Facilitator Facilitator – manages the learning process Not called an instructor
Active Learning Learner (i.e. student) is involved in learning process Student Participation Discussion Debate Reflection Application
Facilitation Requires Plan learning objectives Design activities Assess student learning Adapt instruction Interpersonal skills Create positive and productive relationships Motivate students to work independently Ability Give good presentations Start good discussions
Learning Experience 1. What is to be learned (both in general and specific terms)? 2. How is the learning to be used? 3. How is the learning to be accomplished?
Learning Experience 4. How is the learning to be consolidated, demonstrated, or shared? 5. How and by whom is the learning to be assessed? Which criteria are used to determine that students learned? 6. How, if at all, is the learning to be documented? 7. What is the time limit, or schedule, for the effort?
Incorporate into Classroom 1. Gain and control attention 2. Inform the learners of the expected outcome 3. Stimulate recall of relevant prerequisites 4. Present new material 5. Offer guidance for learning
Incorporate into Classroom 6. Provide feedback 7. Appraise the students’ performance before moving to next task Model Test Examination Real-life try-out, etc
Incorporate into Classroom 8. Make transferability possible – Students apply new knowledge in the classroom Role-playing Laboratory practice Simulated events
Incorporate into Classroom 9. Ensure retention 10. Once learning has taken place, it should be incorporated into further study Repeated questions Practice Other methods
Section 2 Getting Acquainted Activities Let the instructor settle in Get a feel of the group Breaks up class monotony
Getting Acquainted Simple naming exercise Ask students to say their name Avoid asking name, why they are in course, background, etc. Makes students nervous Puts them on edge Students may focus on their answers and not focus what other students are saying
Getting Acquainted People learn better if they enjoy learning “people will learn if the knowledge acquired can be put to immediate use.” Malcolm Knowles
First Class You can put yourself in the hot seat Let the class break into groups 3 to 5 people per group Allow them to discuss which questions to ask you Your qualifications Your background Grades, tests, homework, etc.
First Class Sharing power and equity between the facilitator and students Students obtain information they want Students become familiar with each other
Purpose of Groups Activity is to allow students to break into small groups Students work in groups on team assignments Similar to work environment at corporations
Purpose of Groups Students are passive during lectures and other instructor-centered activities Small group activities require and encourage activity People have less chance to “hide” in small groups Hiding could cause anxiety or to be “forgotten” Students tend to speak up more freely in small groups than in front of a whole class.
Purpose of Groups Groups compete with other groups for same tasks Keeps the groups “on task” Increases productivity In a large class a person may feel little responsibility for the success of the course. A student has a greater incentive to contribute in small group Individuals tend to work harder in small groups than in large ones
Purpose of Groups More than 6 Large groups break into smaller sub-groups Coordination problems Some students do not contribute
Student Names Students write their names on a tent- card Facilitator and students can refer to each other by name Note – tent card – a card that stands upright on a table, so people can read it from a distance Students bring tent cards to every class
“Interview” Activity Have students interview each other Students become acquainted with each other Question examples Where are you from? Why are you taking this class? What do you want to do after you complete your degree?
“Expectations Survey” Activity Have students write down Which topics to cover How is success defined for this course What kind of activities do you want Try to incorporate students’ suggestions into course
Section 3 Learning Activities Vary teaching style Prevents boredom Breaks up class monotony
Asking Questions Ask for more information Ask students to give example Restate what you heard Gives a point of reference Make critical observations Get students to probe their answer more deeply Expand a student’s statement Ask other students to add more information
Learning Contracts Contract between facilitator and student Student is responsible for his actions Not likely However, it is in the book Student and facilitator sign and date contract
Contract Contains: The learner’s specific goals Agreed upon steps that must be completed to reach the goals Amount of reading and out-of-class preparation Method of grading Attendance requirements Topic and format of individual projects, papers, presentations, etc.
Lecture Activity Do not present too many points. Six major points are probably enough for a 20-minute presentation. Present summaries both at the beginning and at the end of the lecture. Pause occasionally to give listeners a chance to catch up and summarize for themselves. Make it clear when and how questions will be dealt Examples “Keep your questions until the end of the first 20 minutes.” “Just let me finish this diagram and then we will take a few moments to deal with your questions.” “I would prefer to present my lecture in its entirety and then deal with questions.”
Lecture Activity If you say you will deal with questions, make time for them! Use visual aids to support your points. Your rate of speaking and choice of vocabulary should be appropriate to the level of comprehension of your group Even with the use of visual aids, a lecture essentially remains a one-way communication method.
Lecture Activity Encourage silent members to comment if you think they might have the answer but are reluctant to speak up: Example - “This is probably something you know quite a bit about, John...” Ask the same questions of several students. Do not stop after the first response, which often comes from the same core group of participants. Formulate questions that cause people to give long answers. This can be done by: a) referring to areas of knowledge, rather than simple facts b) making it difficult to answer with a simple YES or NO.
Lecture Activity Piggyback your new questions on top of the responses you got for your previous questions: Example - “OK, let’s take that approach and take it one step further...” Pick out certain aspects of the response and re- focus the group’s attention to these areas. Try not to answer your own questions too often. After a while you become a “one-person show.”
Lecture Activity Avoid questions to which the answer is obvious. Example, “Don’t you agree that...?” does nothing but encourage the student to support you. Use “Do you believe that...,” which will invite reaction. Taking the last suggestion one step further, if you ask a question, be prepared to LISTEN and HEAR other answers even if they don’t coincide with your own beliefs. BE FLEXIBLE!
Lecture Activity Ask students before moving until a new topic “Before I go on, does this make any sense to you?” “How are we doing?” “Where did I lose you?” “Do my examples make sense to you?” “What additional information do you want from me?”
Lecture Activity Mix your activities Students alternate between Passive (sit, hear, see) Active (problem-solve, write, construct, discuss, move, walk, speak, operate equipment). Introduce your topic Specifying what will be presented How long it will take How you are going to proceed with it. Students can anticipate events, prepare for change in pace/technique and assign their energy accordingly
Lecture Activity Present new material Logical sequence, step-by-step, relating it to familiar and known material Reading, previous discussions, student’s own experience, etc. Allow extra time for complex material and repeat key points. Consider giving handouts either before or after the presentation.
Lecture Activity Use special cues to keep your students interested. Try to: Change place—move around, speak from the back, the front, the left, or the right of the room. Use gestures—hand, head, and body movements can serve as supporters (and distracters!) of verbal output. Concentrate attention—“Now listen carefully!” “Look at this graph.” Vary style of interaction—use questions, student-to- student interactions, demonstrations, problem-solving, tasks, discussions.
Lecture Activity Use special cues to keep your students interested. Try to: Use silence—for reflection, question formulation, concentration. Change tone of voice—loud/mellow, fast/slow, happy/sad, technical/personal, etc. Begin each course and class by gaining the students’ interests, expressing positive expectations, and sharing the objectives you have for them. Fit the material you present to the time you have available. End each lecture with a conclusion
Lecture Activity You are concerned mainly with giving information and the information is not readily available in another form The material is needed only for short-term retention You are introducing a subject or giving oral directions that will lead to other techniques that actively involve the learner
Lecture Activity Lectures are not recommended when: The material is complex, abstract or very detailed You are dealing with learning that involves attitudes and feelings of the students The information must be available in its fullest form for long-term retention The learner is required to integrate the material with previous learning or back-home experience
Lecture Activity Breaking up large lectures A “lecturette” is a short lecture lasting not more than 10 minutes A “lecture-forum” involves interrupting a long lecture with a brief question-and-answer period “Fill in the blanks” is a useful way to assist students in note-taking and ensure they focus on your main points
“Buzz Group” Activity Instructor assigns problem Students form group Groups determine how to approach or solve problem Instructor moves from group to group After 6 minutes, a spokesman from each group presents one answer Prevents the first group from presenting all answers
“Spend a Penny” Activity Give each student 3 pennies (or tokens) Every time student speaks, he gives the penny. After pennies run out, student can no longer speak until next disbursement of pennies Encourage quiet or shy students to speak
“Circle Response” Activity Arrange all seats in a circle All students can see and hear each other Works well for group size of 20 or less Facilitator presents a problem Each person has 30 seconds to answer or offer suggestions Great to know if students understand problem
“Brainstorming” Activity Elicits a group’s creative ideas and thoughts Facilitator presents a problem Class breaks into groups Group has 5 to 15 minutes to write down as many ideas as possible No criticism allowed After activity, group determines three best answers
“Structured Role-Play” Activity Facilitator presents a problem or activity What is purpose of simulated role play Groups form and could perform the following Problem solving Counseling Interviewing One student is applicant and the other is interviewer Great method to prepare people for interviews or develop negotiation skills
“Learning Journals” Activity Students keep track of which topics they learned Helps students relate learning activities to their lives and work Professors give students several minutes each class to write in their journals Students write Impressions Experiences Discoveries Questions
Section 4 Visual Aids Excellent teaching tool if used properly
Visual Aids Handouts Outline lecture Lists Definitions Formulas Diagrams If handouts are too detailed, then students may not pay attention False sense of security
Whiteboards Similar to chalk boards Chalk board is considered “old” Whiteboards are white Facilitator uses colored markers to write on board Most students write down what the professor writes on the board Students focus on board If material is not important, do not write it down!
Computer Presentations Most common is Microsoft PowerPoint Offer templates to improve image Easy to use Many educators are using it now
Overhead Projectors Professor writes on a transparency that is projected onto a screen Professor is in front of room Professor can read transparency on projector Transparencies can be re-used Special transparencies for computer printers
Overhead Projectors Problems Professors may over rely on transparencies Professor could hide behind machine How to use Overlap transparencies to provide a student with progression Turn off projector to have audience re-focus on facilitator
Overhead Projectors How to use Do not place too much information onto a transparency Use cardboard to block part of the transparency Reveal transparency one sentence at a time Use pointers to point to specific material in transparency
Videos Videos provide an “upfront” view of events and experiences Problems Consume large amount of time Videos become outdated quickly Tips of using videos Frame questions – have a class discussion Identify learning – ask students to identify two important points of the video
Videos Tips for using videos Critique video – pass out another article that critiques the video Use brainstorming to compile a list of ideas about the video Can invite a guest speaker
Planning Your skills Identify your strengths and weaknesses The students’ skills Ask colleagues for information and help The System What is atmosphere of university? What are administrative constraints?
Planning Your educational objectives What should students know? What are course objectives? What is the final product? Select teaching and learning strategies Review your resources Handouts, lecture notes, videos, etc.
Planning How do you know learning is taking place Well formulated objectives help Make a tentative schedule Do it! Always risk Evaluate the course Could course be improved?
References University of Phoenix. 2002. Facilitation Skills Manual. Electronic Book.