Presentation on theme: "Language 言語ユニット. Language as Element of Cultural Diversity 6000+ Languages spoken today, not including dialects 1500+ Spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone."— Presentation transcript:
Language as Element of Cultural Diversity 6000+ Languages spoken today, not including dialects 1500+ Spoken in Sub-Saharan Africa alone 400+ in New Guinea alone 100+ in Europe However, this diversity is diminishing: 2000+ Threatened or Endangered Languages
Language families The Indo-European language family –Largest most wide-spread family –Spoken on all continents –Subfamilies—Romance, Slavic, Germanic, Indic, Celtic, and Iranic –Seven Indo-European tongues are among the top 10 languages spoken in the world
Which languages share a common ancestor? Many Indo-European languages have common words for snow, winter, spring; for dog, horse, cow, sheep bear but not camel, lion, elephant, or tiger; for beech, oak, pine, willow, but not palm or banyan tree. Some Indo-European Shared Words
Indo-European Language Family (50% of World) Main Branches: Germanic - Dutch, German Romance - Spanish, French Baltic-Slavic - Russian Indo-Iranian - Hindu, Bengali
Indo-European Language Family - Germanic Branch West Germanic English (514 million) German (128) Dutch (21) East Germanic Danish (5) Norwegian (5) Swedish (9)
Germanic Branch - Icelandic Iceland colonized by Norwegians in AD 874. Largely unchanged because of isolation..
Germanic Branch - English Diffused throughout the world by hundreds of years of British colonialism. Brought to New World by British colonies in 1600s. Has become an important global lingua franca.
Development of English Germanic Tribes (Germany/Denmanrk) Jutes Angles Saxons Vikings (Norway) 9th - 11th Centuries Normans (French) Battle of Hastings, 1066 French was official language for 150 years.
Development of English - Adopted Words Germanic Tribes (Germany/Denmark) kindergarten, angst, noodle, pretzel Vikings (Norway) take, they, reindeer, window Normans (French) renaissance, mansion, village, guardian
Indo-European Language Family - Romance Branch Like English these languages have been spread by Colonialism. Spanish (425 million) Portuguese (194) - most in Brazil French (129) Italian (62) Romanian (26)
Indo-European Family - Romance Branch The Roman Empire, at its height in 2nd century A.D., extinguished many local languages. After the fall of Rome in the 5th century, communication declined and languages evolved again. Literature was all written in Latin until the 13th and 14th centuries. Dante Alighieri’s 1314 Inferno written in vulgar latin (Florentine).
major language families Altaic language family –Includes Turkic, Mongolic, and several other subgroups –Homeland lies largely in deserts, tundras, and coniferous forests of northern and central Asia Uralic family –Finnish and Hungarian are the two most important tongues –Both have official status in their countries
Language families The Afro-Asiatic family –Has two major divisions—Semitic and Hamitic –Semitic covers the area from Tigris-Euphrates valley westward through most of the north half of Africa to the Atlantic coast Large area but consists of mostly sparsely populated deserts Arabic is the most widespread Semitic language Hebrew was a “dead” language used only in religious ceremonies Amharic a third major Semitic tongues has 20 million speakers in the mountains of East Africa
Language families The Afro-Asiatic family –Has two major divisions—Semitic and Hamitic –Smaller number of people speak Hamitic languages Share North and East Africa with Semitic speakers Spoken by the Berbers of Morocco and Algeria Spoken by the Tuaregs of the Sahara and Cushites of East Africa Originated in Asia but today only spoken in Africa Expansion of Arabic decreased the area and number of speakers
Language Families of Africa Fig. 5-14: The 1,000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
Afro-Asiatic Language Family Main Branch: Semitic Arabic(256) Language of the Koran; spread by Islamic Faith and Islamic (Ottoman) Empires Hebrew (5) Language of the old Testament (with Aramaic); completely revived from extinction in Israel, 1948.
Niger-Congo Diffusion proto-Bantu peoples originated in Cameroon- Nigeria They spread throughout southern Africa AD 1 - 1000 Bantu peoples were agriculturalists who used metal tools Khoisan peoples were hunter-gatherers and were no match for the Bantu. Pygmies adopted Bantu tongue and retreated to forest Hottentots and Bushmen retained the clicks of Khoisan languages
Language Complexity In Nigeria ethnic conflict between southern Ibos and western Yoruba led the government to move the capital to a more neutral central location (Abuja). Many other ethnic battles rage continuously. In Switzerland, four official languages, a history of peace and tolerance, and a political system that puts power in the hands of local leaders ensure peace. Nigeria has more than 200 individual languages!
major language families Africa south of the Sahara Desert is dominated by the Niger-Congo family –Spoken by about 200 million people –Greater part of the Niger-Congo culture region belongs to the Bantu subgroup –Includes Swahili—the lingua franca of East Africa
Sino-Tibetan language family –One of the major language families of the world –Extends throughout most of China and Southeast Asia –Han Chinese is spoken in a variety of dialects as a mother tongue by 836 million people –Han serves as the official form of speech in China
Sino-Tibetan Language Family (20%) Branches: Sinitic - Mandarin (1075), Cantonese (71), Austro-Thai (77) - Thai, Hmong Tibeto-Burman - Burmese (32) Chinese languages based on 420 one syllable words with meaning infered from context and tone.
Chinese Spoken … Languages or dialects –Mandarin (about 850 million),Mandarin –followed by Wu (90 million),Wu –Min (70 million) andMin –Cantonese (70 million).Cantonese Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible,mutually unintelligible Chinese is classified as a macrolanguage with 13 sub-languages in (Wikipedia)macrolanguage
major language families Japanese/Korean language family –Another major Asian family with nearly 200 million speakers –Seems to have some kinship to both the Altaic and Austronesian
major language families Austro-Asiatic language family –Found in Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and spoken by some tribal people of Malaya and parts of India –Occupies a remnant peripheral domain –Has been encroached upon by Sino-Tibetan, Indo-European, and Austronesian
major language families Occupy refuge areas after retreat before rival groups –Khoisan — found in the Kalahari Desert of southwestern Africa, characterized by clicking sounds –Dravidian — spoken by numerous darker- skinned people of southern India and northern Sri Lanka –Basque — spoken on the borderland between Spain and France is unrelated to any other language in the world
Austronesian diffusion Presumed hearth in the interior of Southeast Asia 5,000 years ago Initially spread southward into the Malay Peninsula In a process lasting several thousand years, people sailed in tiny boats across the. uncharted vast seas to New Zealand, Easter Island, Hawaii, and Madagascar Sailing and navigation was the key to Austronesian spread, not agriculture
Austronesian language family –Most remarkable language family in terms of distribution –Speakers live mainly on tropical islands –Ranges from Madagascar, through Indonesia and the Pacific Islands, to Hawaii and Easter Island –Longitudinal span is more than half way around the world –Latitudinally, ranges from Hawaii and Taiwan in the north to New Zealand in the south –Largest single language in this family is Indonesian — 5O million speakers –Most widespread language is Polynesian
Austronesian diffusion The remarkable diffusion of the Polynesian people –Form the eastern part of the Austronesian culture region –Occupy hundreds of Pacific islands in a triangular-shaped realm –New Zealand, Easter Island, and Hawaii form the three apexes of the realm –Made a watery leap of 2,500 miles from the South Pacific to Hawaii Used outrigger canoes Went against prevailing winds into a new hemisphere with different navigational stars No humans had previously found the isolated Hawaiian Islands Sailors had no way of knowing that land existed in the area
Austronesian diffusion Geographers John Webb and Gerard Ward studied the prehistoric Polynesian diffusion –Their method involved the development of a computer model building in data on: Winds Ocean currents Vessel traits and capabilities Island visibility Duration of voyage, etc. Both drift and navigated voyages were considered
Searching for the primordial tongue Using controversial techniques, linguists seek the more elusive prehistoric tongues Nostratic—ancestral speech of the Middle East 12,000 to 20,000 years ago –Ancestral to nine modern language families –A 500-word dictionary has been compiled Contemporary with Nostratic were other ancient tongues including Dene- Caucasian
The environment provides refuge Inhospitable environments offer protection and isolation Provide outnumbered linguistic groups refuge from aggressive neighbors Linguistic refuge areas –Rugged bill and mountain areas –Excessively cold or dry climates –Impenetrable forests and remote islands –Extensive marshes and swamps Unpleasant environments rarely attract conquerors Mountains tend to isolate inhabitants of one valley from another
Examples of linguistic refuge areas Rugged Caucasus Mountains and nearby ranges in central Eurasia are populated by a large variety of peoples Alps, Himalayas, and highlands of Mexico are linguistic shatter belts — areas where diverse languages are spoken American Indian tongue Quechua clings to a refuge in the Andes Mountains of South America In the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico, an archaic form of Spanish survives due to isolation that ended in the early 1900s
Examples of linguistic refuge areas The Dhofar, a mountain tribe in Oman, preserve Hamitic speech that otherwise has vanished from Asia Tundra climates of the far north have sheltered certain Uralic, Altaic, and Inukitut (Eskimo) speakers On Sea Islands, off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia, some remnant of an African language, Gullah, still are spoken
Switzerland Switzerland has four recognized national languages: French, German, Italian, and Romansch. Romansch, a language of Latin origin, is spoken by only 1.1% of the population.
Switzerland Nevertheless, it has survived in the alpine linguistic refuge of the upper Rhine and Inn Rivers and was given official recognition in 1938.
The environment guides migration Mountain barriers frequently serve as linguistic borders –In part of the Alps, speakers of German and Italian live on opposite sides of a major ridge –Portions of mountain rim along the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent form the border between Semitic and Indo-European tongues
Linguistic Ecology Today environmental isolation is no longer the linguistic force it once was Inhospitable lands and islands are reachable by airplanes Marshes and forests are being drained and cleared by farmers The world is interactive
English dialects in the United States Dialects reveal a vivid geography American English is hardly uniform from region to region At least three major dialects, corresponding to major culture regions, developed in the eastern United States by the time of the American Revolution –Northern –Midland –Southern
English dialects in the United States The three subcultures expanded westward and their dialects spread and fragmented –Retained much of their basic character even beyond the Mississippi River –Have distinctive vocabularies and pronunciations –Drawing dialect boundaries is often tricky
English dialects in the United States Today, many regional words are becoming old- fashioned, but new words display regional variations The following words are all used to describe a controlled-access divided highway –Freeway — a California word –Turnpike and parkway — mainly northeastern and Midwestern words –Thruway, expressway, and interstate
Key Terms PIDGIN - a form of speech that adopts simplified grammar and limited vocabulary from a lingua franca, used for communication between speakers of two different languages. Examples include Hawaiian Pidgin and the creoles of West Africa that resulted from the slave trade. “No eat da candy, Bruddah, it's pilau. Da thing wen fall on da ground.”
Give us da food we need fo today an every day. Hemmo our shame, an let us go Fo all da kine bad stuff we do to you, Jalike us guys let da odda guys go awready, And we no stay huhu wit dem Fo all da kine bad stuff dey do to us. No let us get chance fo do bad kine stuff, But take us outa dea, so da Bad Guy no can hurt us. Cuz you our King. You get da real power, An you stay awesome foeva. Dass it!” Matthew 6:9-13 “The Lord’s Prayer” - Taken from Da Jesus Book, a twelve year effort by 6 linguists to translate the New Testament into Hawaiian Pidgin, published 2001
Key Terms CREOLE - a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with an indigenous language. Often they are pidgins. a. mo pe aste sa banan b. de bin alde luk dat big tri c. a waka go a wosu d. olmaan i kas-im chek e. li pote sa bay mo f. ja fruher wir bleiben g. dis smol swain i bin go fo maket I am buying the banana they always looked for a big tree he walked home the old man is cashing a check he brought that for me Yes at first we remained this little pig went to market Can you guess which colonizing language is the base for each of the following creole examples? New Orleans’ French Quarter
Key Terms CREOLE - a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with an indigenous language. Often they are pidgins a. mo pe aste sa banan b. de bin alde luk dat big tri c. a waka go a wosu d. olmaan i kas-im chek e. li pote sa bay mo f. ja fruher wir bleiben g. dis smol swain i bin go fo maket French based Seychelles Creole English based Roper River Creole English based Saran English based Cape York Creole French based Guyanais German based Papua New Guinea Pidgin German English based Cameroon Pidgin Can you guess which colonizing language is the base for each of the following creole examples? New Orleans’ French Quarter
Key Terms DIALECT - a regional variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, spelling, and vocabulary. Social Dialects - can denote social class and standing. Vernacular Dialects - the common, slang, speech of a region. Term Is he fair dinkum? Why I declare! Down by the crick bludger mosquito hawk nappies Meaning Is he real or genuine? That’s remarkable! Down by the stream (creek) freeloader; welfare dragon fly diapers Location Australia Deep South (U.S.) Middle Atlantic States Australia South (U.S.) Britain; Brit. Colonies Sounds Familiar - English Dialects Website Common American Slang
Key Terms ISOLATED LANGUAGE - a language that is not related to any other languages and thus not connected to any language families. Examples include Basque and Icelandic. Basque Spain
Endangered Languages As recently as 3,000 years ago, there were 10,000 to 15,000 languages in the world. Now: about 6000 left. Of those, 1/2 will be gone by the year 2100 and all but 500 of the rest will be endangered. More than 90 percent of the languages in existence today will be extinct or threatened in little more than a century if current trends continue.
Extinct or Endangered Languages - Cameroon (11) BIKYA BIKYA BISHUO BUNG BUSUU DULI GEY LUO NAGUMI NDAI NGONG YENI ZUMAYA
Endangered Languages Why are they disappearing? Globalization Migration (Urbanization) Economic Development - Lingua Francas Media Internet (Requires Arabic Character Set) Lingua Franca - a language used for trade by two people who speak different native tongues.