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Mexican Cession and issues The Mexican War brought to the forefront the issue of slavery because the new territories would have to be organized as slave.

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Presentation on theme: "Mexican Cession and issues The Mexican War brought to the forefront the issue of slavery because the new territories would have to be organized as slave."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Mexican Cession and issues The Mexican War brought to the forefront the issue of slavery because the new territories would have to be organized as slave states or free states:The Mexican War brought to the forefront the issue of slavery because the new territories would have to be organized as slave states or free states: –Wilmot Proviso tried to state that all the new territories could not become slave states –This enrages the “southern “ fire-eaters” and they rally to protect their institution –Debate over these new territories threatened to rip the country apart along North-South Sectional lines

3 Two-party System The Democrats and Whigs actually served as a means to achieve national unity:The Democrats and Whigs actually served as a means to achieve national unity: –As catch-all parties, they had followers in both the North and South and this allowed for a loose national unity through people’s party allegiance –However, if the political parties were to split along sectional North-South lines due to the slavery issue, the country would be ripped apart and it would be difficult to maintain the Union

4 Election of 1848 James Polk only decided not to run for a second term to health issues due to chronic overwork and also chronic diarrhea (gross)James Polk only decided not to run for a second term to health issues due to chronic overwork and also chronic diarrhea (gross) Democrats choose Lewis Cass as a second straight dark horse candidateDemocrats choose Lewis Cass as a second straight dark horse candidate Democrats generally silent on slavery in their platform, but Cass was not. He openly advocated for popular sovereignty.Democrats generally silent on slavery in their platform, but Cass was not. He openly advocated for popular sovereignty. Idea that the people of a territory should decide themselves if they should be free or slave state.Idea that the people of a territory should decide themselves if they should be free or slave state. General Cass, also Known by his critics as General Gass and they also said that Cass rhymes with Jackass

5 Popular Sovereignty Positives:Positives: –Was in line with democratic tradition of self- determination –Politicians liked it because it was a pseudo compromise between free-soilers demands for abolition in the territories and also the South’s plea to Congress to allow slavery. –It put the issue of slavery in the laps of the people and removed the government Negatives:Negatives: –Most important issue of the day turned into a local issue and not a national issue –Most importantly, the possibility that slavery spread and expanded

6 Election of 1848 The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for presidentThe Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor for president He never held public office and had never voted in a presidential election. But he was popular with the people from his role in the Mexican War.He never held public office and had never voted in a presidential election. But he was popular with the people from his role in the Mexican War. Whigs also not clear on their platformWhigs also not clear on their platform

7 Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men!  “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.  Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.  Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories and supported the Wilmot Proviso.  Also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and free government homesteads for settlers.  They nominated Martin Van Buren for president  “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.  Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.  Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories and supported the Wilmot Proviso.  Also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and free government homesteads for settlers.  They nominated Martin Van Buren for president

8 Free Soil Party They did not oppose slavery just on moral grounds. They also said that it destroyed the chances of free white workers from rising up from wage-earning dependence to the esteemed status of self-employment.They did not oppose slavery just on moral grounds. They also said that it destroyed the chances of free white workers from rising up from wage-earning dependence to the esteemed status of self-employment. Only way to achieve this upward mobility was to have free soil out west for white settlersOnly way to achieve this upward mobility was to have free soil out west for white settlers Competing with slave labor meant lower wages for whites and the inability to have social mobility and to own property.Competing with slave labor meant lower wages for whites and the inability to have social mobility and to own property.

9 The 1848 Presidential Election Results √

10 GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter

11 California Gold Rush, er’s

12 Digging for Gold in California Many people going to California were criminals, Lawless men, and virtueless Women. As a result, a wave Of crime occurred. Consequently, California Needed a strong government To deal with these problems. They write a Constitution, Making it a free state. This Becomes an issue

13 The South of the 1850’s Relatively well-offRelatively well-off Fair share of nation’s leadershipFair share of nation’s leadership –Zachary Taylor, majority in the cabinet and the supreme court, and equality in the Senate Cotton was expanding and prices were high, increasing the South’s wealth and importanceCotton was expanding and prices were high, increasing the South’s wealth and importance Slavery not necessarily threatened below the Mason-Dixon line and the 15 slave states could veto any amendment.Slavery not necessarily threatened below the Mason-Dixon line and the 15 slave states could veto any amendment. BUT……..the admittance of California as a free- state had the fire eaters worried that the scale would tip in the North’s favor. California might set a precedent for all of the territories from the Mexican CessionBUT……..the admittance of California as a free- state had the fire eaters worried that the scale would tip in the North’s favor. California might set a precedent for all of the territories from the Mexican Cession

14 Fugitive Slave Law and other worries Texas angry over a territorial dispute in New MexicoTexas angry over a territorial dispute in New Mexico Abolition of slavery in the District of ColumbiaAbolition of slavery in the District of Columbia Fugitive Slave LawFugitive Slave Law –Underground Railroad and runaway slaves angers Southern slave owners and they seek to change the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 to a stricter version. –In 1850, South lost roughly 1,000 slaves per year to runaways. Less than those who bought their own freedom.

15 Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850  California statehood.  Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.  Underground RR & fugitive slave issues:  Personal liberty laws  California statehood.  Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.  Underground RR & fugitive slave issues:  Personal liberty laws

16 The Compromise of 1850

17 Southern Secession In 1850, Southern states met in Nashville to discuss secession.In 1850, Southern states met in Nashville to discuss secession. Congress was forced to act.Congress was forced to act. For the last time, the giants of the Senate, will make their last speeches:For the last time, the giants of the Senate, will make their last speeches: –Calhoun –Clay –Webster

18 Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay- 73 years old, proposed a series of compromises. He asked for both the North and South to make concessions and for the North to accept a stronger Fugitive Slave lawHenry Clay- 73 years old, proposed a series of compromises. He asked for both the North and South to make concessions and for the North to accept a stronger Fugitive Slave law Calhoun, (to sick to speak),Calhoun, (to sick to speak), –agreed with concessions, but rejected them because they did not give enough safeguards to the Southerners –Leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance.

19 Compromise of 1850 Daniel Webster-Daniel Webster- –Famous Seventh of March speech Three-hour effortThree-hour effort 68 years old and suffering from liver problems68 years old and suffering from liver problems Thinks legislating on slavery in the territories was dumb, slavery was not conducive to the southwest and these territoriesThinks legislating on slavery in the territories was dumb, slavery was not conducive to the southwest and these territories Advocated compromise, concessions and reasonableness to solve the issuesAdvocated compromise, concessions and reasonableness to solve the issues Helped turn the tide in the North to compHelped turn the tide in the North to comp promise and he could not print enough copies fo the speech to be soldpromise and he could not print enough copies fo the speech to be sold Free Soilers- not happy with Webster.Free Soilers- not happy with Webster.

20 Compromise of 1850 Young Guard from the North needed to give their two-cents:Young Guard from the North needed to give their two-cents: William Seward:William Seward: –Freshman senator from New York –Spokesmen for the new radical young senators from the North –Argued that man should also appeal to a “higher law” greater than the Constitution in trying to settle the slavery issue. Believed that the moral law should be considered and that slavery was morally wrong. Zachary Taylor was influenced by Seward, and also angered at Texas’ threat to take Santa Fe. Taylor wanted to march an army to Texas and punish the dissenters.Zachary Taylor was influenced by Seward, and also angered at Texas’ threat to take Santa Fe. Taylor wanted to march an army to Texas and punish the dissenters.

21 Zachary and Fillmore In 1850, Taylor suddenly passed from an intestinal disorder.In 1850, Taylor suddenly passed from an intestinal disorder. His vice president, Millard Fillmore took over the presidency. He was a New York lawyer-politician.His vice president, Millard Fillmore took over the presidency. He was a New York lawyer-politician. After hearing all the arguments on the Senate form, he believed in the compromise and signed the changes into law.After hearing all the arguments on the Senate form, he believed in the compromise and signed the changes into law.

22 Compromise of 1850

23 What the North Got: What the South Got: Free California New Fugitive Slave Law Territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico became part of New Mexico Territories of Utah and New Mexico could decide slavery issue through popular sovereignty Abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia Texas got 10 million in compensation

24 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 Known as the Bloodhound BillKnown as the Bloodhound Bill –Fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf –Denied trail by jury –Federal commissioner who handled case got 5 dollars if runaway was freed and 10 dollars if they were not –Northerners who aided a runaway slave were subject to heavy fines and jail sentences

25 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 North was so outraged at the law that it caused many moderates to turn to the abolitionist movement.North was so outraged at the law that it caused many moderates to turn to the abolitionist movement. “We went to bed one night old-fashioned, conservative, Compromise Union Whigs and waked up stark mad abolitionists.”“We went to bed one night old-fashioned, conservative, Compromise Union Whigs and waked up stark mad abolitionists.” Massachusetts made it a penal offence if any official tried to enforce the new fugitive slave law.Massachusetts made it a penal offence if any official tried to enforce the new fugitive slave law. Slave law was bad overall for the South. North became more pro-abolition and they never enforced the law. So South did not gain anything from the compromise.Slave law was bad overall for the South. North became more pro-abolition and they never enforced the law. So South did not gain anything from the compromise.

26 1852 Presidential Election √ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil

27 The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]  Nativists.  Anti-Catholics.  Anti-immigrants.  Nativists.  Anti-Catholics.  Anti-immigrants  Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.

28 1852 Election Results

29 The Whig Party After the election of 1852, the Whig party slowly died. A few years later, it was completely dead.After the election of 1852, the Whig party slowly died. A few years later, it was completely dead. Its demise brought about the scary thought of the death to national parties and the rise of sectional partiesIts demise brought about the scary thought of the death to national parties and the rise of sectional parties Whig legacyWhig legacy –Two presidents, both war heroes (both died in office too) –Great contribution was they upheld the idea of a Union and also great leaders such as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster (both died in 1852)

30 Expansion of Manifest Destiny: Panama Canal, Cuba, China, Japan, and Gadsden

31 Panama Canal Important because it allowed continuous Atlantic-Pacific transportation.Important because it allowed continuous Atlantic-Pacific transportation. In 1848, United States and New Granada (Columbia) worked out a treaty giving United States the right of transit as long as United States respected the neutrality of the isthmusIn 1848, United States and New Granada (Columbia) worked out a treaty giving United States the right of transit as long as United States respected the neutrality of the isthmus In 1855, a 48 mile railroad was built connecting the two oceans.In 1855, a 48 mile railroad was built connecting the two oceans. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty-Neither Britain nor United States would fortify or gain exclusive rights to a waterway across the isthmusClayton-Bulwer Treaty-Neither Britain nor United States would fortify or gain exclusive rights to a waterway across the isthmus

32 Nicaragua So, the South looked to Central America to expand slavery.So, the South looked to Central America to expand slavery. William Walker, a Texan, raised an army and went to Nicaragua and made himself president 1856 and legalized slavery.William Walker, a Texan, raised an army and went to Nicaragua and made himself president 1856 and legalized slavery. However, other Central American nations formed a coalition and overthrew Walker.However, other Central American nations formed a coalition and overthrew Walker. In 1860, he was executed by a Honduran fire squad.In 1860, he was executed by a Honduran fire squad. In 1856, President Pierce recognized Walker and his regime as the legitimate leaders of Nicaragua. In 1860, Pierce withdrew formal recognition after Walker was overthrown.In 1856, President Pierce recognized Walker and his regime as the legitimate leaders of Nicaragua. In 1860, Pierce withdrew formal recognition after Walker was overthrown.

33 Cuba Also seen as a destination for plantation economy aned southerners coveted Cuba.Also seen as a destination for plantation economy aned southerners coveted Cuba. –2 groups of several hundred men attacked Cuba unsuccessfully –In 1854, Spanish officials in Cuba seized the American steamer Black Warrior –Pierece pushes the issue to try to obtain Cuba for 120 million. If Spain refuses, U.S. would be justified in tacking it. This is known as Ostend Manifesto. –Northerners hear of this and pressure Pierce to stop his shenanigans in Cuba. Some has to do with a very famous book at the time………..

34 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln

35 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!

36 Allure of Asia China- Caleb Cushing sent in 1844 by President Tyler to gain trade concessions. He arrived in Macao bearing gifts in an attempt to gain access to trading ports in ChinaChina- Caleb Cushing sent in 1844 by President Tyler to gain trade concessions. He arrived in Macao bearing gifts in an attempt to gain access to trading ports in China Impressed by Cushing and also to have a counter weight power to the British, the Chinese signed the Treaty of WanghiaImpressed by Cushing and also to have a counter weight power to the British, the Chinese signed the Treaty of Wanghia –Signed July 3, 1844 –Most favored nation status given to the U.S. on all trading terms accorded to other nations. –Extraterritoriality- Americans accused of crimes will be tried by Americans. –Trade with China increased and also opened the doors for American missionaries

37 Commodore Matthew Perry Japan- under the Tokugawa Shongunate, Japan was isolated from western world. U.S wanted to change that. Also, in 1853, Japan was ready to trade openly againJapan- under the Tokugawa Shongunate, Japan was isolated from western world. U.S wanted to change that. Also, in 1853, Japan was ready to trade openly again In 1852, Fillmore sent out Commodore Matthew Perry to gain trade concessions with a fleet of warships.In 1852, Fillmore sent out Commodore Matthew Perry to gain trade concessions with a fleet of warships. Perry arrives on July 8, 1853 with a letter asking for trading rights and friendly relations. He promises to return a year later expecting the Japanese response.Perry arrives on July 8, 1853 with a letter asking for trading rights and friendly relations. He promises to return a year later expecting the Japanese response. He returns in February 1854, with seven warships, and convinces the Japanese to sign the Treaty of KanagawaHe returns in February 1854, with seven warships, and convinces the Japanese to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa –Provided rights to shipwrecked sailors –Coaling rights in Japan –Consular rights

38 Gadsden Purchase Transportation issues were another problem of Mexican Cession:Transportation issues were another problem of Mexican Cession: –Sea routes too long (through Panama or around South America) –Covered wagon travel was slow and dangerous in the hot southwest –Imperative to gain feasible and reasonable land transportation So the South wants a railroad going from Houston to Los Angeles. They also wanted to build one before the North to gain the wealth from it before the North.So the South wants a railroad going from Houston to Los Angeles. They also wanted to build one before the North to gain the wealth from it before the North.

39 Gadsden Purchase Best route was through a strip[ of land in Mexico because it by-passed mountains.Best route was through a strip[ of land in Mexico because it by-passed mountains. James Gadsden negotiated a treaty ceding the land for 10 million dollars. Known as the Gadsden treaty of 1853.James Gadsden negotiated a treaty ceding the land for 10 million dollars. Known as the Gadsden treaty of North mad because South said new Mexico was an already organized territory so it made sense to due to their.North mad because South said new Mexico was an already organized territory so it made sense to due to their. North counters that if this is the case, the Nebraska Territory needs to be organized too.North counters that if this is the case, the Nebraska Territory needs to be organized too.

40 Kansas-Nebraska Act

41 Stephen Douglas Senator from Illinois, he devises a scheme to counter the Gadsden PurchaseSenator from Illinois, he devises a scheme to counter the Gadsden Purchase He is known as the Little Giant. Desired to continue West and create settlements along the way.He is known as the Little Giant. Desired to continue West and create settlements along the way. Invested heavily in Chicago real estate and wanted to Chicago to be the eastern terminus of the Pacific railroadInvested heavily in Chicago real estate and wanted to Chicago to be the eastern terminus of the Pacific railroad His plan was designed to attract support of SouthHis plan was designed to attract support of South

42 Kansas-Nebraska Act Nebraska territory split into two: Nebraska and KansasNebraska territory split into two: Nebraska and Kansas Slavery would be decided by Popular SovereigntySlavery would be decided by Popular Sovereignty His assumption was that Kansas would choose slavery and Nebraska would choose to be a free stateHis assumption was that Kansas would choose slavery and Nebraska would choose to be a free state Problem is that this scheme threated to contradict the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which made slavery forbidden north of 36’30.Problem is that this scheme threated to contradict the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which made slavery forbidden north of 36’30.

43 Kansa-Nebraska Act South liked the idea because they gained a slave state, possibly. President Pierce threw his weight behind the proposal.South liked the idea because they gained a slave state, possibly. President Pierce threw his weight behind the proposal. North not happy because they did not want the Missouri Compromise trampled on.North not happy because they did not want the Missouri Compromise trampled on. This causes great harm to the relations between the North and South. It serves as exacerbating wedge issue. North did not want to see the Missouri Compromise repealed.This causes great harm to the relations between the North and South. It serves as exacerbating wedge issue. North did not want to see the Missouri Compromise repealed.

44 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

45 Birth of the Republican Party, 1854  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

46 1856 Presidential Election √ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig

47 1856 Election Results


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