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Confirmation Class Moody AFB, GA – September 2008

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1 Confirmation Class Moody AFB, GA – September 2008
Religion What Catholics and Others Believe Confirmation Class Moody AFB, GA – September 2008

2 Why should we learn about the faith or religion of other people?

3 Overview Define Religion Fundamentals of Religion World Religions Protestant Reformation Predominant Christian Religions in the US

4 Background From the earliest known evidence of human religion continues to be a very influential aspect of human lives Religion is the universal tool for explaining things which we do not understand through the context the known physical world Charismatic leaders provided their people with gods who would offer help and guidance in the difficult process of living their lives

5 What is religion?

6 What is Religion? Religion is “the belief in a superhuman controlling power, especially in a personal God or gods entitled to obedience and worship.” This is a loose definition that encompasses many beliefs and traditions Sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system Religion has taken many forms in various cultures and individuals

7 What is Religion? There are approximately 4,200 religions
Although there are countless religions, each different from the other, they all serve the same purpose – they answer … Why are we here? What happens when I die? How shall I live my life?

8 Religion helps us to … Transmit our values from one generation to another, and influences the way we interact with the natural environment See ourselves in light of the universe and gives purpose and meaning to life

9 Fundamentals of Religion
Golden Rule: All major leaders of religious faiths teach “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Hope and Comfort: All peoples, regardless of cast, creed, or nationality, require and often seek out some kind of belief system to sustain themselves in their daily lives, giving them hope and comfort Schism: The division of a group into opposing sections or parties; the separation of a church into two churches or the secession of a group owing to doctrinal, disciplinary differences

10 Nonreligious Definitions
Agnostic: A person who neither believes nor disbelieves in God; one who believes that there is not enough evidence either way Atheist: A person who has no belief or faith in any god Secular humanist: A person believes the well-being of humankind should take precedence over religious considerations in civil affairs or public education Theistic: A person who believes in the existence of one or more divinities but isn’t associated with any organized religion

11 World Religions

12 Primary Religions of the World
Buddhism Hinduism Judaism Islam Christianity

13 Prevalence of World Religions
33% Christianity Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Pentecostal, Anglican, Latter-day Saints, Evangelical, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Quakers, etc. 20% Islam Shiite, Sunni, etc. Other Religions 5% Buddhism Nonreligious .22% Judaism Hinduism Nonreligious: Agnostic, atheist, secular humanist (half are “theistic” but nonreligious) 5% 15% 13%

14 Timeline of Important Dates
Event BC Moses is given the Ten Commandants on Mount Sinai BC The Veda, scared text of the Hindus, are compiled BC Isaiah teaches of the coming of the Messiah BC Confucius, Buddha, Zorocaster, Lao Tzu, and the Jewish prophets are at their height BC Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, is born BC The Torah becomes the moral essence of the Jews 200 BC The Bhagavad-Gita (Hinduism) is written 1 Birth of Jesus of Nazareth, founder of Christianity 30 Probable date of the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ 51-100 St Peter, disciple of Jesus, is executed. First four books of the New Testament, the gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, believed written Note: Some dates are estimates or ranges

15 Timeline of Important Dates
Event 570 Muhammad, the founder of Islam, is born 622 Muhammad flees persecution in Mecca and settles in Yathrib (later Media). Marks year one in the Muslim calendar 625 Muhammad begins to dictate the Koran 1054 The split between the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church becomes permanent 1200 Islam begins to replace Indian religions 1309 The Roman Catholic papacy is seated in Avignon, France 1539 Only the new Book of Prayer allowed to be used in England 1933 The persecution and extermination of European Jews, known as the Holocaust, by Adolf Hitler’s Nazi party begins 1948 The independent Jewish state of Israel comes into existence 1962 Meeting of the second Roman Catholic Vatican Council, at which changes were made in the greater participation in services by lay church members was encouraged Instructor’s Note: Point out some key dates on the slide Note: Some dates are estimates or ranges

16 Buddhism

17 History of Buddhism Based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the son of a wealthy landowner born in northern India around 560 B.C. In order to achieve spiritual peace, Gautma renounced his worldly advantages and became known as Buddha, or "the enlightened one“ He preached his religious views his entire life throughout South Asia Gautma eventually married and fathered a son, but still had not left his father's palace One day, he told his father that he wished to see the world

18 “Buddha” Buddha is not a proper noun, it is a title Buddhist Tradition
The Buddha … a Buddha Buddhist Tradition Many Buddhas in the past … many in the future When the term the Buddha” is used today, it’s assumed to mean Buddha Gautama, the Buddha of the present era

19 History of Buddhism While Gautama meditated, he reached the highest degree of God-consciousness, nirvana He stayed under a fig tree for 7 days He learned truths which would be imparted to the world after his death at age 80 Buddhism became a strong force in India before Buddha's death The diffusion of Buddhism, however, was limited until the Indian emperor Asoka became a convert and supported missionary activities

20 The “Four Noble Truths” of Buddhism
Existence of suffering Birth, death, disease, old age, desire Cause of suffering Desire for the pleasures of the senses, which seeks satisfaction here and now Craving for happiness and prosperity How to end suffering Give up, get rid of, extinguish this every craving, so that no passion and no desire remain End pain by way of the “Eightfold Path”

21 The “Eightfold Path” of Buddhism
You must accept the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path You must renounce the pleasures of the senses; you must harbor no ill will toward anyone and harm no living creature Do not lie; do not slander or abuse anyone; do not indulge in idle talk Do not destroy any living creature; take only what is given to you; do not commit any unlawful sexual act

22 The “Eightfold Path” of Buddhism
Earn your livelihood in a way that will harm no one You must resolve and strive to prevent any evil qualities from arising in you and to abandon any evil qualities that you may possess. Strive to acquire good qualities and encourage those you do possess to grow, increase, and be perfected Be observant, strenuous, alert, contemplative, and free of desire and of sorrow When you have abandoned all sensuous pleasures, all evil qualities, both joy and sorrow, you must then enter the four degrees of meditation, which are produced by concentration

23 Buddhist Precepts Kill no living thing Do not steal
Do not commit adultery Tell no lies Do not drink intoxicants or take drugs Other precepts apply only to monks and nuns: Eat moderately and only at the appointed time Avoid that which excites the senses Do not wear adornments Do not sleep in luxurious beds Accept no silver or gold Buddhist precepts are similar to our Ten Commandments. The first Buddhist precept is “Kill no living thing.” ADVANCE. The second precept is “Do not steal” ADVANCE. The third is “Do not commit adultery” ADVANCE. The fourth precept is “Tell no lies” ADVANCE. Final precept is “Do not drink intoxicants or take drugs” ADVANCE. There are also precepts for monks and nuns.

24 Hinduism

25 History of Hinduism Hinduism is the oldest and most complex of all religious systems No specific founder or theology Originated in the religious practices of Aryan tribes who moved to India from central Asia more than 3,000 years ago The Aryans attacked the Harappan people who lived in modern day India around 1500 BC Eventually, through adaptation to the religious beliefs of the other, both groups developed similar religious belief systems, founded on the polytheism (many gods) of the Aryans

26 Hindu Deities Hindus do believe in a supreme being who has unlimited forms Vishnu and Lakshmi have the full powers of a god Brahm and Saravati have only partial godlike aspects

27 Central Beliefs Law of Karma Reincarnation
All actions produce effects in the future A concept that is linked to karma is that of dharma, one’s duty of station in this life Outlined in Bhagavad-Gita, a major text within the Hindu tradition Reincarnation Hindus accept the doctrine of transmigration and rebirth, and believe that precious acts are the factors that determine the condition into which a being is reborn in one form or another - people are born over and over again into a state of suffering

28 Central Beliefs Spiritual Goal (moksha) Avatar
The spiritual goal for Hindus is for the individual soul’s release from the bonds of transmigration – to get out of the endless cycle of reincarnation Bad karma hampers the spiritual goal Attachment to worldly goods is another obsession that prevents people form reaching salvation and eternal peace Avatar An incarnation of a deity in either human or animal form to carry out a particular purpose. Vishnu is known as the protector, the binding force that holds the universe together. His job is to restore dharma or moral order

29 Central Beliefs The Caste System
Hindus have a caste system, encompassing a vast range of occupations, rules, and traditions The Laws of Manu provide the text that explains all the complexities of this system Examples of different castes Brahmins priests Kshatriyas soldiers, king-warrior class Vaishyas merchants, farmers, Sutras laborers, craftspeople Harijahns "untouchables“ - those thought to be descended from the Harappan aboriginal people-extremely poor and discriminated against

30 Central Beliefs The Caste System
The higher a person's caste, the more that person is blessed with the benefits and luxuries life has to offer The caste system was outlawed in 1948, it is still important to the Hindu people of India Charity towards others doesn’t exist Hinduism has branched and now encompasses a wide variety of religious beliefs and religious organizations Primary religion of the region around India. Portions of Hindu beliefs have found their way across oceans to other countries and have been influential in the foundations of other religions

31 Calendar of Religious Festivals
Mahashivaratri celebrates the new moon night of every month, honoring the image of Shiva Saravati Puja honors the goddess Sarasvati who is the patron of the arts and learning Holi celebrates the grain harvest in India and also recalls the pranks Krishna played as a young man Rama Naumi celebrates the birthday of the god Rama On Rata Yatra a huge image of the god Visnu is placed on an enormous chariot and pulled through the streets There are nine major traditional religious festivals that are, generally, universally celebrated by Hindus. As you can see by the list of festivals, most celebrate various gods

32 Calendar of Religious Festivals
The Raksha Bandhan is a ceremony of tying a raki (a thread or band, made of silk or decorated with flowers) Janmashtami celebrates the birth of Kirshna and his delivery from the demon kansa Navaratri honors the most important female deity, Durga, consort of Shiva Divali – the most widely celebrated festival – celebrates the return from exile of Rams and Sita

33 Hindu Terms Brama - The creator god
Dharma - The teachings of virtue and principle Karma - The culminating value of all of one's life actions, good and bad, which together determine one's next rebirth and death Maya - The power that produces the phenomena of physical existence Yoga - The Hindu path of union with the divine. Any sort of exercise (physical, mental or spiritual) which promotes one's journey to union with Brahma

34 Judaism

35 Origins and Development
God made the Jews his “chosen people” - He promised Abraham that his descendants – his son Isaac and grandsons Jacob and Esau – would become a great nation Abraham followed God’s instructions in his search for the promised land, and after many years of wandering around ended up in a place called Canaan When the famine came, Abraham's son Jacob took his family to the land of Egypt The Lord said to Abram: "Go forth from the land of your kinsfolk and from your father's house to a land that I will show you. "I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you; I will make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you and curse those who curse you. All the communities of the earth shall find blessing in you.“ (Genesis 12:1-3)

36 Origins and Development
They settled in and Jacob fathered many sons and the family prospered The descendants of Jacob’s sons would later become the twelve tribes of Israel Judah Levi Naphtali Reuben Simeon Zebulun Asher Benjamin Dan Gad Issachar Joseph

37 Origins and Development
The new pharaoh of Egypt become worried that Jacob’s family (12 tribes) might become mightier than the Egyptians The pharaoh was treating the Israelites as slaves, but, this wasn’t enough … so he come up with an idea on how to restrict their proliferation Kill every newborn male child at birth

38 Origins and Development Moses
A couple conceived and had son. When the mother saw the boy was fit, she decided to hide him from his inevitable death Moses’ mother made an basket from reeds, put Moses in it, and laid it by the riverbank Daughter of Pharaoh found and raised the child (Moses) When Moses was fully grown he saw an Egyptian slave master beating an Israelite. Moses killed the slave master, so he had to flee from Egypt

39 Origins and Development Moses
Angel appears to Moses from a fire out of a bush A voice came from the bush and told Moses that he had been chosen to deliver the people from the Egyptians and take them to another land God commanded Moses to return to Pharaoh, telling Moses what he had to do Pharaoh refused the demands from Moses As punishment, God sent nine plagues to the Egyptians: Water to Blood, Frogs, Gnats, Flies, Livestock Diseased, Boils, Thunder and Hail, Locusts, and Darkness

40 Origins and Development Moses
None of these had any effect so God sent the final plague In one night the firstborn of every Egyptian family would die God had warned Moses and told him that all Israelite families should smear lamb’s blood on their doorposts to their sons would not be killed on that night. This final plague worked and Pharaoh let the Israelites go, but the Pharaoh had second thoughts Pharaoh sent his army after the Israelites. When they caught up with them, God parted the Red Sea so the Israelites could get safely across. Once they were on the other side and army gave pursuit, God mad the Red Sea close in on them

41 Origins and Development The Ten Commandments
Moses was the leader of a large number of people on the move God told Moses to go up to the top of the mountain for a meeting God revealed to him the Ten Commandments, which were written on two tablets of stone (Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-21) While Moses was gone, the Israelites become impatient; they made an image of a golden calf and proclaimed it to be their god

42 Origins and Development The Ten Commandments
When Moses returned to the camp, he became very angry and threw down the stone tablets God had inscribed His law upon, breaking them into many pieces (Exodus 32:1-19) God commanded Moses to write down the law and gave it to the Levites, who carried it in the “Ark of the Covenant” Moses’ brother Joshua was appointed by God to succeed as the leader of the Israelites SHOW VIDEO

43 Origins and Development Leaders of the Israelites
The Israelites were ruled by a series of kings: Saul, David, and David’s son, Solomon After Solomon’s death, the kingdom of Israel split in two and form Judah and Israel In 63 BC the Romans conquered the land and gave it a new name: Palestine Three years later, the Jews revolted against Rome, but were defeated. In 70 AD, the Roman army destroyed Jerusalem; Jews were forced out of the area and settled in Mediterranean countries and in other areas in southwest Asia (Diaspora)

44 Judaism – Basic Beliefs
Judaism is a monotheistic religion which believes that the world was created by a single, all-knowing divinity All things within that world were designed to have meaning and purpose as part of a divine order God's will for human behavior was revealed to Moses and the Israelites at Mount Sinai Essential backbone of the religion is the Torah, which is comprised of the first five books of the Bible, which are attributed to Moses

45 The Torah The Torah, also known at the Pentateuch, is a series of narratives and laws that chronicle, in historical order, the beginning of the world all the way through to the death of Moses The study of the Torah is considered an act or worship for the Jews (read religiously each Sabbath) Jewish Sabbath starts at dusk on Fridays and ends at dusk on Saturdays The Talmud is a reference to the interpretations of the Torah Supreme sourcebook of law as it takes the rules listed in the Torah and describes how to apply them to different circumstances

46 Synagogues The synagogue is the center of Jewish community life, which has three traditional functions House of Prayer where services are held on Sabbaths and festival days House of Assembly where Jewish people can meet for any purpose House of Study where the Torah and Talmud are studied

47 Synagogues A rabbi (the word means teacher) has no more authority to perform rituals than any other member of the Jewish community. A synagogue can exist and operate without one Any knowledgeable Jew can lead a religious service. However, rabbis are the spiritual leaders of the Jewish community

48 Rituals and Customs Mezuzah – Most Jews have a mezuzah on every doorpost in the home (excluding the bathroom) to remind everyone to deep God’s laws Bar/Bat Mitzvah – A ceremony held when a Jewish boy or girl is thirteen and is therefore considered only enough to take responsibility for self. In Jewish religious terms the child is considered an adult Yarmulkes (skull caps) – They serve as physical symbols that demonstrate the wearers’ submission to God

49 Religious Festivals & Holy Holidays
Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year. It ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) - 10 days after Rosh Hashanah. Yom Kippur is the most solemn Jewish religious holiday. Jews seek purification by the forgiveness of others and through sincere repentance of their own sins Pesach (Passover) - Falls in March or April (weeklong). Passover celebrates God’s deliverance of the Israelites from captivity in Egypt. Jewish people eat unleavened bread in commemoration of the quickly made unleavened bread the Israelites had to subsist on during their escape from Egypt

50 Religious Festivals & Holy Holidays
Savout (Pentecost) - Takes place even weeks after Passover, and was originally an agricultural festival that marked the beginning of the wheat harvest. Additionally, this holiday commemorates the anniversary of Moses receiving the Low of God on Mount Sinai Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles) - An autumn festival that also celebrate the end of the harvest. Jews are required to spend some time in mediation

51 Three Branches of Judaism
Orthodox - Traditionalists who observe most of the traditional dietary and ceremonial laws of Judaism Conservative - Do not hold to the importance of a Jewish political state, but put more emphasis on the historic and religious aspects of Judaism, doctrinally somewhere between Orthodox and Reform Reform - The liberal wing of Judaism, culture and race oriented with little consensus on doctrinal or religious belief

52 Why don’t Jews accept Jesus as the Messiah?

53 Jesus is Not Accepted as the Messiah
Jesus did not fulfill the Messianic Prophecies The Messiah will build a Third Temple (Ezekiel 37:26-28) The Messiah will gather all Jews back to the Land of Israel (Isaiah 43:5-6) The Messiah will usher in an era of world peace, and end all hatred, oppression, suffering and disease ("Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall man learn war anymore." (Isaiah 2:4)) Source: Aish HaTorah website - a non-profit network of Jewish educational centers

54 Jesus is Not Accepted as the Messiah
They believe the Messiah prophecy can only exist in Israel when the land is inhabited by a majority of world Jews They believe the Messiah will be born of human parents and possess normal physical attributes like other people They believe the Messiah must be descended on his father's side from King David (see Genesis 49:10, Isaiah 11:1, Jeremiah 23:5, 33:17; Ezekiel 34:23-24) If Christians believe that Jesus was the product of a virgin birth, he had no father Source: Aish HaTorah website - a non-profit network of Jewish educational centers

55 Jesus is Not Accepted as the Messiah
The Messiah will lead the Jewish people to full Torah observance - and anyone coming to change the Torah is immediately identified as a false prophet. (Deut. 13:1-4) Jews believe that throughout the New Testament, Jesus contradicts the Torah and states that its commandments are no longer applicable (e.g., John 9:14 records that Jesus made a paste in violation of Shabbat, which caused the Pharisees to say, "He does not observe Shabbat!“) Jews believe many Biblical verses have been mistranslated by Christians Jews don’t deny the miracles of Jesus but claim they do not prove anything Source: Aish HaTorah website - a non-profit network of Jewish educational centers

56 Islam

57 Muslim vs. Islam Islam is the religion of Muslim - a person who practices Islam is called a Muslim “Islam” is an Arabic word for “surrender” “Surrender” is a fundamental underpinning of the faith A believer surrenders to the will of Allah, which is Arabic for God

58 History of Islam Islam centers around one person, Muhammad
Born around 570 A.D. and was raised by his extended family after the death of his parents As he grew, he became dissatisfied with polytheism and came to believe in one God, Allah. He began to have religious visions around age 40. During these visions, Muhammad would receive "messages" or "revelations" from Allah Muhammad’s visions are now recorded in the Koran (he received visions and messages until his death in 632 A.D.)

59 The Koran and Hadith The Koran The Hadith
Primary source of every Muslim’s faith and practice Wisdom, beliefs, worship, and law Position: Life is a test and that everyone will be rewarded or punished for their actions in the life after this one The Hadith Collection of saying attributed to the prophet and members of the early Muslim community It deals with the moral, social, commercial, and personal aspects of life and the theological aspects of death and final destiny

60 Expansion of Islam The major achievements of Muhammad were the founding of a state and a religion; he and his followers moved to Medina which means "City of the Prophet” Muhammad created a federation of Arab tribes, and made the religion of Islam the basis of Arab unity Muhammad realized he must return to Mecca, and he did, conquering the city

61 Expansion of Islam Islam expanded throughout a large part of the world from Spain to Central Asia to India, Turkey, Africa, Indonesia, Malaya, and China There was no only an Islamic religious institution but also Islamic law, state, and other government institutions - the Muslim state is by definition religious

62 Expansion of Islam When Muhammad died, he left no document appointing a successor Eventually, a power struggle developed as different groups of Muslims believed their method of establishing a successor were the best The largest argument was over whether the successor should be elected or chosen through heredity Sunnis comprise of 90% of all Muslims Shiites about 10% of all Muslims

63 Expansion of Islam Nationalism in the Arab world since the rise of Israel as a political power has kept Islam strong It is a rapidly spreading religion because of its cultural and political appeal

64 Central Beliefs Islam is a monotheistic religion (one god)
Allah is the sole god The creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world The overall purpose of humanity is to serve Allah To worship him alone, and to construct a moral lifestyle

65 Central Beliefs Five Pillars of Islam
Profession of Faith There is no God, but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God Sometimes a variation is used: There is no God, but God and Muhammad is his prophet Prayer. A Muslim must pray five times a day facing Mecca: before sunrise, just after noon, later in the afternoon, immediately before sunset, & after dark Almsgiving. Each Muslim must pay a zakat to the state government Muslims have five pillars of their religion. The first central belief of Islam is a Profession of Faith. There is no God, but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God. Sometimes a variation is used: There is no God, but God and Muhammad is his prophet ADVANCE. The second pillar of faith is prayer. A Muslim must pray five times a day facing Mecca: before sunrise, just after noon, later in the afternoon, immediately before sunset, and after dark ADVANCE. The third pillar of faith is Almsgiving. Each Muslim must pay a zakat to the state government. A zakat is an obligatory tax paid once a year (lunar calendar), which is equivalent to 2.5% of your earnings. So, if you made $40,000, your zakat would be $1,000.

66 Central Beliefs Five Pillars of Islam
Fasting A Muslim must fast for the month of Ramadan Fasting begins at daybreak and ends at sunset During the fasting day eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual intercourse are forbidden This develops self-control, devotion to God, and identity with the needy Pilgrimage (Hajj) – A Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime provided they are physically and financially able

67 Jihad Jihad in Arabic means fighting or striving
Calls upon believers to devote themselves to combating the enemies of their religion This duty requires that if the situation warrants, men are required to go to war to defend or spread Islam. If they are killed, they are guaranteed eternal life in Paradise The term has been used to describe a “holy war” Historically, the term was applied in wars both between various Muslim sects and non-Muslim ones SHOW VIDEO

68 What do Muslims believe about Jesus?

69 What do Muslims believe about Jesus?
Muslims believe that Jesus was the son of Mary - they consider him one of the greatest of God’s messengers to mankind There is no mention of Joseph the carpenter - the Koran describes that Mary retreated from her people and gave birth to Jesus underneath a remote date palm tree In the Koran it reminds us that Adam, the first human being, was born with neither a human mother nor a human father. Therefore, Jesus’ miraculous birth affords him no higher standing or presumed partnership with God Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified Source: Aish HaTorah website - a non-profit network of Jewish educational centers

70 Christianity

71 History of Christianity
In Palestine at the time of Jesus, the political situation of the Jews was chaotic The main source of this conflict was the rivalry between the Sadducees and the Pharisees Sadducees: Priestly sect made up of aristocratic families and merchants, the wealthy elements of the population who clung to birthright and social and economic position Pharisees: Rivals of Sadducees who claimed to be the authority on piety and learning

72 History of Christianity
Jesus was born Jewish in the Roman province of Palestine “The anointed one” Early Years Jesus was born in a stable to a Jewish couple, Mary and Joseph of Nazareth, in Galilee. They had traveled to Bethlehem, near Jerusalem, because of a Roman census It wasn’t until he was about 30 years old that he emerged as a teacher himself. It was then that he left his life with his parents in Nazareth and began 3 years of traveling throughout Judea

73 The Teachings of Jesus Following his baptism, Jesus began to preach, teach, and perform miracles throughout Judea, and as he did so, he recruited many disciples including a core group of 12 who are referred to as the apostles Jesus preached to Jews and non-Jews (Gentiles) He was considered charismatic with great moral authority He spoke in the form of parables of the coming of the kingdom of God He was a healer He was a miracle worker SHOW VIDEO

74 The Crucifixion As his fame and reputation grew, so did the resentment of the authorities The most important celebration for Jews at that time was the Passover meal on the first evening of the festival Supporters of Jesus had made arrangements for him and his followers to hold their celebration in an upper room that they had prepared At that meal, now called “The Last Supper,” Jesus had his 12 disciples around him

75 The Crucifixion Judas Iscariot, one of the 12 disciples, and offered him 30 pieces of silver to betray Jesus Jesus was seized, arrested, and brought to trial before Pontus Pilate, a Roman governor On examination, Pilate couldn’t find sufficient evidence against Jesus, but the large, demonstrative crowd demanded his execution

76 The Resurrection Jesus was hanged on a cross to die
One of Jesus’ followers requested and received from the Roman governor permission to bury him (Good Friday) On the day after the Sabbath, women followers of Jesus went to prepare his body They discovered that the stone had been rolled away from the entrance to the cave An angel them appeared and told them Jesus was alive, that he had risen from the dead Jesus revealed himself first to Mary Magdalene; later, at Pentecost, a Jewish festival sever weeks after Passover

77 The Spread of Christianity Peter and Paul
Peter (Saul) A fisherman called to be a disciple of Jesus at the beginning of his ministry A man of strong emotions - rash, hasty, capable of anger, and often gentle, but firm Emerged immediately after the death of Jesus as the leader of the earliest church Dominated the community for nearly 15 years following the Resurrection

78 The Spread of Christianity Peter and Paul
Paul (original name Saul of Tarsus) More than anyone else it was Paul who helped Christianity grow from a small sect within Judaism to a world religion Paul had a strict Jewish upbringing and had become a member of the Pharisees Paul initially was an oppressor of the members of the newly found church Three years after his conversion, Paul went to Jerusalem to meet Peter and James, Jesus’ brother His letters, which were collected for general circulation, have become a standard reference for Christian teaching

79 History of Christianity Three Major Branches
Christianity eventually divided into 3 major branches Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Protestantism

80 History of Christianity Three Major Branches – Roman Catholic
The successor of the church established in Rome soon after Christ's death It traces its spiritual history to the early disciples of Jesus The Pope, or spiritual leader, traces his office's lineage back to St. Peter, the first Pope, one of Jesus' disciples

81 History of Christianity Three Major Branches – Eastern Orthodox
During the 4th century, the Roman Catholic church split and this branch was formed The split was primarily a political one due to the division of the Roman Empire into western and eastern components - churches became officially separate in 1054 Orthodox churches are largely national, each associated with a particular country (e.g., Russia, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, the Ukraine, and Armenia)

82 History of Christianity Three Major Branches – Eastern Orthodox
The international organization of the Orthodox churches is one of self-governing branches The churches hold the same dogmas and faiths, although the principle of “authority with freedom” prevails Each church is independent in internal organization and follows its own particular customs Each Orthodox Church is lead by a synod of bishops - president of the synod is know as the Patriarch, Archbishop, or Metropolitan There is no one person who leads or speaks for the church

83 History of Christianity Three Major Branches – Protestant
Split from Roman Catholicism during the Reformation, a 16th and 17th century series of church reforms in doctrine and practice Reformation challenged the authority of the Pope, and became popular in Scandinavia, England, and the Netherlands Protestantism eventually divided into many denominations which arose in response to disputes over doctrine, theology, or religious practice Some of the large denominations today are Lutherans, Methodists and Baptists

84 Holy Writings of Christianity Bible
Two segments: Old Testament and the New Testament The Old Testament is also known as the Hebrew Bible The first complete Bible in English appeared in the late 14th century Some of the early Christian thinkers leaned toward the view that there was no need to have an Old Testament The New Testament has evolved, it took several centuries for religious leaders to come to agreement on what information world be include

85 Christianity Rituals and Customs
Prayer It is prayer that forms the backbone of the Christian religious life Many people consider it the purest form of religious expression. It expresses the desire to enter into a personal and constant intimate relationship with God Baptism Baptism marks the beginning of life as a Christian It is the total annulment of the sins of the person’s past, from which an innocent person emerges At the baptism, the person becomes a member of the church and is incorporated into the body of Jesus Christ

86 Christianity Rituals and Customs
Confirmation Confirmation usually takes place in adolescence or in adulthood (Catholicism, Anglicanism and Lutheranism); confirmation is generally preceded by instruction in the catechism Marriage Christians regard marriage as a serious step to take and a commitment as marriage vows are made before God Death Christians believe that death is not the end of life because Jesus taught and promised eternal life for all believers At the funeral service, the body of the dead person is commemorated and comfort is offered to the bereave

87 Basic Beliefs of Christianity
The central figure in Christianity is Jesus During his lifetime, Jesus performed many miracles and spoke to many people about his father in heaven He was arrested for claiming to be God's son and was hung on the cross by the Romans at age 33 Christians believe the suffering and death upon the cross which this sinless man endured paid for the sins of all mankind, and because of Jesus' actions, salvation can be achieved by anyone who believes in him Following his death, Christians believe that he rose from the grave (celebrated at Easter) and returned to the earth, appearing to his followers

88 Basic Beliefs of Christianity The Nicene Creed
We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, of all things seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, One in Being with the Father Through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation He came down from heaven: by the power of the holy spirit He was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate; He suffered, died, and was buried. On the third day, He rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures; He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom will have no end. We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son He is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.  

89 Christian Terms Bible - The sacred text which records the lives of major figures in Christianity, including Jesus. Contains Old and New Testaments Christianity - The belief in Jesus Christ as Savior of the world Christmas - Celebration of the birth of Jesus held on Dec 25th Cross - Roman method of execution which took the life of Jesus. Now a symbol of Jesus' suffering and resurrection Easter - The celebration of Jesus' triumphant return to life after dying on the cross

90 Christian Terms Jesus - The central figure of Christianity, believed to be true God, who saved mankind from the torture of hell by dying on the cross to grant them salvation Lent - The remembrance of the period of time leading up to and including Christ's death on the cross Mary - Jesus' mother, who conceived him by the intervention of the Holy Spirit Pope - The spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic church Roman Catholicism - The original Christian religion which descended from the original Christians in Rome at the time of Christ

91 Crusades Series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Mainly against Muslims (initial Arab conquest of Palestine) Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins The Crusades had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia SHOW VIDEO

92 Religions in the USA

93 Religions in the USA Christian 76% Jewish 1% Muslim 1% Other 10%
Protestant 52% Roman Catholic 24% 65 million in the US; 1.5 billion worldwide Jewish 1% Muslim 1% Other 10% None 10%

94 Largest Denominations in US
1990 Est. Adult Pop. 2001 Est. Adult Pop. 2004 Est. Total Pop. Est. % of U.S. Pop.,2001 % Change Catholic 46,004,000 50,873,000 71,796,719 24.5% +11% Baptist 33,964,000 33,830,000 47,744,049 16.3% 0% Methodist/Wesleyan 14,174,000 14,150,000 19,969,799 6.8% Lutheran 9,110,000 9,580,000 13,520,189 4.6% +5% Presbyterian 4,985,000 5,596,000 7,897,597 2.7% +12% Pentecostal/Charismatic 3,191,000 4,407,000 6,219,569 2.1% +38% Episcopalian/Anglican 3,042,000 3,451,000 4,870,373 1.7% +13% Judaism 3,137,000 2,831,000 3,995,371 1.3% -10% Latter-day Saints/Mormon 2,487,000 2,697,000 3,806,258 +8% Churches of Christ 1,769,000 2,593,000 3,659,483 1.2% +47% Congregational/ United Church of Christ 599,000 1,378,000 1,944,762 0.7% Jehovah's Witnesses 1,381,000 1,331,000 1,878,431 0.6% -4% Assemblies of God 660,000 1,106,000 1,560,890 0.5% +68% Roughly 52% of Americans are Protestants, 24% are Catholics, and 27% are Mormons (the name commonly used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), and 1.6% to various other Christian denominations While the absolute number of Christians rose from 1990 to 2001, the Christian percentage of the population dropped from 88.3% to 76.5 =================== Instructor’s Notes: A 2001 survey directed by Dr. Ariela Keysar for the City University of New York indicated that, amongst the more than 100 categories of response, "no religious identification" had the greatest increase in population in both absolute and percentage terms. Figures are up from 14.3 million in 1990 to 29.4 million in 2001 moving from 8% of the total in 1990 to over 14% in 2001 The United States is unique amongst other post-industrial countries in that it has a relatively low percentage of people claiming to have no religious beliefs but the fluidity of religion in the country is high, with a study by the Pew forum showing around half the population had abandoned the faith of their childhood. Ref: American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2001

95 What is a Catholic?

96 History of Catholicism
Christianity become an accepted religious path when Constantine emerged as the political power of the Roman Empire As Christianity spread throughout the empire theological interpretations began to differ in the East and West. In 1054, the divide between Rome and the Eastern churches became permanent Sweeping changes were made at the Second Vatican Council (21st Ecumenical Council) Mass in native language (liturgy was in Latin)

97 Hierarchy in Catholicism
Priests A priest runs the parish and is a liturgical leader and a pastor Bishops A group of parishes in a region are called a diocese and are presided over by a bishop Bishops are priests nominated by other bishops and appointed to their office by the Pope Pope The Pope leads the bishops and is the ultimate authority in the Roman Catholic Church The College of Cardinals elects a new Pope when the one in office dies

98 The Virgin Mary The Virgin Mary is revered as the mother of God and holds a unique devotional position in the Catholic Church Jesus Christ, who had no natural father, was conceived by Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit Hail Mary, full of grace! The Lord is with thee. Blessed are thou among women, And blessed is the fruit of they womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, mother of God. Pray for us sinners Now and at the hour of our death. Amen Prayers to the Virgin Mary include the Ave Maria Prayer, which praise God and asks for intercession

99 Precepts of the Catholic Church
You shall attend Mass on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation You shall confess your sins at least once a year You shall humbly receive the Lord Jesus in Holy Communion at least during the Easter season You shall observe the prescribed days of fasting and abstinence The faithful have the obligation of supporting the Church

100 The Seven Sacraments Baptism Confirmation Holy Eucharist Holy Orders
Matrimony Reconciliation Anointing of the Sick

101 Views on Controversial Topics
Catholic Church believes that other Christian communities are not churches The Catholic Church opposes unrestricted abortion The church allows abortion only if it is necessary to preserve the mother’s life The church approves of birth control only if it is accomplished by natural means Life can be taken in cases of self-defense and a just war Christians live in a fractured family, and there are many churches, but the Gospel says Christ founded a Church, one Church only, to complete his task after his earthly life was over … one Catholic and apostolic church. Catholic is Greek for “throughout the whole" or "universal,“ which implies a world-wide faith ADVANCE. The Catholic Church opposes unrestricted abortion. The view of the Vatican is that as God is the originator of life; the conception of a child is a gift from him. Life begins at the moment of conception. Life is sacred and the fundamental value of life ADVANCE. The church allows abortion only if it is necessary to preserve the mother’s life. ADVANCE. The church approves of birth control only if it is accomplished by natural means ADVANCE. Life can be taken in cases of self-defense and a just war =============== Background Information Christ “established here on earth” only one Church and instituted it as a “visible and spiritual community.” From its beginning and throughout the centuries has always existed and in which alone are found all the elements that Christ himself instituted. “This one Church of Christ, which we confess in the Creed as one, holy, catholic and apostolic […]. This Church, constituted and organized in this world as a society, subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the successor of Peter and the Bishops in communion with him” Other Christian communities do not have the apostolic succession as the Catholic Church (i.e., cannot trace their bishops back to the original 12 apostles). It says although Orthodox churches are true churches, they are defective because they do not recognize the primacy of the Pope. Protestant denominations — called Christian Communities born out of the Reformation — are not true churches, but ecclesial communities. According to Catholic doctrine, these Communities do not enjoy apostolic succession in the sacrament of Orders, and are, therefore, deprived of a constitutive element of the Church. "These ecclesial communities which, specifically because of the absence of the sacramental priesthood … cannot, according to Catholic doctrine, be called 'churches' in the proper sense," it said. (Ref: The 16-page document was prepared by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, a doctrinal watchdog that Pope Benedict used to head., Jul7 2007)

102 What was the Christian Reformation?

103 Reformation Begins The Reformation was started Martin Luther in 1517
The Reformation sought to "reform" Christianity by returning it to original beliefs based solely on reference to the Bible, eliminating later additions which accumulated in tradition The causes of the Reformation cannot be located in any one event or in any one aspect of medieval society

104 Reformation Begins Martin Luther was a German Roman Catholic priest. He posted his The Ninety-Five Theses on the Power of Indulgences for debate on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, on 31 Oct 1517 Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with the Church's sale of indulgences At the time, indulgences were being sold, and thus the penance for sin becoming a commercial transaction instead of a genuine change of heart He insisted that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that only the scripture was authoritative

105 Luther’s Key Points People are saved through faith alone rather than through works Only source of religious authority is the Scriptures In the Catholic church the Scriptures must be understood in relation to Catholic tradition, something which has been rejected by Protestant churches SHOW VIDEO

106 John Calvin John Calvin was the leading French Protestant reformer and the most important second- generation figure of the Reformation He was highly educated to further improve his studies of the Scripture In the mid-1560s, he wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, which became the single most important statement of Protestant belief SHOW VIDEO

107 Protestant Reformation
Contrary to popular perception, the name does not stem directly from the idea of people "protesting" various doctrines and actions of the Catholic Church Early on in the Reformation, those dissenters were referred to in Germany as Evangelicals (and this is the term still in use today)

108 Protestant Reformation
Reformation challenged the authority of the Pope, and became popular in Scandinavia, England, and the Netherlands Protestantism increased the importance of the laity. In most denominations they exercise more control over the hiring and firing, if necessary, of their pastor While there are more Protestants than Catholics in the USA, Catholicism is the single largest church Protestantism eventually divided into many denominations which arose in response to disputes Some of the large denominations today are Lutherans, Methodists and Baptists

109 Reformation Denominations
Branch Denominations Leaders Lutheran Martin Luther Philip Melanchthon Reformed Tradition Reformed Church (Calvinist) Presbyterian Puritan Congregational United Church of Christ Baptist Ulrich Zingli John Calvin John Knox Anglican Church of England Episcopal Methodist Henry VIII Elizabeth I Anabapist Swiss Brethren Mennonites Amish Hutterites Quakers Moravian Brethren Conrad Grebel Felix Manz Menno Simons Jacob Huter George Fox Count Zinzendorf

110 Does Protestant mean Protesting?
Protestant does not stem directly from the idea of people "protesting" various doctrines and actions of the Catholic Church Early on in the Reformation, those dissenters were referred to in Germany as Evangelicals

111 Differences between Catholics and Conservative Protestants

112 Catholic vs. Conservative Protestant
Theological Belief Roman Catholic Church Conservative Protestants Ecumenical action The Church views the fragmentation of Christianity into thousands of faith groups to be a sin Some view Catholics as non-Christian. Thus they are to be treated as other lost souls Others view Catholics as brothers in Christ and engage in  joint projects on social matters Eucharist A sacrifice. Christ's body and blood are physically present and are consumed by believers Memorial meal. Christ's body and blood are present symbolically only Forgiveness of sin Achieved through repentance, church ritual, with the involvement of a priest Achieved through prayer to God directly without any human intercessor Hell More than a physical place, hell is a state of being involving "the pain, frustration, and emptiness of life without God” A real physical place of unbearable torture which lasts for all eternity with no hope of mercy, relief or cessation Homosexuality, nature of A homosexual orientation is generally unchosen and thus is not, in itself, sinful - it is a disordered state All homosexual behavior is sinful They generally downplay the concept of sexual orientation, and concentrate on homosexual behavior which they consider to be a major sin. They view homosexuality as chosen, unnatural, abnormal & changeable

113 Catholic vs. Conservative Protestant
Theological Belief Roman Catholic Church Conservative Protestants Non-Christian religions Have some value for the truth that they contain. However, some rituals can inhibit salvation Some consider them worthless, dangerous, and demon-led Prayer To God. Also may ask Mary or a saint to intercede on their behalf Prayer is addressed to God, not to saints Purgatory A state of being in which souls are cleansed by purifying punishments before they can enter heaven Does not exist Saints Saints form a major part of the religion. People can pray to saints and ask them to intercede Saints do not form a major part of the religion. One prays to God, not to saints Salvation, achieving Dependent on faith, and church sacraments Dependent on faith only Salvation, losing It is lost when a responsible person commits a mortal sin. It can be regained through repentance and church sacrament Usually, once a person is saved, they cannot lose their salvation. Some denominations teach that one can lose one's salvation

114 Catholic vs. Conservative Protestant
Theological Belief Roman Catholic Church Conservative Protestants Authority within the church Vested in the hierarchy of the church Within the believer (soul freedom), the congregation and the denomination Baptism Sacrament which regenerates and justifies Sacrament later in life after trusting Jesus as Lord and savior Baptism, timing  Usually done in infancy Usually done later in life after person is “born again” Bible, content The church includes the same 66 books in the Bible as do Protestants. But it also adds the books of the Apocrypha Most accept only the 66 books of the Old and New Testament. Most conservative Anglicans also include the Apocrypha Church, structure Hierarchical Usually democratic, except among some new religious movements Clergy, selection of Appointed; all male; almost all unmarried Elected; mostly male; single or married

115 What’s a Lutheran?

116 Lutheranism Martin Luther criticized what he saw as immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic Church, he was excommunicated by the Pope Lutheranism went its separate way, which essentially broke up the organizational unity of Western Christendom Martin Luther’s teaching spread through Germany and Scandinavia and, in the 18th century, to America, then to the rest of the word Lutheranism is a state religion of many north European countries Lutherans, like most Protestants, base their teachings not on churchly authority but on the divinely inspired Bible

117 Catholic Church Responds
Catholic Church responded with the Council of Trent, which is considered one of the Church's most important councils. The Council clarified many disputed beliefs and addressed the problem of lax morals among the clergy and lay people The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints

118 Central Beliefs Lutherans believe that all human beings are sinners, and because of original sin, are in bondage to the power of Satan One is saved by faith alone Worship is firmly based on the teachings of the Bible One could read the Bible by oneself, that is without any scholarship, and be assured of a right interpretation Lutheranism is based on scripture alone while Catholicism is based on scripture, Papal decrees, and Church history

119 Central Beliefs Lutherans reject purgatory, praying to the saints, and praying to Mary Lutheran churches are governed locally, not from a church hierarchy In America, the churches are linked together for common purposes and formed groups Luther conducted worship not in Latin, unlike Catholicism, but in the language of the people to enhance the delivery and acceptance of the sermons Luther reduced the established seven sacraments to two: baptism and the Lord’s Supper

120 What’s a Anglican?

121 Anglican The Anglican Church was created in the 16th century by King Henry VIII who wished to get an annulment from his first wife, the aging Catherine of Aragon Pope Clement VII refused to grant the annulment King Henry VIII took over the English church, broke with Rome, and created the Anglican Church The Church of England spread throughout the British Empire The Church is headed spiritually by the Archbishop of Canterbury, which as about 80 million adherents, making it the second largest Christian body in the Western world SHOW VIDEO

122 Episcopal 3 million in the US; 80 million worldwide
Episcopal is applied to those churches historically based within Anglicanism including those still in communion with the Church of England They prize traditional worship and structure and operate autonomously They have few firm rules and great latitude in the interpretation of doctrine Ordains women to the priesthood; in 1988, it elected the first Anglican woman bishop They consider the Bible to be divinely inspired, and hold the Eucharist to be the central act of Christian worship They recognize the Nicene & Apostles’ Creeds

123 Catholic vs. Episcopalian
Roman Catholics Episcopalians The Pope is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church Each Diocese/Bishop is autonomous - no one is the leader RCs take the marriage promise "Till death do we part“ Those who remarry may not receive Communion in the RC. The only alternative to divorce is annulment Divorce is a sin; divorced may receive communion Reconciliation is encouraged; required at least once a year (e.g., Lent) Encouraged to go to Confession Only celibate men may be priests Any man or woman (with approval and training) may be priests Abortion is sin, cuts you off from God until you confess this sin and seek forgiveness from God through formal confession Pro/con abortion beliefs are all over the board in the EC. Pro-life folks and pro-choice folks may attend the same parish and both go up and kneel for communion at the altar rail together.

124 Catholic vs. Episcopalian
Roman Catholics Episcopalians Strong emphasis on devotions to Mary Stronger emphasis on Angels, Guardian Angels Only Anglo-Catholic parishes have Marian devotions (about 10% of all the Episcopal Churches) Less emphasis on Angels - just part of God's Kingdom Parents and God-Parents of baptized infants must be RCs or promise to raise their children Roman Catholic Parents (or God-Parents) must be Christians and promise to raise their children Christian at baptisms Only RCs may receive Communion (and members of the Orthodox church). The RC belief is Communion is a sacrament All baptized Christians may receive Communion. God works through each person, through the Holy Spirit

125 Catholic vs. Episcopalian
Roman Catholics Episcopalians Parishioners elect a Parish Council; priests are assigned to the parish by their Bishop Parishioners elect a parish Vestry to handle business matters Priests interviewed by parish The Eucharist transforms into the real physical body and blood of Jesus. That's called transubstantiation. Jesus is present during the very holy and sacred time of Communion. The Eucharist transforms into the spiritual presence of Jesus. To define it further is "mystery." Jesus is present during the very holy and sacred time of Communion. There are seven sacraments: Baptism, Reconciliation, Communion, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, Last Rites There are two sacraments performed by Christ - Baptism and Communion. There are five sacramental rites (Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, Unction) - developed as Christianity grew.

126 What’s an Amish Mennonite?
The Amish, also called the Amish Mennonites What’s an Amish Mennonite?

127 Amish The Amish originated in Europe as followers of Jakob Ammann, a 17th century elder whose teachings caused a schism among members in many parts of Europe Ammann introduced the washing of feet into services and taught the plainness of dress and habit that became part of the Amish way of life The Amish began migrating to North America from Europe in the early 18th century and settled first in eastern Pennsylvania Schisms again occurred after 1859 between the old and the new orders, resulting in the formation of smaller churches within the Mennonite Church

128 Amish Each Amish settlement is generally made up of about 75 baptized members Holy Communion is celebrated twice each year Services are conducted in a mixture of English and palatine German, known as Pennsylvania Dutch Adults are baptized when they are admitted to formal membership, generally when 17 to 20 years of age The Amish believe in the Trinity and affirm the scriptures, particularly the New Testament

129 Amish The Amish are famous for their way of life
The men wear broad-brimmed black hats and bears without moustaches No jewelry of any king is ever worn The women war bonnet, long dresses with capes over the shoulders, shawls, and black shoes and stocking. The mode of dress is said to be a following of the early traditions established in Europe They live without telephones or electric lights. The Amish drive horses and buggies rather than automobiles, and they shun modern farm machinery

130 What’s a Presbyterian?

131 Presbyterian 2.5 million worldwide
In 1876 the Presbyterian Church of England was formed by a merger Various factions from English and Scottish congregations came together and adopted the Presbyterian system of church government The church avoids highly centralized authority in the government

132 Presbyterian For Presbyterians, their church is …
governed by a group of elders, or presbyteros There are teaching elders, who are the ordained ministers, and Ruling elders who are elected from the ranks of church members In each individual church, the elders are invested with supreme authority in all spiritual matters Presbyterians do not believe that their denomination is the "One True Church" or that their system of church government is the only one authorized by the New Testament

133 Presbyterian Presbyterians believe that the Bible was divinely "inspired," in the sense that God speaks through human authors and that, because the source is ultimately God, that these scriptures are infallible Belief and practice are derived from the Bible and not from tradition Salvation: “By faith alone, by God’s grace only, through scripture only” Sacraments: Baptism for infants and adults; and the Eucharist (open to all baptized Christians) A person does not have to be baptized in order to go to heaven

134 Presbyterian The largest and most theologically liberal of all American Protestant denominations Birth control and abortion are left up to the individual Ordain women as ministers and they are permitted to hold any church office Like most churches, there exists both conservative and liberal factions within the church - and their division does, at times, threaten to cause an internal schism

135 What’s a Baptist?

136 Origins of the Baptist Church
The first Baptist church in the USA had an independent origin - established by Roger Williams in the 1600’s Fled to America in search of religious freedom Bought land from the Narragansett Indians and set up one of the first settlements in the country Through extensive missionary work, the Baptist church spread throughout the world

137 Baptist By 1830’s tension began to mount between the Northern and Southern Baptists that corresponded with the rift that was growing between northern and southern culture in America 43 million Baptists worldwide; 33 million in the USA Often regarded as an Evangelical denomination

138 Central Beliefs The supreme authority is the Bible … no creeds
Baptists hold very strongly to what is called Believer’s Baptism (full immersion) as the badge of a Christian Membership of a Baptist church is restricted to believers only Baptist churches operate democratically - they believe every other form of church government infringes on their beliefs

139 Central Beliefs Each church member has equal rights and privileges in determining the affairs of the church Supreme authority of the church is Christ While individual church independence is stressed, individual churches affirm their unity in Christ by forming associations and conventions Baptists insist that a church be free to be Christ’s church, determining its own life and charting its own course in obedience to Christ without outside interference

140 Central Beliefs Doctrine of “priesthood of all believers” states that every Christian has direct access to God and the truths found in the Bible, without the help from anyone Baptists are encouraged, though, to discuss scriptural and other issues with their minister and/or other, more "mature" Christians, when appropriate Ultimately the individual Christian is responsible for understanding the Bible and its application to the individual “Individual Soul Liberty” - Each person has the liberty to choose what his/her conscience or soul dictates is right, and is responsible to no one but God for the decision that is made

141 Baptist Ordinances Generally, Baptist churches recognize only two ordinances that are to be performed on a regular basis by churches: baptism and communion Baptism plays no role in salvation, being properly performed only after salvation, and is performed after a person professes Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior Some churches, including Primitive Baptists and some Free Will Baptists, also practice foot washing as a third ordinance

142 Positions in the Church
Generally Baptists only recognize two Scriptural offices, those of pastor and deacon The office of elder, common in some evangelical churches Considered to be the same as that of pastor The office of overseer or bishop is always considered to be the same as that of pastor The prevalent view among Baptists is that these offices are limited to men only, following the model of Christ and His apostles

143 Catholic vs. Baptist Theological Belief Roman Catholic Church Baptists
Source of Authority Bible plus tradition plus the ex cathedra pronouncements of the pope Bible Authority of Pope Christ's representative on earth None Salvation Faith and Works Faith Alone Baptism Infants by pouring as the means of salvation By immersion as a "sign" of one's commitment to Christ Eucharist “Transubstantiation" – Host and wine changed into the literal body and blood of Christ Symbolic of Christ's death Place of Mary Prayed to and venerated Honored as any other believer for being faithful to the Lord Saints Holy people are canonized All believers in Christ are saints

144 What’s a Quaker?

145 Quakers – Society of Friends
George Fox, a nonconformist religious reformer, founded the movement in the 17th century in England Fox believed in an “Inner Light” – the presence of God’s spirit within each individual Fox reasoned that there was no need to have a church or a priest to act as a go-between. Nor did people need elaborate rituals, creeds, dogmas, or even to dress up in church garments The Quakers eventually settled in Rhode Island, known for its religious tolerance They distanced themselves from society in general, which was evidenced by their simple clothing and their way of speaking

146 Quakers – Society of Friends
Quakers formed the “Underground Railroad,” which was specifically set up to help runaway slaves escape to the northern states and Canada Schism formed different Quaker groups Hicksites - liberal group mainly in the eastern states Gurneyites - evangelical group that had pasts Wiburites - more traditional sect Orthodox - Christ-centered group

147 Central Beliefs One of the least ritualized religions. is a common element with them all, culminating in mutual closeness with God - much stress is made on the “Inner Light” Meetings are held to worship God and wait for his word. Generally, members will sit in a circle or a square, facing each other Quakers have no stated creed or ritual Worship is an act of seeking, not asking; the virtues of moral purity, integrity, honesty, simplicity, and humility are to be sought after

148 Central Beliefs Quakers refuse to take oaths - they believe that one should tell the truth at all times The individuality of the Quakers is embodied in the belief, or not, of life after death They see all life as sacramental with no difference between the secular and the religious

149 Central Beliefs Baptism, in the accepted sense, is not a practiced sacrament; Quakers believe in the “inward baptism of the Holy Spirit” (Ephesians 4: 4-5) Seeking the guidance of the Holy Spirit and reading from the Bible are stressed; outward rites are rejected as in an ordained ministry

150 What’s a Methodist?

151 Methodist 8.3 million worldwide
Methodist revival originated in England Started by a group of men including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century Focus on Bible study Methodical approach to scriptures and Christian living

152 Methodist During the American Revolution, Wesley took the side of the English, and Asbury took the side of the new American republic The church grew very rapidly, but schisms developed The slavery problem split the Methodist Church into two: Methodist Episcopal Church; Methodist Episcopal Church, South In 1924, Methodist women were given limited clergy rights; in 1956, they were accepted for full ordination The United Methodist Church was created on 23 Apr 68

153 Methodist The early Methodists reacted against perceived apathy in the Church of England They became open-air preachers; established Methodist societies wherever they went Methodism follows the traditional and near-universal Christian belief in the Trinity (God-Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) There are two Sacraments ordained of Christ: Baptism and Communion

154 Methodist Personal salvation involves Christian mission and service to the world Scriptural holiness entails more than personal piety Love of God is always linked with love of neighbor A passion for justice and renewal in the life of the world In liturgical matters, whereas most Methodist worship is modeled after the Book of Common Prayer

155 Methodist A second distinctive liturgical feature of Methodism is the use of Covenant services Practice varies between different national churches Most Methodist churches annually follow the call of John Wesley for a renewal of their covenant with God. It is not unusual in Methodism for each congregation to normally hold an annual Covenant Service on the first convenient Sunday of the year

156 What does a member of the Church of Christ believe?

157 United Church of Christ
The Churches of Christ and autonomous Christian congregations In the US the churches' roots can be traced back to the late 18th and early 19th centuries, most notably Thomas Campbell and his son Alexander Individuals in these churches historically have aspired to be members of the one body of Christ described in the New Testament, without denominational affiliation

158 United Church of Christ Distinctive Traits
Refusal to hold to any creeds other than those specifically mentioned in the Bible itself Practice of adult baptism as a requirement for the remission of sins Autonomous non-denominational congregational church organization, with congregations overseen by a plurality of elders Weekly observance of The Lord’s Supper (communion) Belief in a cappella congregational singing during worship

159 Church of Christ No choruses or choirs. Most churches practice only congregational singing with a single song leader The Lord’s Supper can be served anywhere members are gathered on Sunday; no particularly "sanctified" location nor specifically "authorized" individual is needed to administer communion Most social dance is condemned as lewd and lascivious behavior Folk dancing is considered acceptable but not popular dancing, especially dancing with sexual overtones

160 Church of Christ Children below the age of accountability are considered in a "safe" position in the eyes of God, and would not be condemned to hell if they died before the age of accountability However, members do not claim that this age is fixed; it can vary by maturity and knowledge

161 Church of Christ Requirements for Salvation
Hearing (the Word of God) Believing (said Word) Repenting (of one's sins) Confessing (that Jesus Christ is Lord) Being baptized (by immersion)

162 What’s a Christian Scientist?

163 Christian Scientist Mary Baker Eddy founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 19th-century America She experimented with alternative healing methods Studied toward finding in a universal spiritual principle of healing in the New Testament In 1875, Eddy published Science and Health It was meant as a textbook for the study and practice of Christian Science Repeatedly revised over the next 35 years

164 Christian Scientist Christian Scientists encourage obeying public health laws and other services are sanctioned Study and prayer are basic requirements of the denomination Christian Scientists say the healing comes through scientific prayer or spiritual communion with God The spiritual aspect of healing has come under direct criticism by the medical profession

165 What’s a Congregationalist?

166 Congregationalists Self-government for each church
In 1957, many Congregational churches united with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form the United Church of Christ Baptism and the Lord's Supper are considered to be the only sacraments instituted by Christ Infants are baptized generally by sprinkling, not immersion The Lord’s Supper is usually celebrated one or twice a month

167 What’s a Adventist?

168 Adventist Beliefs Adventists believe in the Second Coming – the visible return to earth of Christ in glory The founder of the faith, William Miller, was a Baptist preacher. He came to the conclusion that Christ would arrive sometime between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844 Some members of the faith independently believe that Christ’s advent was still imminent, although they didn’t set a new date They also believed that worshipping on the seventh day, Saturday, rather than Sunday, would help bring about the Second Coming Members avoid eating meat and the use of narcotics and stimulants which they consider harmful This belief is based on the Biblical consideration that the body is the temple of the Holy Spirit

169 What’s a Jehovah’s Witness?

170 Jehovah’s Witnesses The Witnesses have little or no association with other denomination, nor with secular government They believe world powers and political parties are the unwitting allies of Satan They refuse to salute the flags of nations and to perform military service; they almost never vote. Founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1872 by Charles Taze Russell Nathan Homer Knorr, directed a group of Witnesses to produce a new translation of the Bible

171 Jehovah’s Witnesses Rituals and Customs
Doorstep preaching is a very visual part of Jehovah’s Witness practices Members are expected to spend 5 hours a week at meetings in Kingdom Hall If members decide to leave the Witnesses or are disfellowshipped, life may become very difficult for them. In many cases entire families have shunned their relative completely

172 Mainstream Christianity Worship and Christian ethic
Compare and Contrast Mainstream Christianity Jehovah's Witness Nature of God God is a unity of three equal persons, the Father being God, the Son being God, the Holy Ghost being God (Trinity) The Father of Jesus, Jehovah, is the only true God Jesus (the Son) is God in the flesh. During his life on earth he was both fully God and fully human. He is eternal and equal in power to the Father (the First Person of the Trinity) Jesus is God's Son, but not God the Almighty The Holy Spirit is a person of the Trinity. The Holy Spirit is eternal and equal in power to the Father The holy spirit is God's impersonal, "active force," always subject to his will Jesus Jesus is God's Son. He is God in the flesh Jesus is God's firstborn Son; he has divine nature but he is not equal to God Jesus' fleshly body was resurrected Jesus' fleshly body was not resurrected; he was resurrected as a spirit The return of Christ to the earth will be physical, and has not yet occurred The presence of Christ began invisibly in 1914, and has been ongoing since then Death/Afterlife There is afterlife for all mankind in heaven, hell or (for Roman Catholics) purgatory. There is no spiritual afterlife immediately following death, except for the 144,000, who are immediately resurrected as spirit persons and taken to heaven; those who died before 1918 were not resurrected to heaven until that year. There is no purgatory. Worship and Christian ethic Icons or statues can be used as means of worship. (Catholic and Orthodox) Use of icons or statues in worship is a kind of idolatry and contrary to Christian law. Since God is the ruler of earth, Christians can use political and military means in order to make society better. Jesus said his followers would not fight because his kingdom is "no part of this world." Christians must be neutral in political and military strifes. Satan is the "ruler of the world."

173 What’s a Mormon?

174 Joseph Smith Jr. Mormons report in 1820, 14 year old Joseph Smith Jr. was determined to know which of the many religions he should join He encountered a passage in the Bible instructing any who lacked wisdom to "ask of God" (James 1:5) Early one morning in the spring of 1820, Joseph went to a secluded woods to ask God which church he should join While praying Joseph was visited by two "personages" who identified themselves as God the Father and Jesus Christ who told him not to join any of the churches

175 Joseph Smith Jr. In 1823, Joseph Smith said he was visited by an angel named Moroni, who told him of an ancient record containing God's dealings with the former inhabitants of the American continent In 1827, Joseph retrieved this record, inscribed on thin golden plates, and shortly afterward began translating its words by the "gift of God” The resulting manuscript, the Book of Mormon, was published in March 1830 On April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith organized The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and became its first president

176 Mormonism The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is the principal formal body embracing Mormonism Over 9 million members; headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah The next largest Mormon denomination is the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 250,000+ members; headquartered in Independence, Missouri Reorganized Church rejects certain parts of The Book of Mormon

177 Divisions and Teachings
The Mormons are divided into what are called stakes, which usually have about 5,000 members Each stake is run by a stake president Within each stake are wards, comprised of a few hundred member, under a lay clergyman Presiding over the entire church Supreme council of three high priests, called the First Presidency or the president and his counselors Twelve apostles, who are equal in authority to the First Presidency The Mormons are divided into what are called stakes, which usually have about 5,000 members and are run by a stake president. Within each stake are wards, comprised of a few hundred member, under a lay clergyman. ADVANCE. At the high end, presiding over the entire church, is a supreme council of three high priest, called the First Presidency or the president and his counselors. Next are twelve apostles, who are equal in authority to the First Presidency.

178 Mormon Beliefs Baptism One must be baptized in water to be saved
They believe that people have opportunities to be “redeemed” even after they have died They believe that, until the dead receive the ordinances, they will not be able to progress in the afterlife.  In order to do this temple work, however, they need to do the genealogical research necessary to identify the people they will help in this way.  Thus, the importance of researching their family history

179 Mormon Beliefs Salvation
Mormon theology teaches that the atonement of Christ was essential to our salvation and eternal life with God Besides faith in Christ, complete and permanent repentance of all sin as well as many good works are required

180 Mormon Beliefs Heaven and Hell
Mormonism teaches that there are three degrees of glory Celestial - For good Mormons able to cease sinning in this lifetime, Terrestrial - For good people who do not comply with all the teachings of Mormonism, and Telestial - For those who have lived unclean earthly lives) Mormonism teaches that there is a hell, but only for the "sons of perdition," a very small number of souls that cannot be redeemed In Mormon theology are three degrees, or kingdoms of heaven, for nearly all who lived on earth. ADVANCE. The first is the Celestial Kingdom. This is the highest of three heavenly kingdoms. Only those who attain this kingdom will be united with their families in the afterlife. It will be the residence of those who have been righteous, accepted the teachings of Mormonism, and made and lived up to all of the required ordinances and covenants during their mortal lives. ADVANCE. The second kingdom is the Terrestrial Kingdom. Those who will inhabit the Terrestrial kingdom include those who lived respectably but "were blinded by the craftiness of men" and thus rejected the fullness of the gospel of Jesus Christ (Mormonism) when it was presented to them during their mortal lives. ADVANCE. The Telestial Kingdom is the lowest of the three heavens. Those who will inhabit the Telestial kingdom include those who "who received not the gospel of Christ, nor the testimony of Jesus.“ Because of their refusal to accept Jesus as their Savior, these individuals will suffer in hell for their sins for 1000 years during the millennial reign of Christ. After the 1000 years, the individuals in hell will be resurrected and receive an immortal physical body and be assigned to the Telestial kingdom. ADVANCE. Mormonism teaches that there is a hell, but only for the "sons of perdition," a very small number of souls that cannot be redeemed

181 Why am I Catholic? I believe in one God (Trinity) and that Jesus’ intent was to have one catholic and apostolic church I believe in Jesus Christ The Catholic Church is not perfect church … no church is … just look at all the schisms I believe in faith AND works for salvation I believe in an ordained priesthood to provide me education and direction I believe in church structure. Churches directing themselves creates chaos I don’t believe in any of the prophets since Christ such as Muhammad or Joseph Smith

182 Summary Define Religion Explore Various World Religions Examine Religions Predominant in USA Compare and Contrast Various Religions with Catholicism

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