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HISTORY OF THE WEST Unit 1 Pre-Columbian Indians.

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1 HISTORY OF THE WEST Unit 1 Pre-Columbian Indians

2 Beginning Terms  Institution  Anything that is human created in order to pass along information from one generation to the next  Religion, Education, Government, Family, etc.  Culture  Group of people with common institutions that are distinct from other groups of people  Civilization  Group of culture with common institutions that are distinct from other civilizations  Ethnocentrism  View world based upon your own culture

3 Recent Indian Historiography  Linear Progressive  Lewis Henry Morgan Straight line of progression Scientific justification for “Civilizing Individuals”  Einstein Ethnohistory Combines History and Anthropology Cultures not to be judged  They are different adaptations to different environments

4 Indian Origins  During the Enlightenment there were various explanations for Indians on North American Continent  Polynesia Originating from Pacific Ocean islands  Lost tribes of Israel  Tribal explanations Most had to do with animals bringing up mud to start land  Land Bridge Theory (Beringa) Traveled during the Ice Age from the Asia continent

5 View of Beringa

6 Migration

7 Earliest Indian Language Families  Caddoan  Da Nene (Athapascan)  Siouan-Catawban  Algonkian (Algonquin)  Kiowa-Tanoan  Uto-Aztecan  Kootenai (Kutinee)

8 Language and Regional Distribution

9 Indian Migration Patterns  Caddoans  Left the ancestors of the Mississippian agriculturalist about 1150 A.D. Mississippian is a generalized term for Indian groups who participated in agriculture near the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers Sometime after1300-1400 A.D. they moved up rivers in east Texas and Southeastern Oklahoma Wichita Indians moved up the Red River, and others into Southern Kansas Pawnees moved up Republican River into Kansas and Nebraska Arikaras moved up the Missouri River near Canadian Border

10 Indian Migration Patterns (Con’t)  Siouan  Controversy and speculation on this group Probably moved in multiple waves  Origins in the Ohio River Valley Manda, Hidatsa, and Dakota/Lakota Indians Moved into the north plains between 1350-1550 A.D. Minnesota, Easter Dakotas and Southern Canada Ponca, Iowa, Omaha, Missouri, Kansa, Osage Moved into the middle Mississippi and Missouri valley around the 1600’s A.D

11 -Hidatsa-Crow Split/Crow became Plains Indians

12 Indian Migration Patterns (Con’t)  Athapascan  From the Mackenzie Basin in Canada Became the Navajos and Apaches Moved down the Western slopes of the Rockies Ended up in the four-corners region around 1400- 1500’s A.D.  Algonkians  Came from eastern woodlands Became groups like the Blackfeet  Agriculturalist who became Plains Indians Got pushed west from American and European expansion

13 Indian Migration Patterns (Con’t)  Uto-Aztecans  3 subdivisions migrated onto the Plains Utes – Furthest south in the Great Basin Commanches – In the middle Shoshones – Furthest north

14 Plains Indians migration/ pushed and attracted

15 Indian Nation Distribution

16 Geographical Map

17 Fundamentals of Social and Political Structure  Lineage  Organized along bloodlines Almost exclusively among village agriculturalists Those who lived near the Mississippi and Missouri River Valleys  Matrilineal Organized according to female side Mother, her sisters, and her brothers Easier divorce and better status for women Father’s role less and often fulfilled by uncles Husband lives within wive’s family

18 Fundamentals of Social and Political Structure (Con’t)  Lineage (Con’t)  Patralineal Organized according to male bloodlines Father, his brothers, and his sisters Male role more pronounced, especially for paternal father Usually female live within husband’s family

19 Fundamentals of Social and Political Structure (Con’t)  Clan  Collection of lineages Universal among agriculturalists Split based upon identification of animals Interlocking functions in rituals and ceremonies Usually must marry from different clans  Moiety  Collection of bands, lineages, or clans into sides Usually two Marriage must be outside of moiety

20 Fundamentals of Social and Political Structure (Con’t)  Tribe  Largest political unit recognized by Indians themselves Confederate style government Little central authority mandated Lots of variety among the various Indian groups

21 Fundamentals of Social and Political Structure (Con’t)  Internal structure and central authority  Bands among composite (Nomadic) groups Most of the year scattered around their domain Due to pursuit of buffalo and other game Membership flexible/ could change Venturing into other’s territory not uncommon Fights ensued and land gained or lost Organization followed habits of buffalo All bands gather during rutting time

22 Central Government Among Composite Tribes  Headman (Chief)  May be hereditary but not required For leadership may turn to someone else  Size of following depended on different traits Hunting/Fighting skills, generosity, powers of persuasion, oratorical skills in consensus decision, and decision making  Decisions through band consensus Not overly effective

23 Central Government Among Composite Tribes (Con’t)  Sodalities (Exclusive to Composite Groups)  Societies or fraternal groups  Membership outside of kinship or descendent lines Bond based upon common interests or functions Could be ceremonial, religious, craft, social, dance, or soldiering Soldiering sodalities often ranked with membership earned Interlocking ceremonial functions provided group cohesiveness Generally in charge of enforcing group rules and norms

24 Central Government Among Composite Tribes (Con’t)  Central Council  Group of headmen Met when all bands assemble When decision is made, the headmen return to their band/moiety/clan to persuade them to follow  Little real power Mediate and led in consensus decision making camp circle Traditional placement of bands when assembled together

25 Central Government Among Composite Tribes (Con’t)  Ranking and stratification  Communal unity and sharing Still some more successful and thus have a sense of rank  How Village Agriculturalist differed  Larger populations  Government more centralized and hereditary Somewhat more ranking and stratification

26 The Supernatural  Thought varied among the different tribes, though there were some similarities  Animism Connection to the animal world  Life and Religion are one  Myths and story-telling Used to teach history and religion  Dreams play a significant role Give guidance from the gods/animals

27 Supernatural (Con’t)  Types of Supernatural beings  Primary “god”  Effective Closest to primary being  Originating/cultural heroes Gave group fire or something else of significance Sometimes the primary god  Instructive Trickster/often in humor Stories with a lesson or message

28 Supernatural (Con’t)  Sacred Peace Pipe  2 Parts  Ceremonial Used before most major events Raiding Buffalo hunts Dances Negotiations Meetings

29 Another example

30 Supernatural (Con’t)  Vision Quest  Rite of passage for males Important to go about it in the proper steps  Strive for vision, contents of a sacred bundle and good medicine Sacred Bundle Includes various medicines that help in guidance and activities Generally includes eagle feathers, unique rocks, arrows, etc.  Vision gives guidance as to how strong they will likely become

31 Supernatural (Con’t)  Sun Dance  Performed for various reasons Revenge, rite of passage for males  Possibly connected to agricultural past  Three types Tethered to a pole Drag a bison skull Hung from top of an earth lodge  Animal Dances Animal Dances  Generally done before the hunting season in order to bring a plentiful harvest Done in a rotation with other dances during the whole tribal meeting in the Summerdances  Shaman the head of religious activities among the Indian tribes  Somewhat of a sodality in its’ own right

32 Image of tethering in the sun

33 Mandan Sundance

34 Material Culture  Weapons of the hunt  Lance or spear  Bow and arrow Simple Most popular bows made from Bois D’ Arc (Osage Orange) trees Compound Reinforced with sinews of buffalo  Horns Usually elk or big horn sheep  Later guns Usually a step or two below Europeans and Americans

35 Bois D’Arc Tree

36 Material Culture (Con’t)  Techniques in hunting large numbers of bison  Jump  Pound Push them as a herd into a corner or canyon  Surround Usually surrounding them with fire Force them through one area and kill them as they came through  Also dressed up as coyotes to get up close and possibly kill them

37 Food  Types of Meat  Deer  Antelope  Bison  Fish Weir Hooks made of fish bones  Smaller game Rabbits, bird, etc.

38 Food (Con’t)  Vegetables  Roots and Berries  Composite tribes generally traded with village agriculturalist other vegetables  Village agriculturalist would grow crops in river valleys Return during harvesting time

39 Housing  Tipi  Great ventilation for winter and summer  Made of buffalo skins

40 Housing (Con’t)  Earth Lodge  Used by eastern village agriculturalist  Made with poles of wood structure covered with grass and mud Constructed collectively in ceremonial fashion

41 Mandan Earth Lodge

42 Grass Lodge/Wichita & similar groups

43 Miscellaneous  Comb  Made from cactus or porcupine quills  Horses  Once introduced, it becomes a significant sign of class status  Baskets/Pottery  Bullboats  Used to cross over rivers

44 Plains Indians Bullboat

45 Apache Baskets

46 Warfare  Before the horse  Line up and threaten one another Group that seemed overwhelmed usually ran away Tribes were small in number so any death significant to tribal structures  Therefore low loss and not a “game”  Medicine  Influenced by the supernatural Helps protect fighters

47 Warfare (Con’t)  Coup  Ranking of war success More daring, the more coup received Varied by groups  Killing not necessarily the highest Ex. Touching an enemy tribe without killing them  How different than European warfare  No standing armies or prolonged campaigns More guerilla warfare

48 Trails Westward

49 Continental Exchanges  The Americas to Europe  Tobacco to western Europe  Furs  War tactics in some cases  Tomatoes  Europe to Americas  Peaches  Diseases  Bees  B lue grass

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