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An Introduction to Home Health Care in the United States: Overview and History of Home Health Care and the Medicare Home Health Care Program Tracy Gutman,

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Home Health Care in the United States: Overview and History of Home Health Care and the Medicare Home Health Care Program Tracy Gutman,"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Home Health Care in the United States: Overview and History of Home Health Care and the Medicare Home Health Care Program Tracy Gutman, MD Geriatrics Fellow University of Kansas

2 OBJECTIVES By the end of this module, the learner will do the following:  List the types of home health care providers and the specific tasks that they perform in the home.  Differentiate the focus of Medicare home health care services before and after the Balanced Budget Act of  Define the requirements for participation in Medicare home health care.  Explain under what circumstances Medicare home health care will cover personal care services.  Describe Medicare reimbursement for home medical equipment.  Describe a typical Medicare home health care episode.

3 Pretest 1. True or False Home health care providers can include dentists, podiatrists, psychologists, dieticians, optometrists, and pharmacists.

4 Factors that shifted medical care from the home to the hospital include all of the following except: a. There was a lack of nurses to provide care in the home. b. New medical technology required space and maintenance that could only be provided in the hospital. c. Physicians started to specialize more and offer their services in centralized locations. d. Increased use of cars and public transportation allowed patients to travel to hospitals. Pretest 2: Multiple choice

5 Which of the following best describes how the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) impacted home health care? a. The BBA expanded home health care to include chronic long term care. b. The BBA liberalized the Medicare criteria for receiving home health care. c. The BBA set limits on Medicare spending, refocused home health care to post acute care, and cut the increased Medicare home health care services available in the 1980s and early 1990s. d. The BBA increased the Medicare home health care budget. Pretest 3: Multiple choice

6 Which of the following patients does not meet the Medicare home health care homebound participation requirement? a. Betty leaves her home for dialysis three times per week. b. John attends an adult day care program several times per week. c. Norma goes to church every Sunday. d. Peter goes out with friends to a restaurant every Wednesday. Pretest 4: Multiple choice

7 Which of the following patients does not meet the Medicare home health care skilled need requirement? a. Victor needs help with blood sugar monitoring and diabetic education. b. Virginia needs rehabilitation for her hip replacement. c. Cecil needs a bath aid. d. Rose needs wound care for her pressure ulcer. Pretest 5: Multiple choice

8 Pretest 6. True or False A patient must meet the Medicare homebound requirement in order to receive home medical equipment from Medicare.

9 Pretest 7: Multiple choice a. an initial evaluation including basic teaching and counseling b. development of a 60-day care plan c. a mandatory home health visit from a physician d. physician reviews and signs the care plan A typical Medicare home health care episode includes all of the following except:

10 Pretest Answers 1. true 2. a. 3. c. 4. d. 5. c. 6. false 7. c.

11 Section One: What is Home Health Care? 1,2  Any diagnostic, therapeutic, or social support service provided in the home  Health care providers who provide home care  Home diagnostics  Home equipment  A variety of services designed to provide care for patients in their homes

12 Home Health Care Providers 3,4  Physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants  Physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists  Nurses  Social workers  Home health aids  Dentists, podiatrists, psychologists, dieticians, optometrists, and pharmacists

13 Diagnostics and Equipment 2  Lab work, x-ray, ultrasound, EKG, holter monitoring, other diagnostics that can be done in the home.  Beds, wheelchairs, lifts, commodes, infusion therapy, and other assistive devices used in the home.

14 Other Home Health Care Services 1,2  Home health aids, home attendants, housekeepers, and meal delivery  Telemedicine monitoring (using the telephone to provide care)  Hospice

15 Section Two: A Brief History of U.S. Home Health Care  Historically, most health care was provided in the home.  Physicians provided services in the home as well as nurses.  Visiting nurses associations played a large role in making home visits. 6,3

16 Shift in Care to Hospitals 7  Advances in medicine shifted care.  New medical technology required space and maintenance that could only be provided in hospitals.  Physicians started to specialize more and offer their services in centralized locations.  Increased use of cars and public transportation allowed patients to travel to hospitals.

17 Home Health Care for Long Term and then Post Acute Care 3,8  By the 1930s most care of acutely ill patients had transitioned to the hospital and visiting nurses provided long term care in the home to chronically ill patients.  In the late 1950s hospitals began to make referrals to home care nurses to help with the discharge of patients from the hospital to the home and to provide post acute care.  Home health care agencies were funded by charitable and public contributions until the passage of the Medicare Act in 1965.

18 Medicare Expanded Home Health Care 2,3  Medicare covered care for: patients sent home from the hospital (post acute) post-hospital home health benefit under Part A limited to 100 visits following a 3-day hospital stay  Medicare also covered more chronic care: general home health benefit under Part B limited to 100 home visits per calendar year

19 Medicare Home Health Care Continued to Expand in the 1980s  Omnibus Reconciliation Act of removed the limits on the number of home care visits, removed the prior hospitalization requirements, extended participation in Medicare home care to for- profit home care agencies.  More than half of the patients receiving home health care did not have immediate prior hospitalizations, and many people received services for more than 6 months 1

20 Increase in Home Health Care in 1980s-1990s  During the 1980s, the hospital prospective payment system was implemented resulting in faster discharges from hospitals and the need for post hospitalization home care services. 3  During the 1980s, with the removal of the requirement for a recent hospitalization, services increased as well to the chronically ill needing more long term care. 8,2  Medicare home health care payments increased an average of 33% per year between 1989 and

21 Home Health Care in the1990s 1 Throughout the 1990s, home health care services continued to expand due to: earlier hospital discharges, declines in nursing home beds, increased numbers of frail adults and elders, cost-based financing of home care.

22 Home Health Care in the1990s (cont.)  In the early 1990s, Medicare reimbursement for home visits also increased. 2,3  Majority of Medicare home health episodes extended past 6 months. 2,3  Between 1990 and 1997, home health care was 9% of the Medicare budget. 1  In 1997, there were 10,444 Medicare certified home health care agencies in the U.S. 3

23 1997 Balanced Budget Act Curtailed Medicare Home Health Care 1,8  Balanced Budge Act (BBA) set limits on Medicare spending, refocused home health care to post acute care only, cut the increased services available in the 1980s and early 1990s.  More stringent criteria for home health care set new requirement of homebound status and refocused home health care on post acute care and episodic care.

24 BBA: Prospective Payment System 1,3  The 1997 BBA created a home health care prospective payment system (PPS) home health agencies would be paid a set amount for each 60-day episode, regardless of the number of visits provided and payment broken down into 80 separate clinical categories.  BBA also created a requirement for agencies to report outcome data on all Medicare and Medicaid patients using the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS)

25 BBA PPS  Cost-based reimbursement with a prospective payment system resulted in a 20% decline in home health care, with more rural area agencies closing. 1  BBA reduction in home health care reimbursement led to closure of 14% of home health agencies between 1997 and  In 1999, home health care was 4% of the Medicare budget, as compared with 9% between 1990 and  By 2001, more than 1/3 of home health agencies closed. 3

26 Section Three: Medicare Home Health Care Program 2,3  Pays for skilled nursing care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medical social work, home health aide services, medical supplies.  Limits services through program participation requirements.  Focuses primarily on short term care and post acute, post hospitalization care.  A physician must make the referral for home health care to a home health care agency and oversee the plan of care.

27 Participation Requirements 2,3  Patients must be temporarily or permanently homebound.  Patients must have a need for skilled services.

28 Homebound  Patients must have an inability to leave their homes, i.e., 2,3 leaving the home requires considerable and taxing effort on the part of the patient, caregiver, or both, and/or requires the assistance of another person or an assistive device or special transportation.  Nonmedical absences from the home must be infrequent and of short duration. 3

29 Skilled Care Need 1,2  Skilled nursing: includes monitoring vital signs such as blood pressure, pulse, temperature, monitoring drains, dressing wounds, managing medication regimens, and providing patient and family education  Physical and occupational therapy, speech therapy, and other therapies: includes gait and balance training, home safety assessments, exercise instruction, and help with assistive devices  Skilled care need must be intermittent not continuous and must be episodic and for brief periods of time only.

30 Medicare Part A 2,3  Pays for home health care if patients meet the two requirements.  Patients do not pay additional costs or co-payments.  Patients must have a referral from a physician who certifies home health care as medically necessary.  Pays for 60-day episodes.

31 Medicare Part A 3,10 (cont.)  The 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) created a home health care prospective payment system (PPS) for reimbursement which developed 80 separate clinical categories with set amounts for each 60 day episode of care  Payment is based: in part on patient acuity and is not based on the actual number of visits provided on the BBA’s data gathering tool, the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS), which assesses severity of illness, disabilities, and nursing needs

32 Additional Medicare Services 1,2  Once homebound patients meet the skilled care need requirement and receive skilled services through nursing or therapy, they can also receive social work and home aid services.  However, if patients do not have a skilled need, Medicare will not pay for any home aid or personal care services.  Medicare will only pay for home aid and personal care services for short periods, such as a few hours per day and only if patients have a concurrent skilled need for home health care.

33 Medicare Coverage of Home Equipment 1,2  Will pay for home medical equipment: even for those patients who do not meet the homebound requirement and includes such durable medical equipment as hospital beds, special mattresses, commodes, wheelchairs, walkers, lifts, and oxygen.  Medicare Part B pays 80% of the cost; then patients have a 20% co-pay.

34 Medicare Home Equipment (cont.) 1,2  Private insurance will often cover the remaining costs.  Physicians must complete a Medicare certificate of medical necessity.  Medicare does not pay: for nondurable, smaller medical equipment such as diapers, wipes, gloves, dressing materials, grab bars and other bathroom modifications, canes, and reachers, but in some states Medicaid does pay for some of these above types of supplies.

35 Typical Medicare Home Health Care Episode 3 1. Physician makes a referral to a home health agency, and an initial evaluation occurs within 48 hours of the referral. 2. RN must complete the initial evaluation unless the patient requires only physical, occupational, or speech therapy services (then the therapist performs the initial evaluation). 3. At the initial visit, the nurse determines eligibility, obtains consent for care, completes paperwork, and performs a comprehensive initial assessment.

36 Typical Medicare Home Health Care Episode (cont.) 3 4. After this initial visit, the patient receives a number of subsequent visits based on the patient’s needs for care. 5. The admitting nurse or therapist develops a 60-day care plan that describes all services needed and establishes goals. 6. Referring physician reviews and signs care plan. 7. Home health care providers then proceed with the specific tasks and goals and update the care plan which the physician then periodically signs along with any new orders.

37 Medicare Home Health Care Focus  Medicare-funded home health care provides patients with services for discrete acute episodic periods based on patient acuity and needs.  Patients are discharged from home health care when the discrete acute defined goals have been met, even though they continue to have chronic debilitating medical conditions and functional limitations.  The focus is on post acute and episodic, not long term care.

38 Post-test 1. Multiple choice Which of the following best describes home health care personal assistance services? a. A nurse providing ostomy care b. A speech therapist evaluating swallowing dysfunction c. A home health aid providing assistance with bathing and dressing d. A physical therapist providing teaching on safe transfers

39 Post-test 2. True or False The Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1980 expanded Medicare home health care by removing the limits on the number of home visits, removing the prior hospitalization requirement, but limited participation to non-profit home health agencies.

40 Post-test 3. True or False In the early 1990s, the majority of Medicare home health care episodes extended past 6 months.

41 Post-test 4. Multiple choice a. Resulted in fewer patients receiving home health care, fewer visits, lower payments, and shorter durations of service b. Introduced new participation requirements for Medicare home health care c. Introduced a data gathering tool, the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) d. Improved long term home health care services for patients with chronic diseases Which of the following did the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 not do?

42 The Medicare home health care homebound requirement includes all of the following except: a. Permits weekly social visits b. Requires that patients have difficulty leaving their homes c. Permits leaving the home for doctor’s appointments d. Permits trips to church Post-test 5. Multiple choice

43 Which of the following best describes the Medicare home health care skilled need? a. Can be a continuous need for 24 hour care b. Includes physical, occupational, and speech therapy c. Includes social work needs d. Includes home health aids and attendants Post-test 6. Multiple choice

44 Which of the following applies to the Medicare provision of home medical equipment? a. Patient must be homebound. b. Medicare pays 100% of the cost. c. Physicians must complete a Medicare certificate of medical necessity. d. Medicare will pay for bathroom modifications. Post-test 7. Multiple choice

45 Post-test Answers 1. c. 2. false 3. true 4. d. 5. a. 6. b. 7. c.


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