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Kryptos & The Cyrillic Projector

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Presentation on theme: "Kryptos & The Cyrillic Projector"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kryptos & The Cyrillic Projector
Elonka Dunin Def Con 12 July 30 - August 1, 2004

2 Overview Introduction PhreakNIC Code & Kryptos
Jim Sanborn's Sculptures Kryptos Antipodes The Cyrillic Projector Vigenère Tables Speculations Summary

3 Who am I? Elonka Dunin, General Manager of Online Community at Simutronics Corp. (www.play.net) In the online multiplayer games business for almost 15 years Computer hobbyist since I was tall enough to see over the top of a keypunch machine (unofficial) Cryptography speaker at Def Con since 2001

4 Who am I? First to crack: PhreakNIC v3.0, PhreakNIC5 and PN6 Codes
@LANta.con 2 Code September 11th - Organized the Simutronics Crisis Center, uncovered the "Bloodwrath Hoax" Team leader for cracking the Cyrillic Projector Cipher in September 2003

5 The PhreakNIC v3.0 Code Had been uncracked since its release in October 1999 I cracked it in 10 days Won a free trip to PhreakNIC v4.0 in Nashville Free hotel, drinks, T-shirts, etc.

6

7 The CIA’s Kryptos Sculpture

8 Kryptos Commissioned in 1988 Dedicated in 1990
Code systems designed by Ed Scheidt, Chairman of a "CIA Cryptographic Center" Sculptor: James Sanborn

9 CIA & Kryptos Difficult to examine the sculpture, because:
Only people with "official business" can access CIA The Agency is not easy to find (no street address!)

10 CIA & Kryptos I did, however, obtain an invitation

11 Kryptos – Part 4 Ciphertext
?OBKR UOXOGHULBSOLIFBBWFLRVQQPRNGKSSO TWTQSJQSSEKZZWATJKLUDIAWINFBNYP VTTMZFPKWGDKZXTJCDIGKUHUAUEKCAR

12 Kryptos Two panels are a vigenère table
A keyword builds a cipher alphabet First keyword: Kryptos Solvers (of the first three parts): 1998: David Stein, CIA Analyst 1999: Jim Gillogly ???: Three unnamed NSA analysts

13 Jim Sanborn Born 1945 in Washington DC Studied Archaeology at Oxford
Traveled extensively through Asia Bachelor’s Degree in Social Anthropology Master’s degree in Sculpture No (public) comprehensive list of his works existed, until I started making one in 2003

14 Kryptos Solver – David Stein
Solved parts 1-3 in 1998 Works at CIA Solved Kryptos on his own time, working on evenings and weekends Used pencil and paper methods Married and a new father, not working on it seriously anymore

15 Jim Gillogly Has solved several other historical codes, with computer assistance Debunked Beale cipher Working on Voynich Manuscript Ex-Head of American Cryptogram Association Solved Kryptos (parts 1-3) in 1999, by running a computer attack

16 The "Untitled Kryptos Piece"
After creating the CIA version of Kryptos, Sanborn made a smaller "untitled" version, which was sold to a private collector One side has all the text of the CIA's Kryptos (with at least two distinct differences) One side has encrypted Russian text Most of the Russian text is duplicated on the Cyrillic Projector

17 The "Untitled Kryptos Piece"

18 The "Untitled Kryptos Piece" – Antipodes

19 Sanborn’s Cyrillic Projector

20 Untitled Kryptos Piece – Differences
Russian Side: Cyrillic Projector only has about 75% of the Antipodes text (but all of the Russian has now been solved)

21 Untitled Kryptos Piece – Differences
English Side: Sections are in a different order, and aligned differently. Untitled version contains two extra dots

22 Kryptos

23 Vigenère Table

24 Vigenère Table Keyword: Kryptos KRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZ
RYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZK YPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKR PTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRY TOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYP OSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPT SABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTO ABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOS BCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSA CDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSAB

25 Kryptos – Part 1

26 Kryptos – Part 1 EMUFPHZLRF BETWEENSUB KRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZ
PTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRY ABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOS LMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJ IJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGH MNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJL SABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTO EFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCD TOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYP

27 Kryptos – Part 1 EMUFPHZLRFAXYUSDJKZLDKRNSHGNFIVJ YQTQUXQBQVYUVLLTREVJYQTMKYRDMFD Keywords: KRYPTOS and PALIMPSEST “Between subtle shading and the absence of light lies the nuance of iqlusion.”

28 Kryptos – Part 2

29 Kryptos – Part 2 Ciphertext
VFPJUDEEHZWETZYVGWHKKQETGFQJNCE GGWHKK?DQMCPFQZDQMMIAGPFXHQRLG TIMVMZJANQLVKQEDAGDVFRPJUNGEUNA QZGZLECGYUXUEENJTBJLBQCRTBJDFHRR YIZETKZEMVDUFKSJHKFWHKUWQLSZFTI HHDDDUVH?DWKBFUFPWNTDFIYCUQZERE EVLDKFEZMOQQJLTTUGSYQPFEUNLAVIDX FLGGTEZ?FKZBSFDQVGOGIPUFXHHDRKF FHQNTGPUAECNUVPDJMQCLQUMUNEDFQ ELZZVRRGKFFVOEEXBDMVPNFQXEZLGRE DNQFMPNZGLFLPMRJQYALMGNUVPDXVKP DQUMEBEDMHDAFMJGZNUPLGEWJLLAETG

30 Kryptos – Part 2 Plaintext
Keywords: KRYPTOS and ABSCISSA It was totally invisible. How's that possible? They used the earth's magnetic field. x The information was gathered and transmitted undergruund to an unknown location. x Does Langley know about this? They should: it's buried out there somewhere. x Who knows the exact location? Only WW. This was his last message: x 38 degrees 57 minutes 6.5 seconds North, 77 degrees 8 minutes 44 seconds West. ID by rows.

31 Kryptos Part 1 – A clue for part 2?
Between subtle shading and the absence of light lies the nuance of iqlusion. Subtle Shading: SS Absence: ABS Light: C ABS C I SS A ABSCISSA  ABS SS "C I A" ?

32 Kryptos – Part 3

33 Kryptos – Part 3 Ciphertext
ENDYAHROHNLSRHEOCPTEOIBIDYSHNAIA CHTNREYULDSLLSLLNOHSNOSMRWXMNE TPRNGATIHNRARPESLNNELEBLPIIACAE WMTWNDITEENRAHCTENEUDRETNHAEOE TFOLSEDTIWENHAEIOYTEYQHEENCTAYCR EIFTBRSPAMHHEWENATAMATEGYEERLB TEEFOASFIOTUETUAEOTOARMAEERTNRTI BSEDDNIAAHTTMSTEWPIEROAGRIEWFEB AECTDDHILCEIHSITEGOEAOSDDRYDLORIT RKLMLEHAGTDHARDPNEOHMGFMFEUHE ECDMRIPFEIMEHNLSSTTRTVDOHW

34 Kryptos Part 3 – Rows ENDYAHROHNLSRHEOCPTEOIBIDYSHNAIACHTNREYULDSLLSLL NOHSNOSMRWXMNETPRNGATIHNRARPESLNNELEBLPIIACAEWMT WNDITEENRAHCTENEUDRETNHAEOETFOLSEDTIWENHAEIOYTEY QHEENCTAYCREIFTBRSPAMHHEWENATAMATEGYEERLBTEEFOAS FIOTUETUAEOTOARMAEERTNRTIBSEDDNIAAHTTMSTEWPIEROA GRIEWFEBAECTDDHILCEIHSITEGOEAOSDDRYDLORITRKLMLEH AGTDHARDPNEOHMGFMFEUHEECDMRIPFEIMEHNLSSTTRTVDOHW? S L O W L Y D E S P A R A T L Y

35 Kryptos – Part 3 Plaintext
Slowly, desparatly slowly, the remains of passage debris that encumbered the lower part of the doorway was removed. With trembling hands I made a tiny breach in the upper left-hand corner. And then, widening the hole a little, I inserted the candle and peered in. The hot air escaping from the chamber caused the flame to flicker, but presently details of the room within emerged from the mist. x Can you see anything q?

36 Kryptos – Part 3 Explanation
Paraphrased account from Howard Carter’s diary, upon the opening of King Tut’s tomb November 26, 1922 His answer to "Can you see anything?" "Yes, wonderful things." (or "Yes, it is wonderful.")

37 Kryptos – Part 4 Ciphertext
?OBKR UOXOGHULBSOLIFBBWFLRVQQPRNGKSSO TWTQSJQSSEKZZWATJKLUDIAWINFBNYP VTTMZFPKWGDKZXTJCDIGKUHUAUEKCAR

38 The Cyrillic Projector

39 The Cyrillic Projector – History
Created in early 90s for gallery shows Installed at UNC-Charlotte in 1997 Kryptos Group started studying it in 2003

40 The Cyrillic Projector
Three Step Solution Process Transcription Decryption Translation

41 The Cyrillic Projector – Transcription
Pictures taken May 2003 by Randall Bollig Transcript created June 2003 Л T Ф E Ю T Ф Я Й Я M П X Ц Ф A Ч H Щ П B Б Г Ж Ч C К Ь Г Г Л З Д Э Й П Ъ К X C Й P Э A Ф H Ф П Щ B П E Ц P Д Ф A Щ Ш T К C X C Ч Ы У X X E Ю К У M Л E Ч Л Ы T O Б H E Я Ж Ж И Ь H Э З Щ Ц P Л Ы Б П H Ф O И И A Б Ь П И К Л E У P Ы C M Ъ Ш Л Л Б X M X Л Ж Ш P A Щ P Й Л П E O O Й Й B Ц И Ъ Л Б X Ц P Ы Ч C К A P C P B Я Э Ф К Ю Ф P Ю M O Я З O Л O Д Э Ш P З У Д X M A Э X O Й Г Й Ю Ф M Щ X X C B И И З X A Г Й Я Ь П C И Б P P Ш O M К T C У Я Г X У Ь Л E У P Ы C M Ъ Ш C П П Я Я Ц Ш У Ш A Ц Ч П И M Ш H P Б Ч P Я Ы M И У P A Д Ф A И Ю Й Ы Ц Я Л O H У Ф Ж O Ф Ш X Ф Ж C Б B Ъ Ч Д Ц C Ф Б M Д Э Ш P З У Д X У P Б Ш T O К Щ Ъ M X П O T O X O Щ Ч Ж A Ц Д Щ P A Ю Г O Й B P Б Г Ю Б З Г E Ж P Й Л П E O O Й Й B Ц H З П Г Ф Ц З A И B Я Ю Ф Л Ъ Ц X C Ч Ы Ш Ь Б E O M Щ Ш Ж T Э Д Й O T T Ф X П P П Л O Д Э Щ P З У Д X К П Г Ф O Ц Б Щ Ъ M M Э К Ч E P Л M К Ъ Ц Ц З Щ Л Ф Ц Ч Ъ Щ К B H Ф A E C Д П T Д Ф П P Я Й К Ю H X B Ц Б Ю E И C Ч Я Ч Ц X M Ж Л C П P Ч У Л Э Ш Ж Ы И И M E D U S A И H X E З Л Ч З P З Й К Л П П E B Л Ч C X Ц Ы O Й B P Б У Д X C B Ъ Г Ж Ч C К A P C P B Я Э Ф P Щ Ф Я Ц Щ П Ъ З Ы T Ф O Й Й У C Д T Ю T B C Б P X C П Б Щ Л Ш К У B Й Й Г З

42 The Cyrillic Projector – Anonymous Message
In July 2003, I received an via my company's anonymous feedback form: I have managed to solve the cryptographic portion of the cipher. It is, as advertised, not terribly difficult… P.S. I am doing this anonymously because I have a sense of humor.

43 Anonymous Message Should an anonymous solver get credit?
In most cases, credit goes not to the first person who *does* something, but the first person who can prove that they've done it, by supplying enough information that the work can be independently verified and duplicated. If it can't be duplicated, it's probably not real.

44 The Cyrillic Projector – Decryption
Elonka, while reading her weblogs, saw an interesting link on September 19,

45 The Cyrillic Projector – Decryption
Decryption confirmed September 19, 2003 B Ы C O Ч A Й Ъ И M И C К У C C T B O M B T A Й H O Й P A З B E Д К E C П И T A E T C Я C П O C O Б H O C T Ь P A З P A Б O T A T Ь И C T O Ч H И К К O T O P Ы M T Ы Б У Д E Ш Ь B C E Ц E Л O P A H П O P Я Ж A T Ь C Я И К O H T P O Л И P O B A T Ь П O Э T O C У T A Й H O Й P A З B E Д Ы B A T E Л Ь H O Й C Л У Ж Б Ы К O H T P O Л И P У E M Ы Й И C T O Ч H И К К A К П P A B И Л O П O C T A Я Л Я E T C A M У Ю H A Д E Ж H У Э И H Ф O P M A Ц И Ю К O H T P O Л И P У E M Ы M C Ч И T A E T C Я К У П Л E H H Ы Й И Л И H A X O Д Я Щ И Й C Я B Л Ю Б O Й Д P У Г O Й З A B И T И M O C T И И C T O Ч H И К П O T P A Д И Ц И И Ц E Л Ь Э П P O Ф E C C И O H A Л A P A Б O T A Ю

46 The Cyrillic Projector – Translation
Example of the problem: thissentencemightbeeasxlyunderstondbblet oanativeenglishspeekerbutsomeonenotfamil iarwethenglishwouldhaveagreatdealoftroub lereidingortranslatingitplusthefactthatt hereisntanypuncuuationisntanyhelpeither

47 The Cyrillic Projector – Translation
Translation provided by Stanley Dunin, Anatoly K., and Elonka Dunin on September 20th, 2003 BЫCOЧAЙЪИM ИCКУCCTBOM B TAЙHOЙ PAЗBEДКE CПИTAETCЯ CПOCOБHOCTЬ PAЗPAБOTATЬ ИCTOЧHИК КOTOPЫM TЫ БУДEШЬ BCEЦEЛO PAHПOPЯЖATЬCЯ И КOHTPOЛИPOBATЬ ПOЭTOCУ TAЙHOЙ PAЗBEДЫBATEЛЬHOЙ CЛУЖБЫ КOHTPOЛИPУEMЫЙ ИCTOЧHИК КAК ПPABИЛO ПOCTAЯЛЯET CAMУЮ HAДEЖHУЭ ИHФOPMAЦИЮ КOHTPOЛИPУEMЫM CЧИTAETCЯ КУПЛEHHЫЙ ИЛИ HAXOДЯЩИЙCЯ B ЛЮБOЙ ДPУГOЙ ЗABИTИMOCTИ ИCTOЧHИК ПO TPAДИЦИИ ЦEЛЬЭ ПPOФECCИOHAЛA . . .

48 The Cyrillic Projector – Translation (Part 1)
The highest skill of the secret service is the ability to develop a source, which you will handle and control completely so that the source supplies, as a rule, the most reliable information. A controllable source is a source that is considered bought or made otherwise dependent by some means. Traditionally, the goal of the secret service professional is to ensnare any potential-value source of information with a psychological net, and pull tight this net at the appropriate time. There are not too many possibilities for this, but those secret agents who develop controllable sources of information will get promotions and the respect of colleagues. However, the methods and behavioral techniques that are needed to attain this goal are radically contrary to the ethics and morality of society in the field of interpersonal relations.

49 The Cyrillic Projector – Translation (Part 2)
… about the creation of Sakharov's new anti-Soviet address to The West and its use by Americans for goals inimical to the Soviet Union. In May, academician A. D. Sakharov wrote a report for members of  the Pugwash Conference. This report contains sharp anti-Soviet evaluations of the internal and foreign policy of  the CPSU and the Soviet Government, and it also contains an accusation against the USSR about the intensification of  army, navy, missile arsenal, and air force, and intervention in …

50 The Cyrillic Projector – Source Document for Part 2

51 Cyrillic Projector Solutions (/.)
Then Slashdot got ahold of the news . . . Alternate proposed solutions on Slashdot "Send more vodka!" "Keep information away from Moose and Squirrel!"

52 Cyrillic Projector

53 Kryptos

54 Latitude & Longitude North, West

55 Kryptos – The Bird's Eye View

56 Related Sanborn Artwork at Langley
Morse code: sos, shadow forces, lucid memory, "t is your position" . . .

57 Related Sanborn Artwork at Langley
A dozen other pieces around the CIA “campus” Compass Morse code: “digetal interpretatu” (pictures courtesy of Jim Gillogly)

58 Kryptos Part 3 – Different Methods
ENDYAHROHNLSRHEOCPTEOIBIDYSHNAIACHTNREYULDSLLSLL 4 NOHSNOSMRWXMNETPRNGATIHNRARPESLNNELEBLPIIACAEWMT 3 WNDITEENRAHCTENEUDRETNHAEOETFOLSEDTIWENHAEIOYTEY 2 QHEENCTAYCREIFTBRSPAMHHEWENATAMATEGYEERLBTEEFOAS 1 FIOTUETUAEOTOARMAEERTNRTIBSEDDNIAAHTTMSTEWPIEROA 7 GRIEWFEBAECTDDHILCEIHSITEGOEAOSDDRYDLORITRKLMLEH 6 AGTDHARDPNEOHMGFMFEUHEECDMRIPFEIMEHNLSSTTRTVDOHW? 5 KRYPTOS KOPRSTY = “192” formula: C = (192*P + 191) modulus 337 Double-columnar transposition

59 Kryptos – Part 3 – Alignment

60 Part 3 – Alignment Sanborn: "This is important."

61 Other Kryptos Discoveries / Speculations
The missing "L" IBCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDE JCDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEF KDEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFG LEFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGH MFGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHI NGHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJL OHIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJL PIJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLM QJLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMN RLMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQ SMNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQU TNQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUV UQUVWXZKRYPTOSABCDEFGHIJLMNQUVW

62 Other Kryptos Discoveries / Speculations
Originally thought: Ciphertext: 867 chars, tableau: 864 Add in missed "L" Ciphertext: 867 chars, tableau: 865 Add in two reference spaces: Ciphertext: 867 chars, tableau: 867

63 Other Kryptos Speculations / Info
Spelling errors "iqlusion" and "undergruund": Sanborn said, "Those errors are deliberate. It's not *what* they are that's so important though, as their orientation or positioning."

64 Different Vigenère Systems

65 Thomas Jefferson Wheel Cipher (M-94)
Wheel Cipher Images from Monticello/Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc

66 Kryptos – Part 4 Ciphertext
?OBKR UOXOGHULBSOLIFBBWFLRVQQPRNGKSSO TWTQSJQSSEKZZWATJKLUDIAWINFBNYP VTTMZFPKWGDKZXTJCDIGKUHUAUEKCAR 7-letter rows: ?OBKRUO XOGHULB SOLIFBB WFLRVQQ PRNGKSS OTWTQSJ QSSEKZZ WATJKLU DIAWINF BNYPVTT MZFPKWG DKZXTJC DIGKUHU AUEKCAR Kryptos – 7 letters

67 Ed Scheidt CIA’s "Wizard of Codes" Currently working for TecSec
Likes ties with hieroglyphic patterns Said the last part of Kryptos would probably stand for 10 years before it was cracked. "I saved the best for last."

68 Other Kryptos Discoveries / Speculations
IM from "MolleeH" "The key to Kryptos is komitet" Komitet is the "K" in KGB Komitet Gosudarstvenoi Bezopasnosti Committee of State Security Molly Hale is the head of the CIA's Public Affairs department "Key" not "keyword" 7 letters in Komitet

69 Komitet

70 Hint or Hoax? "The key to Kryptos is komitet" Whoever sent the IM:
Knew I was working on Kryptos (possibly) knew some CIA structure (Molly Hale) Knew some crypto terminology: "key" not "keyword" Knew some cold war history: "Komitet" is not commonly known. Sent a *7-letter* key Knew how to cover their tracks

71 Sanborn's Other Sculptures
Has over 100 pieces around the world Some are encrypted, or in other languages French, Latin, Russian, Iroquois, Spanish, Chinese, Greek, Ethiopian, Creek, Algonquin Some have sections in binary Connecticut, Florida IRS Computing Center, West Virginia "Covert Operations Fragments" Other curiosities: Three sculptures that use quotes from Adam Smith Three sculptures that use engraved compasses One named "Hidden under the Three Events“

72 Zola Spy Restaurant, Washington DC

73 Kryptos in Pop Culture

74 Kryptos and the Da Vinci Code Novel

75 Kryptos in Pop Culture Image courtesy Patrick Foster,

76 Sanborn on NPR 1999 Interview

77 Kryptos

78 Summary Kryptos has 4 sections of code
3 of the 4 have been solved Sanborn's "Untitled Kryptos Piece" has two sides The CIA side repeats the text of Kryptos over and over The KGB side was what we solved in September 2003 Both sides have obvious spelling errors Unknown how many are accidental or deliberate Both Jim Sanborn and Ed Scheidt said Kryptos was designed to be solved Elonka: "Is part 4 solvable?" Sanborn: "Yes. It ain't easy, but it's solvable."

79 Things we need help with
Linguists to transcribe/translate Iroquois Creek Algonquin Abyssinian Chinese Greek 3D modelers

80 To get more information
Sci.crypt newsgroup (search on “kryptos”) Subscribe by ing: AIM: Elonka Google

81 Q & A

82 Famous Unsolved Codes 1. Beale Ciphers 2. Voynich Manuscript
3. Dorabella Cipher 4. Zodiac Killer Ciphers 5. Kryptos


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