Presentation on theme: "March 11, 2014 Colloquium at Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena Presentation tricks for a variety of psychological research: Projecting two different."— Presentation transcript:
March 11, 2014 Colloquium at Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena Presentation tricks for a variety of psychological research: Projecting two different visual stimuli without being noticed by viewers Kazuo Mori Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
My collaborators Maryanne Garry, Victoria Univ. of Wellington, NZ. Lauren Hewitt (Lauren French), Curtin University, AU Hideko Mori, Nagano Bunkagakuen College, JP Akitoshi Uchida, Togakushi Junior High School, JP Miho Arai, Kanto Gakuen University, JP
The basic principle: Polarization of light
The 1st Generation: Slides First polarizerSecond polarizer
Simple replacement by video projectors did NOT work X
An LCD polarizes the light Liquid crystal Polarizer Voltage ON Polarized light OFF The already-polarized image would be blocked by one of the first polarizers.
The 2nd Generation ( Mori, 2003) : LCD projectors with sideways framing First built-in polarizer
Early Applications of the MORI technique (Mori, 2003) Kanematsu, et al. (2003). Memory distortion in eyewitness pairs whoobserved nonconformingevents and discussed them, Journal of Faculty of Education, Shinshu University, 109, 75-84. Hirokawa, K., Matsuno, E., Mori, K., & Ukita, J. (2006). Relationship between masculinity-femininity and concession in an experimental collaborative eyewitness testimony. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 132-139. Mori, K. & Mori, H. (2008). Conformity among cowitnesses sharing same or different information about an event in experimental collaborative eyewitness testimony. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 106, 275-290.
MORI Technique did not work with new projectors! Projector makers changed the LCD alignments for an undisclosed reason. An LCD projector of any make cannot be used for the MORI Technique!
Projector makers changed the LCD alignments Old type: Three LCD panels aligned. ↑ ↑ ↑ –A single polarizer can block the total image. New type: The G panel crossed. ↑ → ↑ –A single polarizer can block either the green or magenta (red + blue) fraction. New LCD projectors of any make cannot be used for the –What a short life of the new invention!
DLP Projectors saved the MORI technique A DLP uses tiny mirrors housed on a special kind of microchip called a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD ). The light projected from a DLP projector is NOT polarized.
A DMD works like a card stunt performance at a stadium. Reflecting directions of tiny mirrors on a DMD chip are digitally controlled to create an image. The light projected from a DLP projector is NOT polarized.
The 3rd Generation (Mori, 2007a) : DLP Version Computers DLP Projectors Screen Polarizing Sunglasses First Polarizers
An example application: #1 Co-witness conformity effects of pre-schoolers Mori & Takahashi (2012)Mori & Takahashi (2012)
Applications to Witness Research French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2008). You say tomato? Collaborative remembering leads to more false memories for intimate couples than for strangers. Memory, 16, 262- 273. French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2011). Relative―not absolute―judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion. Acta Psychologica, 136, 119-128. Garry, M., French, L., Kinzett, T., & Mori, K. (2008). Eyewitness memory following discussion: Using the MORI technique with a Western sample. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 431-439. Also, by other groups in New Zealand, as well as in the UK, Canada, and the USA, the research are in progress.
Three types of the MORI Technique ： Summary 1. Slide projectors: Unpublished 2. LCD video projectors: Mori (2003) BRMIC 3. DLP video projectors: Mori (2007a) BRM
Now. It’s so small and handy. Video sources are provided from a USB memory key inserted at the back. The total set costs less than US$1,000.
Projector makers changed the LCD alignments Old type: Three LCD panels aligned. ↑ ↑ ↑ –A single polarizer can block the total image. New type: The G panel crossed. ↑ → ↑ –A single polarizer can block either the green or magenta (red + blue) fraction. No MORI Technique with LCD projectors any more! A single LCD projector can present two different images in green or magenta that can be blocked separately with a polarizer.
Method ： The fMORI Technique Since the Green and the other two (Red and Blue) LCD panels are placed perpendicularly in the projector, either the Green or the Magenta fragments can be separately blocked by polarizing filters. (See Mori, 2007, for details.) LCD projector (EPSON LP-700) The G fragment and the R&B fragments are projected together onto the same screen. Two pairs of polarizing sunglasses can separate the G fragment and the R&B fragments. T S Red & Blue Green
A single LCD projector can present two different images Who am I?
STIPUD (Easy task) The correct answer is STUPID. PSITDU (Difficult task) How can we apply this technique to psychological research? Anagram Tasks
Application examples: #2 Self-efficacy research (Mori & Uchida, 2009)
Only four students in each class wore the sunglasses which allowed the viewers to see the easy tasks. LCD projector Mori & Uchida (2009)? STUPID
The Asch Experiments Another application of the fMORI technique
Projector Mori & Arai (2010): Reproduction of Asch (1956) without confederates 11 1 2 ?
Still other possible applications of fMORI Application to the DRM paradigm A new test for the Theory of Mind Face memory experiments.
table sit legs seat couch desk recliner sofa cushion LCD projector A Modified DRM Paradigm table sit legs seat couch chair recliner sofa cushion
A New Method for Detection of the Theory of Mind A banana An apple
Conformity Research Using a Face Memory Task
Collaborators If you’d like to try the MORI technique, Simply e-mail me at: firstname.lastname@example.org It costs $2 million to conduct fMRI research. But, you need only $2,000 to launch fMORI research. The equipment can be prepared by Kaz Mori from a MEXT grant.
For witness studies using the MORI technique. The total set costs only about $1,000. On request, I can lend a set to you. The fMORI technique requires only one LCD projector. You can use the one your have already in your lab. So, all you need is a new idea for application of it.
References for the MORI Technique For the MORI Technique, with which colored movies can be presented using two video projectors, see: –Mori, K. (2003) Surreptitiously projecting different movies to two subsets of viewers. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 35, 599-604. –Mori, K. (2007a). A revised method for projecting two different movies to two groups of viewers without their noticing the duality. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 574- 578. –French, L., Gerrie, M.P., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2009). Evidence for the efficacy of the MORI technique: Viewers do not notice or implicitly remember details from the alternate movie version. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1224-1232.
Reference for the fMORI Technique For the fMORI Technique, that can present monochrome still photos or written words using just one LCD projector, see: –Mori, K. (2007b). Projecting two words with one machine: Presenting two different visual stimuli using just one projector without viewers’ noticing the duality. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 811-815.
References for applications French, L., Garry, M., & Mori, K. (2011). Relative―not absolute―judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion. Acta Psychologica, 136, 119-128. Mori, K. & Arai, M. (2010). No need to fake it: Reproduction of the Asch experiment without using confederates. International Journal of Psychology, 45, 390-397. Mori, K. & Mori, H. (2011). No confederates needed: Social comparison without collaboration. Social Behavior & Personality, 39, 543-552. Mori, K. & Uchida, A. (2009). Can contrived success affect self-efficacy among junior high school pupils? Research in Education, 82, 60-68.
All the referred papers are downloadable from my website. Just Google with “Kaz Mori Psychology.”
Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology （ MEXT) (Grant Nos. 16330139 and 16653054). I express thanks to my collaborators, Lauren French and Maryanne Garry, and my students, Hideko, Akitoshi, Miho, and others, who contributed to the improvement of the technique and conducted experiments using it. I am much indebted to Rebecca Ann Marck for her kind help in preparation of the presentation slides.