Presentation on theme: "Selection and Use Instructional Media in the Classroom by: Roxan A. Consolacion."— Presentation transcript:
Selection and Use Instructional Media in the Classroom by: Roxan A. Consolacion
1. Audio Recordings Audio recordings include tapes, records and compact discs. Tapes may be in the form of teacher-recorded, student- recorded or ready-made tapes that are commercially produced. Audio media are used by teachers in connection with speech rehearsals, drama, musical presentation and radio and television broadcasting.
Advantages Improve listening skill Easy to operate Safe way of storing information Can be used for big or small groups Best used to improve speech skills Lessen distraction when used with headphones
Disadvantages Extended use may bore students Costly compared to actual oral presentation
Guidelines on how to use it Preview an outline of important points that will be presented. Motivate the students to listen carefully to some important details. End with questions, discussions and other forms of evaluation.
2. Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OHP) By using an overhead projector, a transparency can show pictures, diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in a discussion. Step-by- step instructions, enumerations or any sequenced illustrations can easily be presented through transparencies.
Advantages Transparencies can easily be prepared by the teacher or the students. The teacher is able to maintain eye contact while the transparency is on. Transparencies are reusable OHP presentation can be used with large or small groups OHP is easy to operate
Disadvantages The overhead projector may be costly for some. Moving it around needs as much care. When over-heated, transparencies can be damaged. Guidelines Make sure the projector is available when needed. Organize the transparencies according to the proper sequence. Use a pointer to point out important details. Turn the projector off when changing transparencies.
3. Bulletin Boards A bulletin board is usually stationary on a wall or it can be movable. The surface is made of cork or soft wall boards for easy attachment of display items. Its contents may be used for the duration of a unit being studied. The learning materials may be pictures, newspaper clippings, real objects or drawings.
Advantages It can preview of the lesson to be presented as a way of motivating the students. The attractive displays can add life and color to a drab room atmosphere. A display can allow a number of students to browse over its contents at the time. Disadvantage A good one needs time to plan and execute. If hurried, the display may fail in conveying the message desired.
The items to be displayed must be tastefully selected. A well-organized layout of the text and materials can convey at once the idea. Prepare a preliminary sketch of what is to be included in it, including the materials to be needed. Discuss the finished products and how they will be used. Guidelines
4. Chalkboard This includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but also the portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers. Using chalk, it is a convenient writing area where illustrations can instantly be drawn even during a discussion. An eraser can easily keep it clean and ready for continuous use.
Advantages It is easily available It is inexpensive and easy to install. It can accommodate so much writing space and easy to clean. Topic can be listed, deleted or revised to a final form. It is convenient to use both for formally prepared lessons or for spontaneous sessions. The attention of the class can easily be held and focused, it being located usually in form of the room.
Disadvantages Lessons or writings on the chalkboard are only for a day’s use, hence temporary and cannot be saved. Chalk dust makes the area messy. Writing makes one turn his back to the audience. The teacher’s handwriting and spelling deficiency can cause disruption from the lesson.
5. Charts Charts may be in the form of maps, graphs, photographs and cut-outs. They may be pre-prepared graphic devices or posters.
Advantages Charts can be used over and over again. They can be moved easily form one place to another. Colored charts are more attractive. Charts can be made by students. Disadvantages Charts cannot show motion. Big charts are cumbersome to handle. Charts can be outdated. Disadvantages
Guidelines Plan well to make sure it fits the lesson. The parts of the chart must be clear, neat and detailed enough for vivid viewing. Avoid crowding the graphics to be shown. When identifying a portion, use of pointer. When you use the chart attach it on the wall rather than hold it. Keep it well when not in use so it does not get torn or soiled.
6. Mock-ups A mock-up is a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale. It is intended to show the essential parts which are made detachable.
Advantages It can be constructed by the teacher since she knows which part should be emphasized. In a mock-up structure of a flower the detachable parts could be the pistil and the stamen. It is a way of focusing observations on the desired part to be studied as well as the functional relationships of the parts.
Disadvantages Its construction could be time- consuming. Since the sizes are exaggerated, the students might be confused when faced with the real object. It could be costly.
Guidelines Involve the students in building mock-ups. Guide the students in the construction of a mock up. Make sure it truly illustrates the functional relationship of the parts of the real object. Prepare a sketch of the desired scale and location of the parts before building it.
7. Realia Realia stands for the real things that are to be studied like using real insects or plants. They are plentiful in the children’s environment and around the school.
Advantages Real objects are easily available everywhere. Examining real objects create concrete learning experiences for the learner. Real specimens can be handled and observed thoroughly. They are inexpensive. The children are familiar with the real materials and their interest can easily be focused.
Disadvantages Some live animals and plants are potential hazards. Objects like circuits and heat sources could be dangerous. Some are expensive. Problem regarding storage and retrieval may arise.
Guidelines Fit the real objects with the objectives of the lesson. Students can bring their own realia from their homes. Students should be encouraged to help in locating and acquiring realia for their classroom use. Discuss with them rules on retrieval and safe storage.
8. Video Tape/Films Films come in the form of 8 mm and 16 m type. Video tapes can be purchased or rented.
Advantages Motion pictures motivate children. Movement or sequence of events can be shown clearly. They are adapted to large or small groups. Considering the number of times they can be used, they are relatively inexpensive. They require very little reading skills.
Disadvantages Choosing films with the exact content desired may be a problem. Projection equipment might be expensive for some schools. Mechanical and operational problems may arise with the projection equipment.
Guidelines In purchasing or renting, allow sufficient time in order to have them available when needed. Preview the film to get thoroughly acquainted with its content. Take down notes for the terms, facts and other details that will be needed in the discussion. Before showing the film, discuss the objectives of the film or tapes and provide tips on what to observe carefully. This will prepare make ready for the assessment questions after
9. Models Models are scald replicas of real objects. When the real things cannot be used due to their size either large or too small, replicas are used. Examples are globes, model cars, air-planes or houses and furnitures.
Advantages Models provide motivation and enhance learning. Oversized objects can be reduced in size and can be studied in the classroom. Some models can be purchased from commercial firms. The parts can be built as to scale and can appear exactly like the real object.
Disadvantages Purchase of models can be costly. If models are built as to scale, it could be time consuming.
Guidelines Emphasize the size of the real object while being used. Use of moving models can catch attention and interest easily. Encourage students to construct simple models with parts in correct proportion. Some models can be kept for display for a long time depending on the materials used.
10. Pictures These include flat, opaque and still pictures. Photographs or pictures clipped from newspapers and magazines are also used. The concepts to be taught could be introduced through pictures.
Advantages Appropriate pictures that fit the objectives are easy to obtain. They are often free in the form of clippings. In a well chosen picture, the amount of information that can be conveyed is tremendous. They are more effective than oral or written statements. They are reusable.
Disadvantages Choosing the right picture can be a problem for some teachers. Handling of pictures needs so much care. Sometimes the correct size or perspective if scales in a picture an cause confusion especially if the children are not familiar with the object. An airplane and a boat may be interpreted to be of the same size.
Guidelines Make sure the picture to be used is not outdated. Small pictures are difficult to see. Organize the collection of pictures similar to a filing system. Pictures should be easily seen, attractive and accurate. They can be mounted on hard paper or laminated for ease in handling and protection. Motivate students to make their own collection form newspaper or magazine clippings for future reference.
References: Corpus, Brenda B. and Salandanan, Gloria G. (2007) Principles of Teaching 1. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc. Garo, Candelaria D. (2004) Educational Technology. Mandaluyong City National Book Store. Lucido, Paz I. and Borabo (1997) Educational Technology. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co., Inc. Newby, Timothy J, Stepich, Donald A., Lehman, James D. and Russell James D. (2000) Instructional Technology for Teaching and Learning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.