2 Vocab ~Open range- unfenced land, p. 590 ~Cattle drive- the herding and moving of cattle, p. 590~Persist- to endure; to continue in the face of difficulty, p. 591~Vaquero- the Spanish word for cowhand, or cowboy, p. 592~Cow town- settlement at the end of a cattle trail, p. 592~Myth- story or legend; imaginary, invented story, p. 593~Cattle kingdom- the region dominated by the cattle industry and its ranches, trails, and cow towns came to be known as the cattle kingdom, p. 593
3 The Rise of the Cattle Industry ~For years longhorns, called that because of their long horns, wandered the open range.~Originally they were strays lost by Spanish ranchers.~In the 1860s, when railroads were crossing the west, people saw the cows as a source of income.
4 The Rise of the Cattle Industry (2) ~Ranchers in Texas hired cowhands to round up the wild cattle.~Their destinations were rail lines in Kansas, Missouri, and Wyoming, 1,000 miles away~The herding of the cattle was called a cattle drive, and they were so grueling that some cowhand brought enough horses that a fresh one was available each day
5 The Rise of the Cattle Industry (3) ~Some of the more used trails, carrying as many as 600,000 cattle each year on drives that lasted 2-3 months were:-Chisholm trail, which ran from Austin to Abilene-Goodnight-loving trail, which ran from Texas to Wyoming.
6 Cattle Trails This picture shows cattle trails such as the Western trail andthe Chisholmtrail.
7 Life on the Trail~Cattle drives were long and dangerous, forcing cowhands to develop nerves of steak.~A couple of the primary dangers were:-Thieves, swamps, and fires.-A river washing cattle away.-Cattle stampedes caused by lightning.~For all the work, cowhands got less than $1 for a 18 hour day.~Like in mining, cattle ranching relied on low-paid laborers
8 Life on the Trail (2)~For all the work, cowhands got less than $1 for a 18 hour day.~Like in mining, cattle ranching relied on low-paid laborers.~ Even though the work was hard and the pay was low, cowhands persisted in doing the job.
9 Spanish Roots~the original cowhands were Spanish and Mexican vaqueros.~When other people started rounding up cattle, the vaqueros taught them how to ride, rope, and brand the cows.~Many of the cowhand’s tools have names similar to their spanish roots:-Saddle/Silla de montar-Spurs/espoloñes
10 Spanish Roots (2) -lasso/lazo ~The origins of the cowboy hat came from the Mexican sombrero.~Nearly one third of cowhands were Mexican.
11 The Wild West~ Illinois businessman Joseph McCoy founded Abilene, Kansas in 1867 where the Kansa Pacific Railroad met Chisholm Trail~ McCoy thought that cowboys would want a hot meal and a bath after long months on the trail
12 The Wild West (2) ~ Wichita and Dodge City also sprang up near Abilene ~ Cow Towns had dance halls, saloons, hotels, and restaurants
13 The Wild West (3)~ Due to the rough life in cow towns many people began believing that the West was a very wild place~ “Buffalo Bill” is a prime example of the “Wild West”
14 The Wild West (4)~ Buffalo Bill started a traveling wild west show in 1883 the show consisted plays depicting events of the “Wild West” such as Custer’s Last Stand~Annie Oakley performed also and proved she could shoot very well
15 The Wild West (5)~ There was some basis of fact of the myth of the Wild West~ But the West was quickly changing Natives were being forced onto reservations and it was becoming more civilized
16 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom ~ The cattle boom spanned from the 1860s to the 1880s~ In those two decades herds and markets grew increasing ranchers income, but then the industry collapsed
17 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom (2) ~ When the cattle boom reached its peak calves could be bought for $5 and steers sold for $60~ Ranchers made a lot of money even after expenses for the drives
18 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom (3) ~ As new breeds of cattle were introduced that produced more meat and contracted less disease profits skyrocketed~ One company had 800 square miles of ranches in three states
19 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom(4) ~ More than 7 million cattle were roaming the open range in the mid-1880s~ Starting in 1886 and 1887 there was a cycle of blazing summers and freezing winters that killed millions of cattle
20 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom (5) ~ There was an economic depression that put many out of work~ Beef demand began to drop when the depression hit
21 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom (6) ~ Sheep began competing against cattle for Prairie land~ Farmers fenced in land to save their crops~ Many ranchers were forced to buy expensive fed for their cattle
22 Boom and Bust in the Cattle Kingdom(7) ~ Giant ranches soon faded into smaller ranches that could fed their cattle~ Railroad lines cut onto ranch and open range land limiting ranchers space~ The cattle kingdom ended as raising cattle became increasingly difficult