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Active Sonar Equation
Adapting Passive Ideas Passive Case: From our Sonar Target Strength describes the fraction of energy reflecting back from the target
Reverberation Noise Reflections from non-target objects is greater that noise. Reverberation limited
Active Sonar – Materials Typical piezoelectric materials –Quartz –PZT -Lead zirconate titanate –Barium Titanate
Piezoelectricity a a+ a
Source Level for an Omni- directional projector
Electrical Efficiency Efficiency may range from 20% to 70% for most sonar applications
Directional Arrays Principle of Reciprocity
Transducer Sensitivity How many dB for 1 volt input? Input impedance Manufacturers typically advertise based on SV. To find SL, add 20logV.
Example Compute the source level for an circular piston projector of diameter = 1 meter radiating 10 kW acoustic power at a frequency of 15 kHz in water Piston array:
Cavitation (z in meters) S = Tranducer Surface Area Pressure Threshold Power Threshold
Adapting Passive Ideas Passive Case: From our Sonar Target Strength describes the fraction of energy reflecting back from the target.
Reverberation Noise Reflections from non-target objects is greater that noise. Reverberation limited.
Transmission Loss Review of Passive Sonar Equation.
Target Strength reflected wave incident wave a At r = 1 yd.
Passive Sonar Wrap Up Exercise And Exam Review. Data The two submarines described below are to engage in a sonar detection exercise off the coast of Kauai.
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Effects of a Suspended Bottom Boundary Layer on Sonar Propagation Michael Cornelius June 2004.
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Ultrasonic Sensor Made By: 1.Hadeer Radwan 2.Alaa Mustafa 3.Amany Amr.
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