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Foundation Literacy P-12 Loddon Mallee Region. CONTENTS Breakthrough Framework P 3 Literacy Beliefs P 4 Climate for Learning P 6 Effective Literacy in.

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Presentation on theme: "Foundation Literacy P-12 Loddon Mallee Region. CONTENTS Breakthrough Framework P 3 Literacy Beliefs P 4 Climate for Learning P 6 Effective Literacy in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundation Literacy P-12 Loddon Mallee Region

2 CONTENTS Breakthrough Framework P 3 Literacy Beliefs P 4 Climate for Learning P 6 Effective Literacy in Classrooms P 7 Gradual Release of Responsibility P 8 Literacy Elements P 9 Read Aloud P 10 Shared Reading P 13 Guided Reading P 17 Independent Reading P 21 Quality Speaking and Listening P 26 Write Aloud P 31 Shared Writing P 34 Guided Writing P 37 Independent Writing P 40 Observation and Assessment P 44 References P 47 Resources P 48 Last Updated July

3 Building Leadership Capacity Moral Purpose Professional Learning Precision Personalisation ‘Breakthrough Framework’ Breakthrough- Fullan, Hill & Crevola Precision Assessment Data Daily Instruction Personalisation Readiness to learn Appropriate Pedagogical experiences Professional Learning Focused daily learning of teachers individually and collectively 3

4 LITERACY BELIEFS 1.All students come to school with individual strengths, needs and diverse literacy experiences 2.Parents and the wider community are partners in the success of school literacy learning 3.All teachers are teachers of literacy 4.Extended blocks of time are essential to practice and apply skills and strategies, modelled by teachers and by other students 5.Immersion in meaningful print, and access to a rich array of texts develops literacy learning 4

5 LITERACY BELIEFS (CONT) 6.Whole class, small group and individual instruction, allows students to learn from instruction and from each other 7.Students become independent, experienced readers and writers when each day includes time to be read to, to read with peers and to undertake independent reading and writing challenges 8.Students learn literacy best when they have real life purposes for reading and writing 5

6 CLIMATE FOR LEARNING Strong literacy learning environments provide students with choices, responsibilities and the opportunity to interact as they read, write, speak, listen and view. Classrooms are settings where interactive and individual activity takes place, supported by organisation and access to essential resources. 6

7 EFFECTIVE LITERACY IN CLASSROOMS A range of literacy elements should be taught in classrooms each day High quality instruction and effective teaching for each student across a range of literacy elements Reflection time follows each reading and writing workshop. Students question, analyse and discuss their own and others’ learning Reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing are interwoven Two hours uninterrupted literacy time – Primary Focused daily instructional time – Secondary 7

8 8 GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY MODELLING The teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listening The student participates by actively attending to the demonstrations SHARING The teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and information Students contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situations GUIDING The teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedback Students work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focus APPLYING The teacher offers support and encouragement when necessary The student works independently to apply the use of literacy focus Role of the teacher Role of the student Pearson & Gallagher DEGREE OF CONTROL 8

9 LITERACY ELEMENTS Read Aloud Shared Reading Guided Reading Independent Reading Write Aloud Shared Writing Guided Writing Independent Writing SPEAKING & LISTENING OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENT 9

10 READ ALOUD Description Reading quality literature and text to students is referred to as “Read Aloud”. Read Aloud must occur several times daily for a variety of instructional purposes. It should involve the whole class, small groups and individual students. 10

11 READ ALOUD Classroom Indicators- Instruction Student engagement is evident during text reading. For example, debating, imagining, identifying, laughing, spontaneous comment Teachers demonstrate reading as a valuable and enjoyable activity and model this Teachers use a variety of carefully selected texts to expose students to language structures, how texts ‘work’ and how to gain meaning from text Instructional focus may be problem solving, fact finding, text types, analysing, inferring, author study 11

12 READ ALOUD Classroom Indicators- Resources Many quality texts, diverse in style, topic and level of difficulty, well displayed and easily accessible Examples of text may include magazines, texts and newspapers ICT, Listening Centres Well resourced, inviting classroom and central libraries Blocks of time scheduled for reading activity 12

13 SHARED READING Description Shared Reading is whole class teaching in a supportive environment, using enlarged print and high quality text. Teachers select text well suited to strategic instruction. Students and teachers share the task of reading a text which might otherwise prove too challenging. 13

14 SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Clear instructional focus e.g. - Text features and structures - Problem-solving - Re-reading and self monitoring - Finding evidence Demonstration of how the reading process works Teaching for effective use of reading strategies High level questioning Where appropriate, teachers schedule opportunities to promote familiarity and memorisation through repeated readings Daily instruction – 20 minutes 14

15 SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) Using enlarged text students discover what is relevant to becoming a reader – challenging and deepening thinking, questioning, self monitoring, self correcting, sampling, confirming Using enlarged text to enrich literacy experiences e.g. varying the way texts are presented to clearly emphasise enjoyment Using enlarged text to analyse different text types and styles 15

16 SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Resources Many short, enlarged print text selections charts – short factual and narrative text selections e g. science experiment, newspaper reports, magazines and current affairs websites songs, chants, poems and rhymes big books – all text types Enlarged texts and charts well displayed in easily accessible storage Interactive whiteboard, data projector & overhead projector 16

17 GUIDED READING Description The teacher and a small group of students talk, read and think their way purposefully through a common text, working collaboratively. 17

18 GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Teachers: group and regroup students using ongoing observation and assessment carefully plan strategic reading instruction and explicitly teach small groups of students select texts appropriate for the common instructional needs of the group promote active engagement in thoughtful group discussion Time scheduled daily - each group approx. 20 minutes 18

19 GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) Students, with assistance by teacher: engage in text orientation and activate prior knowledge, connections and thinking deepen comprehension develop prediction skills and understanding of the reading and writing processes use other students to help solve problems question ideas of the author ask questions a reader asks when reading 19

20 GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Resources Adequate variety of texts in multiple copies - a set of 6 copies and an additional copy for the teacher Small group organisation & tasks are clearly defined and visible e.g. management board 20

21 INDEPENDENT READING Description Independent reading is central to successful reading development. Students select and read engaging and interesting material daily, independently and individually. They share information about what they read. 21

22 INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Time must be scheduled daily for independent reading to occur. A structured take home reading program for all primary students is expected. For secondary students, a structured reading program is essential in addition to library borrowing. Students: promote books to others – share time is scheduled practice reading at home each night and a home and school partnership is fostered practice what has been taught in whole class, small group and individual reading activities 22

23 INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indications- Instruction (Continued) Teachers: act as models, promoting reading of quality literature and texts discuss and enjoy texts with individual students, observing what they know and can do provide guidance with text choice - noticing when students choose texts beyond their control guide choices to incorporate just the right amount of reading challenge monitor choice to ensure a broad range of successful and enjoyable reading experiences 23

24 INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indication- Resources Classroom environments foster enjoyment, and appreciation of reading A range of high quality literature is accessible in classrooms, and central libraries Wide range of interest and difficulty levels School library is closely linked to classroom reading programs Partner reading arranged with peers and adults Well organised take home and library programs 24

25 The teacher’s role changes from one of initiating, modelling and guiding to one of providing and then observing, acknowledging and responding. (Mooney) 25

26 QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING Description Quality conversations take place with students daily, using focussed dialogue as the catalyst for teaching and learning. Oral language requires formal and informal experiences to convey and receive meaning. It involves the development and demonstration of knowledge about the appropriate oral language for particular audience and occasions. Speaking and listening involves whole class, small group and individual instruction, and promotes talk with and by individual students. 26

27 QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Rich, purposeful speaking and listening opportunities, which are both spontaneous and intentional, are provided so students can formulate and articulate ideas Students experience a broad range of speaking and listening activities e.g. public speaking, individual, group and whole class discussion, reports, interviews etc ‘Talk’ is integral to all domains – eg. reasoning, analysing, debating, persuading, explaining, and reflecting Vocabulary is intentionally developed to enable students to clearly express opinions, understandings and intentions 27

28 QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) Students are involved in presentations both formal and informal. They are aware of the range of contexts, purposes and audiences Students listen attentively to factual spoken texts and identify topics, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions, contribute information and justify opinions The best speaking and listening behaviours are modelled by both students and teachers e.g. eye contact, intonation, expression 28

29 QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued) Students give their own talks and presentations. They learn from and build on, the ideas of others Students participate in story telling experiences Teachers observe and use student experiences to initiate and develop further conversations 29

30 QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENING Classroom Indicators- Resources Book Club and Literature Circles which require students to take responsibility for expressing opinions and guiding workshop group activities Organisational structures which provide speaking opportunities each day e.g. share/reflection time, conferences, readers theatre, class meetings Models of quality speaking and listening 30

31 WRITE ALOUD Description Writing Aloud occurs when a teacher writes in front of students. The teacher models techniques, frameworks & behaviours, verbalising thinking and what is being written. It could involve whole class, small groups and individual students. Writing aloud increases student interest and motivation and develops the quality of writing. 31

32 WRITE ALOUD Classroom Indicators- Instruction Teachers demonstrate writing as a valuable and enjoyable activity and show this through their own personal writing The text being composed can be seen by all students The teacher makes explicit what she is doing, both authorial and secretarial [the thinking, ideas, content, discussion of vocabulary, format, layout, spacing, handwriting, spelling, punctuation] Students observe the teacher in the act of writing Sessions are brief e.g. 10 minutes 32

33 WRITE ALOUD Classroom Indicators- Resources Text developed is displayed and used as reference point Easel Chart pad Interactive whiteboard Overhead projector Large textas Chalk board 33

34 SHARED WRITING Description Shared writing is defined as the teacher and the student composing writing collaboratively. The teacher acts as scribe and expert and makes decisions about where students may scribe. The teacher enables, supports and encourages. They invite students to participate and enjoy writing experiences they might not be able to do on their own. Writing is negotiated, discussed, and jointly decided by students and the teacher. 34

35 SHARED WRITING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Planned and explicit focus in writing skills and strategies is based on student needs across the domains Teachers leads students to develop more complex ideas and language and foster their critical awareness as writers Teachers scaffold the learning Teachers lead students to make explicit what they are doing- the thinking, format, layout, spacing, handwriting, spelling, punctuation and discussion of vocabulary Sessions are brief e.g. 15 minutes daily 35

36 SHARED WRITING Classroom Indicators- Resources Text developed is displayed and used as reference point Easel Chart pad Interactive whiteboard Overhead projector Large textas Chalk board 36

37 GUIDED WRITING Description The teacher facilitates writing with a group of students of similar needs. Students are observed closely and write with the scaffolded support of the teacher. Students do the writing. Students receive explicit instruction and feedback. They are guided to write more complex texts than would usually be written independently. Guided writing extends the thinking of students and generally builds on the instruction of Shared Writing. 37

38 GUIDED WRITING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Scheduled within writing workshop Students are given opportunities for choice and decision making Teachers suggest, support and assist students to clarify their ideas and understandings as writers Teachers: –model questions that help the writer to clarify –expect students to begin asking similar questions of each other –expect student to eventually ask questions of themselves Teachers confer with individual students about their writing 38

39 GUIDED WRITING Classroom Indicators-Resources References e.g. charts, writing samples, dictionaries Students have access to a variety of writing supplies: variety of paper, books, markers, pencils, crayons, and well resourced publishing centres Information about authors Computers Quality literature and texts used as models for writing - print rich classrooms 39

40 INDEPENDENT WRITING Description Independent writing focuses on students taking charge of their own writing. Students apply understandings, processes and strategies learnt through supported teaching elements. It builds fluency, establishes the writing habit, makes personal connections, explores meanings, promotes critical thinking and encourages the writer to use writing as a natural, pleasurable, self chosen activity. 40

41 INDEPENDENT WRITING Classroom Indicators- Instruction Students may choose their own topics, draft, revise, edit and sometimes publish their own writing Students take risks and have responsibility for working through challenges and problem solving Students refer to previous instruction in writing skills and strategies, and this experience is evident when they write 41

42 INDEPENDENT WRITING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (continued) Organisation for peer and teacher conferencing is evident Writing occurs across the curriculum, in a variety of text types and for real life purposes Spelling attempts are viewed as not incorrect but incomplete 42

43 INDEPENDENT WRITING Classroom Indicators- Resources References e.g. charts, writing examples, dictionaries, books, internet Students have access to a variety of writing supplies: variety of paper, books, markers, pencils, crayons, and well resourced publishing centres Information about authors Computers- word processing & investigation Quality literature and texts are used as models for writing - print rich classrooms 43

44 OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENT Description Assessment is the ongoing process of gathering, analysing and reflecting on evidence to make informed and consistent judgements to improve future student learning. Systematic observations and data are regularly gathered and used to build a profile of student progress. Ongoing assessment and observation is not confined to scheduled literacy activities. 44

45 OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENT Classroom Indicators- Instruction Teachers use evidence of student learning to determine starting points and make judgements on student achievement Teacher and students discuss achievement and future direction of learning Students reflect on, analyse and monitor their own progress Teachers can clearly articulate student progress in discussions with parents and other teachers 45

46 OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENT Classroom Indicators- Instruction (continued) Student progress is tracked and closely monitored. Common school-wide assessment procedures are in place Portfolios and student profiles may be kept for each student Written records of reading behaviour (e.g.Running Records for students in the earlier phases of reading development) are used to make decisions about text choice (level of difficulty) and the important teaching decisions to be made for each student 46

47 REFERENCES Breakthrough Fullan Hill and Crevola Literacy Teaching and Learning in Victorian Schools [Paper No 9] Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency Fountas and Pinnell Guided Reading Fountas and Pinnell Conversations Regie Routman Invitations Regie Routman Western Australia First Steps Second Edition Effective Literacy Practice 1-4 and 5-8 NZ Ministry of Education Victorian Essential Learning Standards DEECD Language Enhancement Manual Loddon Mallee Region Reading in Junior Classes NZ Ministry of Education Reading for Life NZ Ministry of Education Dancing With the Pen NZ Ministry of Education Reading To With and By Children Margaret E Mooney lt.htmwww.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/ 47

48 RESOURCES NAPLAN resources AIM resources Catching on to Comprehension Pearson A Teachers’ Guide to Genre Ridge Strategies to Engage the Mind of the Learner Billmeyer Skyrider Shared Reading Kit NZ Listening Post Blackline Masters Upper Primary and Middle Primary Rigby Developmental Reading Assessment - Kits A and B WRAP - Writing and Reading Assessment Profile 48


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