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Effective use of Media in Medical Education Dr. Brijesh Rathore Associate Professor Department of Biochemistry Visiting Faculty-American University of.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective use of Media in Medical Education Dr. Brijesh Rathore Associate Professor Department of Biochemistry Visiting Faculty-American University of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective use of Media in Medical Education Dr. Brijesh Rathore Associate Professor Department of Biochemistry Visiting Faculty-American University of Barbados

2 Learning Objectives  To know various audio visual aids  To know demerits and merits of each  To know the do’s and don'ts while using them  To select an appropriate teaching aid  To express enthusiasm about making efforts to for the preparation process

3 Teaching Is a skill Requires Expertise of the subject Grasp of the language Skills to communicate Choosing an appropriate teaching aid

4 Audio Visual aids  Writing boards  Flip boards  Transparencies on Over head projector  35mm slide projector  Power point presentation  Video on LCD panel  Use of audio visual in special circumstances

5 The writing board Most commonly used—Black/white board  Easy to use  Inexpensive  Quickly cleaned and reused  Reliable aid  Convenient to list item and draw diagrams  Allows step by step building  Students can keep pace with the teacher

6 Disadvantages:  Cannot hold a large amount of matter  Has to be erased so no permanent record  Time consuming  Difficult to keep attention of students  Not an appropriate medium in large audiences

7 Guidelines for effective use: Availability of material Arrange it in sequence – PLAN ahead Good illumination Ensure clarity Emphasize key points Position of teacher Rubbing of board

8 CHALK BOARD ADVANTAGES:  Convenient to list items, draw charts and to solve problems.  Inexpensive and easily cleaned.  Usable for wide range of graphic representation.  Allows step by step build up, organization of structure of concept.  Helps student in note taking.

9 CHALK BOARD LIMITATIONS: Back to audience. Can be seen only by small group. Careful drawing are erased & not preserved for future use. Considerable skill required for effective use. Difficult to move from place to place. APPLICATIONS: Don’t crowd the chalk-board a few points make a vivid impression. Make the material simple. Plan the presentation earlier.

10 The Flip Chart Large chart with a pad of paper on a stand:  The notes, diagrams and flow charts can be prepared well in advance  Revealed at the appropriate point of presentation  Pages can be preserved for display after class and future references

11 Disadvantages:  Not effective for large audience  Cannot hold large amount of data  Writing may consume time.  Intermittently loose contact with audience while writing  Sometimes writing is illegible

12 Guidelines for effective use:  Availability of material  PLAN ahead  Good illumination  Ensure clarity  Position of teacher

13 Audio-Visual Aids Types of Audio Visual Aids 1. VISUAL AIDS: those communication devices which use seeing as primary process of communication. 2. Non-projected visual aids 3. Projected Visual Aids

14 Non-projected visual aids: Chalk Board Flannel Graphs Flash cards Posters Diagrams and Photographs Charts Specimens Models

15 Projected Visual Aids: Overhead projector Slide projector: 35 mm Slides Film Strips Epidiascope Micro-projector Silent cine films

16 Transparencies and Projector  A transparency is plastic film with written material usually in horizontal format  Magnification is 5 times  Letter cm in height (Printed >18pts)  Rule 2/6—nearest viewer should not be closer than distance equaling 2 screen widths and farthest not more than 6 screen widths

17 Transparencies and Projector Advantages: Simple, easily available and inexpensive Can be used with lights on Can be projected high Can be prepared quickly and in advance Allows step wise presentation—Masking Can be preserved for future use

18 Advantages:  Simple, easily available and inexpensive  Can be used with lights on  Can be prepared quickly and in advance  Allows step wise presentation—Masking  Can be preserved for future use Disadvantages:  Technical snags and problem of focus.  Over crowding.  Inertia to update material.

19 AUDIO AIDS  P.A. System (Public address system)  Record players and discs  Cassette tape recorders

20 AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Synchronized Tape-slide projector Cine movies Open T.V. Broadcasts and Video-tapes Closed Circuit T.V. and Video-tapes

21 FLANNELOGRAPHS The flannel-board is covered with flannel or khadi cloth. The picture or materials with same material are used to stick It helps to build presentation in a sequence, piece by piece.

22 FLASH CARDS  One of cheapest and effective aids to communicate an idea or sequence.  Each card contains words, phrases, or symbols or photographs.  It is flashed before a group of people with verbal commentary.  Suitable for small group.

23 MODEL AND SIMULATION DEVICES ADVANTAGES:  Three dimension, concept of reality.  Size allows close examination.  Good for magnified situation  Can permit learning and practice of different techniques.  Can be used to demonstrate function as well as construction.  Some can be made with locally available materials.

24 MODEL AND SIMULATION DEVICES LIMITATIONS:  Simulation models are often expensive.  Craftsmanship required for local construction.  Usable for small groups.  Models often easily damaged.  Never the same as performing techniques on a patient. APPLICATIONS:  Models can be used for demonstration when actual specimen is not available.  Simulation devices are used in situation where the real object or patient cannot be obtained.  Useful for instruction.

25 Projected Visual Aids


27 NON-PROJECTED MATERIAL: Maximum Viewing Minimum height distance of letter ‘M’ 8 Feet¼” 16 Feet½” 32 Feet 1” 64 Feet 2”


29 ADVANTAGES:  Projectable in daylight, high to audience, darkening of the class rooms is not needed.  The image can be projected high on the screen or wall enabling the whole class to see the projector image clearly.  Presented while facing the audience.  Relatively easy to prepare with local materials.  Subjects can be drawn in advance or developed be stages with the group.  It is easy to handle

30 LIMITATIONS:  Use of the over head projector for very large audience is limited.  Equipment and materials for making sophisticated transparencies are expensive.  Not easy to adopt for self study.

31 APPLICATIONS:  Use several sample transparencies rather than complex one and limit each visual to one message.  Use chemical pencil, overhead projector, pencil or wax crayon for writing on transparencies.  Use colour transparencies for better attention from audience and to emphasis details.  Projection transparencies, well fixed can be used by the teacher.

32 Density & Legibility  Limit text to about 7 lines with 8 words/line  10 lines and 10 words for overhead transparencies  Use an active “voice” that emphasizes key words or phrases  Use at least 18-point font size  Use a simple style of lettering

33 Density & Legibility  Limit use of italics, underlining, bold and capitalization  Watch line spacing  Keep images simple  Use special effects sparingly (shadowing, 3-D)  Use 4 – 5 colors maximum  Increase color contrast with color hue and brightness

34 Keep it Simple  Effective slides emphasize and illustrate what the speaker says  Presents information succinctly  Presents information that is self- explanatory

35 Layout  Use horizontal (landscape) slides rather than vertical (portrait)  Try to be consistent about where you place information on the slide  Titles, bullets, logos, etc. should have a designated spot on slide  Layouts may be formal and balanced (entries centered/left-justified) or informal (entries off-centered yet balanced)

36 Color  Use contrasting colors for text and background  Use about 4–5 colors per slide and be consistent  Highlight important information with contrasting color  Light-colored lettering or lines on dark background often preferred

37 Dark BackgroundLight Background white black yellow dark red or brown orange orange green green red light blue violet yellow Visibility ratio


39 ADVANTAGES: Suitable for small and large audience. Preparation of slides is very easy and not so expensive. Slides sets and projectors are light and easy to carry. For projection, no specific technical knowledge or skill necessary. LIMITATIONS: For front projector, darkening of the auditorium or class room in necessary. Amount of information in one slide (in number of lines of matter) is limited.

40 APPLICATION:  Useful for teaching in class rooms and self study units.  Can be used repeatedly.  With automatic projectors, slides can be changed, can be programmed, also advanced or reversed.  Using a trans- focuser lens you can focus the details  Using a special light pointer you can pin point the details.

41 Opaque projector, episcope, Spencer Delineascope. Epidiascope

42 Projects any non-transparent pictures - photographs, charts, sketches and hand written materials. It can be used to project coins, sheets books etc. The principle of reflected projection is used in the use of opaque projections. The opaque projection can be used to project variety of materials in any teaching situation.

43 OVER HEAD PROJECTOR This system is still found in schools, but is being largely replaced by LCD projectors. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) Many OHPs are used with a flat panel LCD which, when used this way is referred to as a spatial light modulator or SLM. Data projectors


45 NEWER ELECTRONIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  Teleconferencing / Telemedicine  Teletext  Videotext  Computers


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