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Roaring 20s April 2008 Mac AP Outline New Era: The 1920s Republican governments Republican governments –Business creed –Harding scandals –Economic development.

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Presentation on theme: "Roaring 20s April 2008 Mac AP Outline New Era: The 1920s Republican governments Republican governments –Business creed –Harding scandals –Economic development."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Roaring 20s April 2008 Mac

3 AP Outline New Era: The 1920s Republican governments Republican governments –Business creed –Harding scandals –Economic development Prosperity and wealth Prosperity and wealth Farm and labor problems Farm and labor problems New culture New culture –Consumerism: automobile, radio, movies –Women, the family –Modern religion –Literature of alienation –Jazz age –Harlem Renaissance Conflict of cultures Conflict of cultures –Prohibition, bootlegging –Nativism –Ku Klux Klan –Religious fundamentalism versus modernists Myth of isolation Myth of isolation –Replacing the League of Nations –Business and diplomacy

4 Key Terms The Roaring 20’s The Roaring 20’s Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan Emergency Quota Act, 1921 Emergency Quota Act, 1921 National Origins Act, 1924 National Origins Act, 1924 Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong Back to Africa Movement, Marcus Garvey Back to Africa Movement, Marcus Garvey Religious fundamentalism Religious fundamentalism John T. Scopes, William Jennings Bryan, Clarence Darrow John T. Scopes, William Jennings Bryan, Clarence Darrow Car Culture, Henry Ford, Model T Car Culture, Henry Ford, Model T Advertising comes of age, Radio, movies Advertising comes of age, Radio, movies Babe Ruth Babe Ruth Charles Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh The Jazz Singer, 1927, Al Jolson The Jazz Singer, 1927, Al Jolson Changes for Women, Flappers Changes for Women, Flappers Margaret Sanger Margaret Sanger Unions in the 1920’s, “American Plan” Unions in the 1920’s, “American Plan” Dawes Plan, 1924 Dawes Plan, 1924 Democratic Party turmoil Democratic Party turmoil Republican Presidents, ideals Republican Presidents, ideals Warren G. Harding, Return to Normalcy, scandals, Teapot Dome Warren G. Harding, Return to Normalcy, scandals, Teapot Dome Calvin Coolidge Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Herbert Hoover Albert B. Fall Albert B. Fall Harry M. Daugherty Harry M. Daugherty Alfred E. Smith Alfred E. Smith "American Plan" "American Plan" Norman Thomas Norman Thomas Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922 Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922 “Lost Generation”, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner “Lost Generation”, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner Sacco and Vanzetti Case Sacco and Vanzetti Case House Un-American Activities Committee House Un-American Activities Committee Ku Klux Klan, Nativism Ku Klux Klan, Nativism Emergency Quota Act 1921 Emergency Quota Act 1921 Immigration Quota Act 1924 Immigration Quota Act 1924 "Birth of a Nation“ Prohibition/Volstead Act "Birth of a Nation“ Prohibition/Volstead Act Al Capone Al Capone Organized Crime Organized Crime Election of 1928, Election of 1928, Hoover Foreign Policy-Japan attacks China Hoover Foreign Policy-Japan attacks China The Great Depression The Great Depression Causes of the Depression Causes of the Depression “Hooverville” “Hooverville” Stock Market Crash, “Black Tuesday” Stock Market Crash, “Black Tuesday” Republican Response to Great Depression, “Trickle Down,” “Pump Priming” Republican Response to Great Depression, “Trickle Down,” “Pump Priming” Economic Cycle, Chain Reaction, Unemployment Economic Cycle, Chain Reaction, Unemployment Andrew Mellon Andrew Mellon Banking Crisis Banking Crisis Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 1930 Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 1930 Reconstruction Finance Corporation Reconstruction Finance Corporation Public Works Public Works "Bonus Army," 1932 "Bonus Army," 1932 Election of “FDR” Election of “FDR”

5 Republican Decade Business creed Harding scandals Economic development Republican Administrations Republican Administrations Pro-business Pro-business Anti-Labor Anti-Labor Economy is weak at first but later booms Economy is weak at first but later booms Warren G. Harding 1920 Warren G. Harding 1920 Calvin Coolidge 1924 Calvin Coolidge 1924 Herbert Hoover 1928 Herbert Hoover 1928

6 Dems= Cox and FDR- Eugene Debbs- Socialist wins 1million votes

7 Republican Power President Harding President Harding Elected 1920, Landslide Elected 1920, Landslide Legacy of Scandals Legacy of Scandals “Teapot Dome” “Teapot Dome” Died 1923, in office Died 1923, in office “Return to Normalcy”

8 Harding Values Pro-business Pro-business End Foreign Activism End Foreign Activism –(Against Wilsonian view) End Progressive change End Progressive change Corrupt Administration Corrupt Administration “The Ohio Gang” “The Ohio Gang” “Teapot Dome” “Teapot Dome” Officials indicted Officials indicted Oil Leases sold illegally (bribes and kickbacks) Oil Leases sold illegally (bribes and kickbacks) 1924 prison time given to officials 1924 prison time given to officials

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10 President Coolidge “The business of America is business.” 1922-Fordney- McCumber Tariff 1922-Fordney- McCumber Tariff No help for farmers No help for farmers

11 Coolidge Low Taxes Low Taxes Reduce Spending Reduce Spending Promised to return the White House to the Gilded Age philosophies Promised to return the White House to the Gilded Age philosophies Supported big business “the man who builds a factory builds a temple” Supported big business “the man who builds a factory builds a temple” Anti Union Anti Union “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anytime, anywhere.” re. Boston Police Strike “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anytime, anywhere.” re. Boston Police Strike 1919.

12 Foreign Policy In general – isolation In general – isolation Not part of League of Nations Not part of League of Nations But when American business was present some internationalism But when American business was present some internationalism Pulled back from Latin America Pulled back from Latin America Examples- Examples- –Pan American Treaty –Kellogg Briand Pact –Washington Arms Conference

13 Foreign Policy Washington Arms Limitations Conference Washington Arms Limitations Conference 9 treaties 9 treaties Brits, France, Japan, US Brits, France, Japan, US Fixed # of warships- Japan gets fewer – racist view- Japan will resent. Fixed # of warships- Japan gets fewer – racist view- Japan will resent. Kellogg-Briand Pact Kellogg-Briand Pact –Outlawed War –62 nations agree –Not enforceable Reaction against WWI experience Reaction against WWI experience Pan American Treaty- Pan American Treaty- –US pledges peaceful resolution of disputes

14 1924 Dawes Plan= German War Debts Germans couldn’t pay the reparations payments Germans couldn’t pay the reparations payments US steps in-to negotiate and reorganize German reparations US steps in-to negotiate and reorganize German reparations Allies owed $10 Billion to the US. Allies owed $10 Billion to the US.

15 Consumer Economy

16 1920’s Booming economy Slight depression after the war War economy=HIGH After war- – –Soldiers come back wanting jobs – –Women out of jobs Auto industry – –Ford---Assembly line, Detroit, Model T – –GM--- credit for buying a car  new – – million cars registered – – million – –Federal roads built Radio- mass media Aeronautics – –Navy – –Big in the west – –Lindbergh  first non stop flight across the Atlantic Industries Related to auto Industries Related to auto –Steel –Paint/Chemical—Dow/DuPoint –Rubber –Textiles –Construction –Electronics –Glass –Oil –Roads –New Businesses related to cars  gas stations –Car culture –Suburbs –Motels –Diners –Fast Food –Sex in cars Electronics Electronics –Irons, Fans, Toasters, Vacuums, Stove –Washing machine, Sewing –Fridge, General Electric –70% of country is “electrified” –EDISON = father of electricity  Edison Electric  invented electric chair DEBT  installment plans DEBT  installment plans

17 Culture of the Roaring 20’s Radio KDKA Pittsburgh GE, Westinghouse,& RCA form NBC Silent Movies Charlie Chaplin “Talkies” The Jazz Singer Starring Al Jolson Mary Pickford “America’s Sweetheart”

18 Celebrities Babe Ruth & Ty Cobb Jack Dempsey Charles Lindbergh The Spirit of St. Louis

19 The 20’s is The Jazz Age The 20’s is The Jazz Age The Flappers make up cigarettes short skirts Musicians Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington Writers F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest Hemingway

20 Hoover Profile Typical Republican Typical Republican US economy was booming US economy was booming “A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” “A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” The “Great Engineer” The “Great Engineer” Orphan Orphan Degree in Geology from Stanford Degree in Geology from Stanford Rich Mining engineer Rich Mining engineer Businessman Businessman Retired at age 40 and devoted life to public service Retired at age 40 and devoted life to public service During War Food Administration During War Food Administration

21 The Great Depression Hoover Elected 1928 Hoover Elected 1928 Calvin Coolidge decided not to run. Calvin Coolidge decided not to run. Hoover won 58% landslide 444 electoral votes Hoover won 58% landslide 444 electoral votes Dems nominate Alfred E. Smith of NYC, Irish Catholic, Anti- Prohibition (Wet) Dems nominate Alfred E. Smith of NYC, Irish Catholic, Anti- Prohibition (Wet) Nativist, KKK and middle America Nativist, KKK and middle America President March 1929 President March 1929

22 Hoover Economic Philosophy Believed social problems could be solved by Believed social problems could be solved by –Volunteerism- voluntary changes and helping –Government encouragement –Hard Work

23 Before The Great Depression In the US was richest nation in the world In the US was richest nation in the world Salaries and wages above 1800s Salaries and wages above 1800s Large urban middle class Large urban middle class Increase in Home ownership Increase in Home ownership New appliances New appliances Automobiles Automobiles Huge optimism in this period Huge optimism in this period “No Congress of the United States ever assembled has met with a more pleasing prospect than that which appears at the present time.” “No Congress of the United States ever assembled has met with a more pleasing prospect than that which appears at the present time.”

24 Andrew Mellon Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of the Treasury Spokesman for business Community and rich Spokesman for business Community and rich “High tide of prosperity will continue.” “High tide of prosperity will continue.”

25 Optimism in Stock Market Prices rose after 1921 Prices rose after 1921 Stocks doubled in value by 1927 Stocks doubled in value by 1927 Some drops but always recovery Some drops but always recovery Americans put savings in stock market Americans put savings in stock market Only 3% of Americans Owned stock Only 3% of Americans Owned stock Summer prices rose/increased Summer prices rose/increased Huge amount of speculation or Gambling Huge amount of speculation or Gambling People thought prices would rise People thought prices would rise Example- Example- G. E. $128 March 1928 G. E. $128 March 1928 $400- September 1929 $400- September 1929 Buying stocks on Margin Buying stocks on Margin or even 10% down or even 10% down Chain of borrowing Chain of borrowing

26 Buying on Margin Buying stocks on Margin Buying stocks on Margin or even 10% down or even 10% down Chain of borrowing Chain of borrowing Consumer buys stock 10% down Consumer buys stock 10% down Borrows difference from broker Borrows difference from broker Broker borrows from bank and corporations Broker borrows from bank and corporations Works fine until the Broker makes a “Margin Call” Works fine until the Broker makes a “Margin Call” If stock prices drop If stock prices drop Loans are due by the end of the day. Loans are due by the end of the day.

27 Stock Market Crash $30. could buy $100 worth of stock $30. could buy $100 worth of stock Sold later for $150 = profit Sold later for $150 = profit October 23 stocks drop October 23 stocks drop Triggered “Margin calls”- which causes selling Triggered “Margin calls”- which causes selling Sales= demand drops--  prices drop Sales= demand drops--  prices drop Nationwide stampede to sell unload stock Nationwide stampede to sell unload stock

28 Great Depression Suffering

29 Okies and “Hooverville”

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32 Weakness of Banking System Barrowers could repay loans Barrowers could repay loans –Caused bank failures Savings lost by consumers Savings lost by consumers Reduced credit supply Reduced credit supply Banks close and people lose their supply Banks close and people lose their supply

33 Savings and value wiped out 100,000s of people lose savings 100,000s of people lose savings Economy was in “Free Fall” Economy was in “Free Fall” People thought the economy was just in a temporary recession or “Panic” People thought the economy was just in a temporary recession or “Panic” Problem lasted 10 years Problem lasted 10 years

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35 Economic Decline Deepens – there was 33% drop in output – there was 33% drop in output Prices fell 20-35% Prices fell 20-35% Unemployment rate Unemployment rate  25%  9.9% 1941 – million unemployed More than ½ of all households felt economic consequences More than ½ of all households felt economic consequences Wages cut Wages cut Hours cut Hours cut Reduced spending Reduced spending Lost savings Lost savings

36 People Suffer Eating less Eating less Not using Electricity Not using Electricity No spending on non- essentials No spending on non- essentials Ending visits to doctors Ending visits to doctors Limited heating Limited heating People move in with relatives People move in with relatives People take to the road to search for work People take to the road to search for work “Hobos” on the road/rails “Hobos” on the road/rails “Hoovervilles” = shanty Towns where homeless create shelters “Hoovervilles” = shanty Towns where homeless create shelters

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38 Industries Hurt by Poor Economy Manufacturing Manufacturing Construction Construction Mining Mining Steel Steel Automobiles GM laid off 100,000 of 260,000 Automobiles GM laid off 100,000 of 260,000

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40 Hoover’s Reaction Hoover thought the economy would rebound in a year or two Hoover Actions Hoover Actions Called bankers and industrialists to the White House Called bankers and industrialists to the White House Asked them not to cut wages + keep interest rates down (Volunteerism) Asked them not to cut wages + keep interest rates down (Volunteerism) Asked industries to build (Volunteerism) Asked industries to build (Volunteerism) Gov cut expenditures to balance budget Gov cut expenditures to balance budget –Raised taxes- problem took $ out of the economy Hoover NO Deficit Financing Hoover NO Deficit Financing Falling production Falling production Rising unemployment Rising unemployment Refused to provide FED relief for the unemployed Refused to provide FED relief for the unemployed –The “Dole” corrupts –Took no steps to relieve the suffering of jobless

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42 Hoover’s Response Opposed Democrat Senate Law Opposed Democrat Senate Law –For Unemployment Insurance Typical Republican Views Typical Republican Views Did make some Gov Spending to help stimulate the economy Did make some Gov Spending to help stimulate the economy Public Works Projects Public Works Projects Asked states to create these programs Asked states to create these programs Agricultural Marketing Act Agricultural Marketing Act- Attempted to address Agriculture problems Attempted to address Agriculture problems To maintain prices (tariff was part of this) To maintain prices (tariff was part of this)

43 Hoover’s International Economic Policy Protectionist measures= tariffs  reduces trade Protectionist measures= tariffs  reduces trade Smoot-Hawley Tariff high tariff Smoot-Hawley Tariff high tariff Didn’t help the economy Didn’t help the economy

44 Hoover and “Bank Relief” Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) –Idea to help banks –Gov provides loans for banks, Rail Roads, and corporations –Strengthen credit –Reduce foreclosures –Facilitate lending –Too little $ devoted to this

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46 Popular Responses to Hoover Farmers created: Farming Holiday Association (protest act) \ Farmers created: Farming Holiday Association (protest act) \ –Farmers wanted to withhold produce from market to raise prices. The Bonus March-July 1932 The Bonus March-July 1932 –WWI Veterans wanted to be paid a bonus they were promised- –payment was not due until 1945 –They march and camp in Washington –Hoover calls out the Army to disburse them, (MacArthur does it violently, tanks, cavalry..) –Causes huge public criticism

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50 Election of 1932 Hoover very un popular Hoover very un popular Depression is getting worse. Depression is getting worse. “Hoovervilles” “Hoover Flags” “Hoovervilles” “Hoover Flags” “troubled times are ’Hoovering’ over us” “troubled times are ’Hoovering’ over us” Republicans lose seats in Congress Republicans lose seats in Congress Hoover is increasingly blamed for the depression Hoover is increasingly blamed for the depression He seemed insensitive to the Misery of the people. He seemed insensitive to the Misery of the people.

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52 The Dust Bowl On the farm On the farm Prices for products down Prices for products down Had food and shelter but no disposable income Had food and shelter but no disposable income Began to default on loans and loose farms Began to default on loans and loose farms –Okalahoma –Texas –Kansa –Colorado Bad weather Bad weather Low rain Low rain Drought Drought Dried up Farm land + wind=Dustbowl Dried up Farm land + wind=Dustbowl Dust blew into the atmosphere Dust blew into the atmosphere

53 Dust Bowl Culture Woody Guthrie Woody Guthrie Folk Singer Folk Singer Sang about the “Okies”- Dust Bowl victims Sang about the “Okies”- Dust Bowl victims Who went on the road to find new lives Who went on the road to find new lives Many go to California Many go to California John Steinbeck John Steinbeck Grapes of Wrath Grapes of Wrath Famous book of the “Okie” Dust Bowl Joad Family Famous book of the “Okie” Dust Bowl Joad Family

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56 FDR Wins

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