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**Makoto Yoshida, Global Education Resources**

Developing Effective Use of the Blackboard and Student Note Taking Skills Through Lesson Study Makoto Yoshida, Global Education Resources

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**Percentage of Use of Chalkboard and Overhead Projector in Classrooms**

Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Videotape Classroom Study,

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Percentage of Tasks, Situations, and PPDs (Principles/properties/definitions) Written on the Chalkboard that were Erased or Remained on the Chalkboard at the End of the Lesson Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Videotape Classroom Study,

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**Typical Use of OHP and Blackboard in US classrooms**

To focus students’ attention To display information in written or graphic form Source: Stigler & Hiebert (1999) The Teaching Gap

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**Typical Use of OHP and Blackboard in Japanese Classrooms**

Provide a record of the problems, solution methods, and principles that are discussed during the lesson Source: Stigler & Hiebert (1999) The Teaching Gap

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**Japanese teachers rarely erase what they write on the blackboard**

Japanese teachers rarely erase what they write on the blackboard. Everything they choose to record has a meaning and purpose, as it has been carefully planned in advance. Source: Yoshida (1999) Lesson Study: A Case Study of A Japanese Approach to Improving Instruction Through School-Based Teacher Development

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**One Japanese teacher described the importance Japanese teachers place on using the blackboard:**

“My senior teachers told me ‘you should not erase what you write if you write on the blackboard and you should not write on the board if you are going to erase it.’” Source: Yoshida (1999) Lesson Study: A Case Study of A Japanese Approach to Improving Instruction Through School-Based Teacher Development

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**Another Japanese teacher described it like this:**

“I try to organize the blackboard in such a way that my students and I can see and understand how the lesson progressed and what was talked about during the lesson and at the end of the lesson.” Source: Yoshida (1999) Lesson Study: A Case Study of A Japanese Approach to Improving Instruction Through School-Based Teacher Development

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Lesson Coherence The connectedness or relatedness of the mathematics across the lesson Well-Formed Stories: A sequence of events that fit together to reach the final conclusion. Easier to comprehend Lesson Coherence: Helps students make sense of what is going on Source: Stigler & Hiebert (1999) The Teaching Gap

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**Typical Lessons: Japan and U.S.**

Japanese Lesson American Lesson • Teacher poses rich problem • Students struggle with problem on their own • Students present their ideas and discuss them • Teacher concludes lesson • Teacher instructs students about concept or skill and demonstrates how to solve example problems • Students practice on their own while teacher helps individuals

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**The Four-Part Organization of Chinese Poetry**

起承転結 (Ki-sho-ten-ketsu) The course of an Event: Introduction Development Turn Conclusion

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**Lesson Process in a Japanese Lesson Plan**

Introduction to the Problem Understanding the Problem and Solving the Problem Development Presenting Solutions Comparing and Discussing Conclusion/Summary Extension (Optional)

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**Using the Blackboard to Tell the Well-formed Story**

The blackboard is often used to show the flow of the lesson process described in the lesson plan The blackboard is also a tool used to connect parts of the lesson coherently together in order to build student understanding

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**Use or Organization of Blackboard**

板書 (Bansho) (Board-Writing) A technical term created by Japanese teachers Considered an important teaching skill Considered one of the necessary tools for child-centered discovery-oriented lessons

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**Lesson Study and Organization of Blackboard**

Organization of blackboard is often discussed during Lesson Study as a part of planning lessons Some groups of teachers actually done Lesson Study on effective use of blackboard, OHP, and other medias There are some books available on effective use of blackboard which are developed through Lesson Study

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**How Do Japanese Teachers Use the Blackboard?**

Keep a Record of the Lesson Problem Questions Student voices, opinion, things noticed Student solutions Student discussions Important mathematical ideas

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**2. Help Students Remember What They Need to Do and Think**

Problem Directions Tasks Questions

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**3. Help students see the connections of different parts of lesson and the progression of the lesson**

Summary of the entire lesson Coherent flow of the lesson (how we reached the conclusion) How student ideas were discussed and evolved in order to reach the conclusion

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**4. A Place to Contrast and Discuss ideas students presented (Collective Think-Pad #1)**

Recording various ideas Discussing similarities and differences in ideas Discussing merits of certain methods Discovering/developing new ideas and questions

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**5. A Place to help organize student thinking and discover new ideas (Collective Think-Pad #2)**

• Manipulating (sorting, lining up, categorizing, moving directions, etc.) objects on the board and thinking about or discovering mathematical ideas.

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**6. Fostering students’ organized note-taking skills by modeling good organization**

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**Planning Organization of the Blackboard**

板書計画 (Bansho-keikaku) (Board-Writing-Planning) Logical and coherent organization Easy to understand the connections Clear goal and task Incorporate student ideas and strategies to build understanding

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A Blackboard Plan

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**Blackboard from Actual Lesson**

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A Blackboard Plan

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**How Japanese Teachers Learn to be Better at Organizing the Board?**

Observing other teachers’ lessons Stealing good ideas Try out what is learned and evaluate Participating in Lesson Study Continuously thinking about making connections and building up to the lesson conclusion during the lesson. Source: Yoshida (1999) Lesson Study: A Case Study of A Japanese Approach to Improving Instruction Through School-Based Teacher Development

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**Progression of Blackboard**

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**Influence of Organization of Blackboard on Student Organization of Note Taking**

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**5th Grade Lesson: Multiplication of Decimal Numbers**

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