz identity Projector representation Schouten identity

42
41 Spinor-Helicity Representation for Gluons Gauge bosons also have only ± physical polarizations Elegant — and covariant — generalization of circular polarization Xu, Zhang, Chang (1984) reference momentum q Transverse Normalized

43
42 What is the significance of q?

44
43 Properties of the Spinor-Helicity Basis Physical-state projector Simplifications

Similar presentations

OK

Beyond Feynman Diagrams Lecture 2 Lance Dixon Academic Training Lectures CERN April 24-26, 2013.

Beyond Feynman Diagrams Lecture 2 Lance Dixon Academic Training Lectures CERN April 24-26, 2013.

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on hotel management system Ppt on electricity for class 10th math Ppt on production and cost analysis Ppt on saving endangered species Ppt on features of ms word Ppt on surfing the net safely Ppt on instrument landing system history Ppt on south indian foods Download ppt on pulse code modulation sampling Ppt on point contact diode symbol