Presentation on theme: "Effective use of Media in Medical Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Effective use of Media in Medical Education Dr. Brijesh RathoreAssociate ProfessorDepartment of BiochemistryVisiting Faculty-American University of Barbados
2Learning Objectives To know various audio visual aids To know demerits and merits of eachTo know the do’s and don'ts while using themTo select an appropriate teaching aidTo express enthusiasm about making efforts to for the preparation process
3Teaching Is a skill Requires Expertise of the subject Grasp of the languageSkills to communicateChoosing an appropriate teaching aid
4Audio Visual aids Writing boards Flip boards Transparencies on Over head projector35mm slide projectorPower point presentationVideo on LCD panelUse of audio visual in special circumstances
5The writing board Most commonly used—Black/white board Easy to use InexpensiveQuickly cleaned and reusedReliable aidConvenient to list item and draw diagramsAllows step by step buildingStudents can keep pace with the teacher
6Disadvantages:Cannot hold a large amount of matterHas to be erased so no permanent recordTime consumingDifficult to keep attention of studentsNot an appropriate medium in large audiences
7Guidelines for effective use: Availability of materialArrange it in sequence – PLAN aheadGood illuminationEnsure clarityEmphasize key pointsPosition of teacherRubbing of board
8CHALK BOARD ADVANTAGES: Convenient to list items, draw charts and to solve problems.Inexpensive and easily cleaned.Usable for wide range of graphic representation.Allows step by step build up, organization of structure of concept.Helps student in note taking.
9CHALK BOARD LIMITATIONS: Back to audience. Can be seen only by small group.Careful drawing are erased & not preserved for future use.Considerable skill required for effective use.Difficult to move from place to place.APPLICATIONS:Don’t crowd the chalk-board a few points make a vivid impression.Make the material simple.Plan the presentation earlier.
10The Flip Chart Large chart with a pad of paper on a stand: The notes, diagrams and flow charts can be prepared well in advanceRevealed at the appropriate point of presentationPages can be preserved for display after class and future references
11Disadvantages:Not effective for large audienceCannot hold large amount of dataWriting may consume time.Intermittently loose contact with audience while writingSometimes writing is illegible
12Guidelines for effective use: Availability of materialPLAN aheadGood illuminationEnsure clarityPosition of teacher
13Audio-Visual Aids Types of Audio Visual Aids VISUAL AIDS: those communication devices which use seeing as primary process of communication.Non-projected visual aidsProjected Visual Aids
14Non-projected visual aids: Chalk BoardFlannel GraphsFlash cardsPostersDiagrams and PhotographsChartsSpecimensModels
15Projected Visual Aids: Overhead projectorSlide projector: 35 mm SlidesFilm StripsEpidiascopeMicro-projectorSilent cine films
16Transparencies and Projector A transparency is plastic film with written material usually in horizontal formatMagnification is 5 timesLetter cm in height (Printed >18pts)Rule 2/6—nearest viewer should not be closer than distance equaling 2 screen widths and farthest not more than 6 screen widths
17Transparencies and Projector Advantages:Simple, easily available and inexpensiveCan be used with lights onCan be projected highCan be prepared quickly and in advanceAllows step wise presentation—MaskingCan be preserved for future use
18Advantages:Simple, easily available and inexpensiveCan be used with lights onCan be prepared quickly and in advanceAllows step wise presentation—MaskingCan be preserved for future useDisadvantages:Technical snags and problem of focus.Over crowding.Inertia to update material .
19AUDIO AIDS P.A. System (Public address system) Record players and discsCassette tape recorders
20AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Synchronized Tape-slide projector Cine movies Open T.V. Broadcasts and Video-tapesClosed Circuit T.V. and Video-tapes
21FLANNELOGRAPHSThe flannel-board is covered with flannel or khadi cloth. The picture or materials with same material are used to stickIt helps to build presentation in a sequence, piece by piece.
22FLASH CARDSOne of cheapest and effective aids to communicate an idea or sequence.Each card contains words, phrases, or symbols or photographs.It is flashed before a group of people with verbal commentary.Suitable for small group.
23MODEL AND SIMULATION DEVICES ADVANTAGES:Three dimension, concept of reality.Size allows close examination.Good for magnified situationCan permit learning and practice of different techniques.Can be used to demonstrate function as well as construction.Some can be made with locally available materials.
24MODEL AND SIMULATION DEVICES LIMITATIONS:Simulation models are often expensive.Craftsmanship required for local construction.Usable for small groups.Models often easily damaged.Never the same as performing techniques on a patient.APPLICATIONS:Models can be used for demonstration when actual specimen is not available.Simulation devices are used in situation where the real object or patient cannot be obtained.Useful for instruction.
29OVER HEAD PROJECTOR ADVANTAGES: Projectable in daylight, high to audience, darkening of the class rooms is not needed.The image can be projected high on the screen or wall enabling the whole class to see the projector image clearly.Presented while facing the audience.Relatively easy to prepare with local materials.Subjects can be drawn in advance or developed be stages with the group.It is easy to handle
30LIMITATIONS:Use of the over head projector for very large audience is limited.Equipment and materials for making sophisticated transparencies are expensive.Not easy to adopt for self study.
31Projection transparencies, well fixed can be used by the teacher. APPLICATIONS:Use several sample transparencies rather than complex one and limit each visual to one message.Use chemical pencil, overhead projector, pencil or wax crayon for writing on transparencies.Use colour transparencies for better attention from audience and to emphasis details.Projection transparencies, well fixed can be used by the teacher.
32Density & Legibility Limit text to about 7 lines with 8 words/line 10 lines and 10 words for overhead transparenciesUse an active “voice” that emphasizes key words or phrasesUse at least 18-point font sizeUse a simple style of lettering
33Density & LegibilityLimit use of italics, underlining, bold and capitalizationWatch line spacingKeep images simpleUse special effects sparingly (shadowing, 3-D)Use 4 – 5 colors maximumIncrease color contrast with color hue and brightness
34Keep it SimpleEffective slides emphasize and illustrate what the speaker saysPresents information succinctlyPresents information that is self- explanatory
35LayoutUse horizontal (landscape) slides rather than vertical (portrait)Try to be consistent about where you place information on the slideTitles, bullets, logos, etc. should have a designated spot on slideLayouts may be formal and balanced (entries centered/left-justified) or informal (entries off-centered yet balanced)
36Color Use contrasting colors for text and background Use about 4–5 colors per slide and be consistentHighlight important information with contrasting colorLight-colored lettering or lines on dark background often preferred
37Visibility ratio Dark Background Light Background white blackyellow dark red or brownorange orangegreen greenred light blueviolet yellow
3935 mm SLIDES AND SLIDE PROJECTOR ADVANTAGES:Suitable for small and large audience.Preparation of slides is very easy and not so expensive.Slides sets and projectors are light and easy to carry.For projection, no specific technical knowledge or skill necessary.LIMITATIONS:For front projector, darkening of the auditorium or class room in necessary.Amount of information in one slide (in number of lines of matter) is limited.
40APPLICATION:Useful for teaching in class rooms and self study units.Can be used repeatedly.With automatic projectors, slides can be changed, can be programmed, also advanced or reversed.Using a trans- focuser lens you can focus the detailsUsing a special light pointer you can pin point the details.
42EpidiascopeProjects any non-transparent pictures - photographs, charts, sketches and hand written materials.It can be used to project coins, sheets books etc.The principle of reflected projection is used in the use of opaque projections.The opaque projection can be used to project variety of materials in any teaching situation.
43OVER HEAD PROJECTORThis system is still found in schools, but is being largely replaced by LCD projectors.Spatial light modulators (SLMs)Many OHPs are used with a flat panel LCD which, when used this way is referred to as a spatial light modulator or SLM. Data projectors