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Active Sonar Equation

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Adapting Passive Ideas Passive Case: From our Sonar Target Strength describes the fraction of energy reflecting back from the target

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Reverberation Noise Reflections from non-target objects is greater that noise. Reverberation limited

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Active Sonar – Materials Typical piezoelectric materials –Quartz –PZT -Lead zirconate titanate –Barium Titanate

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Piezoelectricity a a+ a

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Source Level for an Omni- directional projector

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Electrical Efficiency Efficiency may range from 20% to 70% for most sonar applications

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Directional Arrays Principle of Reciprocity

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Transducer Sensitivity How many dB for 1 volt input? Input impedance Manufacturers typically advertise based on SV. To find SL, add 20logV.

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Example Compute the source level for an circular piston projector of diameter = 1 meter radiating 10 kW acoustic power at a frequency of 15 kHz in water Piston array:

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Cavitation (z in meters) S = Tranducer Surface Area Pressure Threshold Power Threshold

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