Presentation on theme: "The Road to War Chapter 13 Independent Nations United States."— Presentation transcript:
The Road to War Chapter 13 Independent Nations United States
Sectionalism Continues The North and the South The problems didn’t end with the Missouri Compromise and the Nullification Crisis It continued to grow worse as the nation, itself, grew bigger
Expanded Lands of the US
Texas Annexation (1836) Texas Declared itself independent from Mexico Wanted to become part of the United States as quickly as possible Mexico wasn’t willing to let Texas go without a fight Lands claimed by seceding Texas
For what two reasons was the Mexican-American War important?
The Mexican American War The Mexican American warwas an attempt to gain even more land from Mexico.The Mexican American war was an attempt to gain even more land from Mexico. the US gained the majority of the land that is now the Western United States.At the end of the war, the US gained the majority of the land that is now the Western United States. The war also served as a major training ground for many of the generals on both sides of the Civil War. The war also served as a major training ground for many of the generals on both sides of the Civil War.
Why did California not want slaves in their territory?
California The California Territory became part of the United States through the treaty that ended the Mexican War. gold After the discovery of gold in 1849, people flocked to California. They did not want to compete with slave owners who would be able to use their slaves to mine for gold.
California applied to be a ‘free soil’ state, what does ‘free soil’ mean? What would happen if California entered as a ‘free soil’ state?
California free soil’ o Californians wanted their state to be ‘free soil’ o They applied for admission as a free state. o “Free soil’ supporters o “Free soil’ supporters were people who believed that slavery should not be allowed to expand to the territories. If California entered as a ‘free soil’ state, it would upset the balance of slave and free states. Free Soil Party Campaign poster
The three parts of the Compromise of 1850: ~
The Compromise of 1850 A compromise was reached between slave states and free states. The Compromise of 1850 1.It allowed California to be a free state 2.Outlawed the slave trade in Washington D.C. 3.It provided that the rest of the Mexican Cession land would decide whether or not the residents wanted to be a slave or free states through the vote, popular sovereignty. California and surrounding territories
Why was the Fugitive Slave Law important for the South?
The Compromise of 1850 Gave Southerners a new Fugitive Slave Law Gave them more opportunity to capture and return to the South slaves that had escaped Abolitionists were not happy about this Runaway slave reward offer
What did politicians want to do with Kansas that caused them to need Southern Support?
The Kansas Territory so The Kansas Territory was in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory, so… could not be a slave state According to the Missouri Compromise, it could not be a slave state Some politicians wanted to build a railroad across the country through Kansas -but they needed Southern political support
What did Jefferson Davis and other Southerners want to do on a Southern route?
The Kansas Territory especially Jefferson Daviswanted to build a transcontinental railroad on a southern route from New Orleans. Southerners, especially Jefferson Davis, wanted to build a transcontinental railroad on a southern route from New Orleans. Kansas was something they could use to get the support they wanted
Kansas-Nebraska Act: popular sovereignty
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the 36◦ 30’ line of the Missouri Compromise Gave the territories the right of popular sovereigntyGave the territories the right of popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty Allowed people in these territories to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders by voting.
The Kansa Territory was known as “Bleeding Kansas” because…
The Kansas-Nebraska Act In order to affect that vote, Northern abolitionists & Southern slave owners moved into the Kansas Territory Soon their fighting led people to call the area “Bleeding Kansas.”
The Dred Scott Decision
The Dred Scott decision was… an attempt by the Supreme Court to end the controversy over the role of free states in determining the status of the enslaved.
Who was Dred Scott? What did Dred Scott do?
The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott A slave whose master had taken him into free territoryA slave whose master had taken him into free territory. Scott sued his master for his freedom claiming ‘once free, always free.’Scott sued his master for his freedom claiming ‘once free, always free.’ Did this with the help of northern abolitionists Dred Scott
The Supreme Court Decision on the Dred Scott case
The Dred Scott Decision The Supreme Court African Americans were not citizens of the United States, even if they had been born in the United States Decided that African Americans were not citizens of the United States, even if they had been born in the United States had no right to sue in the Supreme Court. Therefore, they had no right to sue in the Supreme Court. The court said that they had no rights at all
The Supreme Court Said that the constitution protected…
The Supreme Court Scott was property and his owner could take him anywhere he wanted The court went on to rule that Scott was property and his owner could take him anywhere he wanted protects the owner of property from having that property taken away by the government. That the Constitution of the United States protects the owner of property from having that property taken away by the government. The Dred Scott Decision
Congress would not limit the expansion of slavery into the territories because… Angry northerners reponded to the decision claiming…
The Dred Scott Decision The Supreme Court Congress could not limit the expansion of slavery into the territories. Furthered ruled that Congress could not limit the expansion of slavery into the territories. Such acts were ruled unconstitutional They denied the slave owner the right to take his property anywhere that he wanted. Angry northerners claimed… The court would deny them the right to outlaw slavery in their states Would end the idea of popular sovereignty, limiting democracy The Dred Scott decision was a victory for slave owners but it made abolitionists very angry The Dred Scott decision was a victory for slave owners but it made abolitionists very angry.
South Carolinians view of the Decision _________ _________ gained national fame because of the Dred Scott Decision
The Dred Scott Decision South Carolinians Applauded the decision Accepted the Supreme Court’s ruling as the final word on the issue. Republican Abraham Lincoln to be nationally known Debates over the Dred Scott decision led Republican Abraham Lincoln to be nationally known Split the Democratic Party Political Cartoon from Harper’s Weekly Newspaper
Purpose of the Abolition Movement The abolition movement in SC…
The Abolitionist Movement The purpose of this movement was to outlaw slavery throughout the United States. The abolitionist movement grew in the North In South Carolina it made slave owners more determined to hold onto their way of lifeIn South Carolina it made slave owners more determined to hold onto their way of life Northerners called slavery a “peculiar institution.” Crowds would often gather to hear abolitionists speak out against slavery.
Demark Vesey plot’s impact on SC abolitionists
The Abolitionist Movement Abolitionists were active in South Carolina prior to the uncovering of the Denmark Vesey plot. abolitionists such as Sarah and Angelina Grimke were forced to either leave the state or keep silent. After the plot was uncovered, abolitionists such as Sarah and Angelina Grimke were forced to either leave the state or keep silent.
Northerners and the abolition movement
The Abolitionist Movement Northerners & the Abolition Movement Most didn’t support the abolitionist movement because it threatened the harmony between the North and South as a Union Northerners were unsure of the impact that the large pool of freed slaves would have on job availability.
South Carolina’s reaction to abolitionist newspapers
The Abolitionist Movement The movement grew with the publication of antislavery newspapers such as The Liberator by William A Garrison.The movement grew with the publication of antislavery newspapers such as The Liberator by William A Garrison. Postmasters across the state removed from the mailPostmasters across the state removed from the mail Considered inflammatory materials including anti-slavery newspapers.Considered inflammatory materials including anti-slavery newspapers.
The Underground Railroad in SC Abolitionist and Kansas
The Abolitionist Movement Abolitionists helped to man the Underground Railroad This had limited impact in SC The state was too far from the border with free states to make this escape route effective. Abolitionist groups sent settlers to Kansas To try to make that state a free state and joined with the ‘free soilers’ To form the Republican Party
Harriet Beecher Stowe John Brown
The Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin o Helped the movement grow in the North o Evoked sympathy for slaves o The book was called a lie in South Carolina Abolitionist John Brown Raided Harper’s Ferry Evoked a fear of slave rebellion among southerners Harriet Beecher Stowe, right, and two portraits of John Brown, below
Political Beliefs Divided
Within South Carolina The people were beginning to divide over political beliefs. Unionists favored the idea of remaining part of the Union. Unionists did not necessarily agree with the actions of the Northern states or the federal government They believed that the United States Constitution was well-equipped to protect South Carolina’s way of They believed that the United States Constitution was well-equipped to protect South Carolina’s way of life.
Political Beliefs Divided Cooperationists favored seceding from the Union. Were South Carolinians who favored seceding from the Union. However, this was a last resort and only if it was done with the support of all of the southern states. They believed that it would be a big mistake for South Carolina to secede without the cooperation and support of other southern states. Cooperationists Wanted to secede but weren’t sure they could do it alone Wanted to secede but weren’t sure they could do it alone
Political Beliefs Divided Secessionists Argued that breaking apart from the Union prior to the Civil War was the only answer for SC. not debatable and were ready to secede as early as 1852. They believed that the issue was not debatable and were ready to secede as early as 1852. Also known as radicals or fire- eaters It was the events of the 1850s & the election of Lincoln that convinced most South Carolinians to support the position of the fire-eaters. Secession House in Beaufort where the Articles of Secession were dated
Election of 1860 There were South Carolinians who strongly discouraged secession prior to the election of 1860. Republican Abraham Lincoln campaigned on a platform of ‘free soil’. Lincoln was not an abolitionist in 1860, but a free-soiler. This election prompted SC to secede from the Union
Southerners’ and SC’s view of what would happen if Lincoln became President
Election of 1860 Because Lincoln was a Republican & therefore opposed slavery in the territories Many Southerners assumed that the federal government would soon make slavery illegal. Ending slavery would, in turn, end southern wealth, political influence and way of life Ending slavery would, in turn, end southern wealth, political influence and way of life.
SC’s reaction to Lincoln becoming President SC’s reaction to Lincoln becoming President
Secession Lincoln won the election with electoral votes from the North. Southerners and border states split their votes among several candidates. When it became clear that Lincoln was to be the 16th president of the United States, the leaders of South Carolina carried through with their threat to secede.
What was the purpose of South Carolina’s legislative convention? What was the purpose of South Carolina’s legislative convention?
Election of 1860 The South Carolina legislature issued a call for a convention –Without waiting for Lincoln to be inaugurated To determine the relationship between SC & the Union. Before the convention, communities throughout the state held meetings to discuss the issue. South Carolina Secession Banner used at the Session Convention South Carolina Secession Banner used at the Session Convention.
1. 1. Where was the original location of the convention? 2. To where was it moved and why? 3. What was the message the Ordinance of Secession gave to the federal government?
Secession The convention met at the First Baptist Church in Columbia But they quickly adjourned & moved to Charleston because of rumors of a smallpox outbreak. leaders unanimously adopted an … When the meeting reconvened the leaders unanimously adopted an … Ordinance of Secession The message it gave the federal government was that it should not interfere with the decision making and freedoms of the individual states (states’ rights).
What did the Ordinance of Secession say?
Secession They signed Ordinance of Secession Which said that the rights of South Carolinians had not been & would not be protected by the federal government. Other southern states seceded soon after to protect the institution of slavery and the Southern way of life.