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Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Projections – Universal panacea or design tool for the.

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Presentation on theme: "Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Projections – Universal panacea or design tool for the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Projections – Universal panacea or design tool for the present? Projections in performance… Enhance visual design… Gain a seemingly unlimited sense of depth Add an aura of surrealism Replace design elements… Complement design elements…

2 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. 2 Basic Systems of Projection in Theatre Lensless Lens

3 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Same theory as making shadow pictures – Opaque object + Light source = Lensless projection

4 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Factors to consider: Size of projection source Large-scale projections – 500- / 750- / 1000-watt, 120 volt, tungsten- halogen lamp in ellipsoidal reflector spotlight Small-scale projections – (under 6 ft. wide) – single-filament, 12-volt lamp (Requires being run at 15 volts – see diagram for transformer) Distance between slide & projection source (closer to screen – sharper image)

5 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Solutions to distance… This projector can provide a relatively sharp image while placing the image away from the light source

6 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Solutions to distance… This projector is a multiplane projector which is geared to take advantage of aerial perspective… Problem of slide size – to get large image requires large slide! Aerial Perspective: An optical phenomenon in which objects that are farther away appear less sharply in focus and less fully saturated in color.

7 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Linnebach Projector Basis for all lensless projection in the theatre Developed by Adolphe Linnebach Often shops build ‘home’ versions for productions…

8 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Shop-built Linnebach projector

9 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lensless Projectors Curved-image Linnebach projector for use with curved cycs…

10 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Other Lensless Projectors For a makeshift version, remove the lens from Fresnel or Plano-convex spotlights and insert a slide in the instrument’s color-frame holder. Only good for small-scale, soft projection!

11 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Lens Projectors These projectors use a lens to control the focus and size of the image on the projection screen. 3 Primary Types The Scenic Projector The Slide Projector The Digital Projector

12 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Projector 3 Basic Parts: Lamp Housing The Optical Train The Slide Optical train

13 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Projector Lamp Housing Requires high intensity lamps Incandescent lamps – 1000 to 2000 watt Xenon or HMI Produces substantial amounts of heat – usually have some sort of blower or fan – noise issues

14 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Projector Hot mirror: A glass dichroic filter that reflects the infrared spectrum while allowing visible light to pass Condensing lens: A device that condenses the direct and refracted light from a source and concentrates it on the slide-plane aperture of a projector Slide-plane aperture: The point in a projection system where a slide or other effect is placed Objective lens: A device to focus a projected image on a screen or other surface Front condenser Collecting condensing lens Reflector Lamp The Optical Train

15 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Projector Slides Glass is most common medium Image can be painted or a photographic transparency Dichroic mirror increases longevity of slide Moving effects can be created with effects heads… Effects head: A motor-driven unit capable of producing crude moving images with a scenic projector

16 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Scenic Projector

17 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Slide Projector Projector adapted for adequate light output for stage use

18 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Slide Projector Durable and versatile projectors Problem with light source brightness – initial design for audiovisual not performance purposes! Things to look for: Dependable and versatile slide-feeding capabilities Adequate light output Interchangeable lenses

19 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Digital Projector a.k.a. Computer Projections Becoming standard for stage… Technology continually changing – slowly replacing older methods Adds video projection Trap – Limitless capacity – can upstage performers – BAD!!! Projection must enhance not steal focus…

20 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Projection Screens 2 Basic types: Front Rear Additional surfaces have included actors’ bodies, painted scenery, dust motes, smoke, and fog… Projection works best on elements specifically designed for projection!

21 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Front-Screen Projection Surfaces designed to reflect light White & highly reflective works best (slide/movie screens) Smooth, white, painted surface = low cost alternative Sharpness and brightness of image directly related to the hue, value, and texture of the projection surface Surfaces with low saturation, high value, and little texture = best!

22 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Rear-Screen Projection Positives – Avoids actor shadow Provides a clean image Drawbacks – Hot spots Expense Need for distance behind set See chapter for low cost alternatives… Hot Spot: An intense circle of light created when a projector lens is seen through a rear screen

23 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Slide Preparation For Linnebachs… 1/8 inch clear Plexiglass For curved Linnebachs… thickness acetate For scenic projectors… Photographic and painted slides For slide projectors… Use glass or plastic mounts due to heat

24 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Other Projectors Overhead Projector Opaque Projector Both of these can be used in production but are more often helpful in various shops

25 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. General Projection Techniques & Hints To prevent the projected images from being washed out, keep ambient light off the screen. Acting areas should be lit from angles that minimize their effect on the projection surface. To reduce ambient light and to keep actors from blocking view, place screen so bottom image is no lower than 5 to 7 feet above the stage floor. To maximize brightness of the image (with slide projector) Keep projection size small Use lens with a low f-stop (3.5 or less) Use a short-focal-length lens and place the projector close to the screen Whenever possible, use rear-screen projection. Know your equipment and troubleshoot. Prep slides early to allow for reshoot if needed.

26 Theatrical Design and Production Chapter 15: Projections © 2006 McGraw-Hill. All right reserved. Keystoning If a projector is not placed on a perpendicular axis to the screen, distortion occurs a.k.a. keystoning… (A) / (B) Correction – Place the screen at a perpendicular angle to the projector (C) -or- Introduce distortion to the slide itself during photographing (D) Many digital projectors have features to compensate for this


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