Presentation on theme: "R-LINCS. Valium is killing Scotland’s Drug taking Poor William Nicoll, Photos: Harrison Reid Mar 14 2013 “Jack explains that there's an anagram hidden."— Presentation transcript:
Valium is killing Scotland’s Drug taking Poor William Nicoll, Photos: Harrison Reid Mar 14 2013 “Jack explains that there's an anagram hidden in the word methadone: "the mad one". We both laugh. Then we search for anagrams in the word Valium, but there are none. After methadone, Valium is the drug that is killing Scotland, contributing to, or responsible for 32% of drug-related deaths in 2011”.
Diazepam is killing Scotland’s Drug-Taking Poor William Nicoll, Photos: Harrison Reid Mar 14 2013 When Valium – or diazepam, as it's technically called in Scotland – turned 40, drugs manufacturer Hoffmann La Roche held a celebration where they unfurled a banner that read: "Thanks for the happiness and relaxation you have given us over the years.“ Thanks to “Mother’s Little Helper " and the majority of late 20th century American fiction, many of us have been left with the mistaken belief that Valium is the preserve of the clinically bored, middle-aged housewife, when really the drug is killing Scotland's poorest men – detected in the bodies of 72% of all victims of drug-related death. Jack can attest to Valium’s power; he's been addicted to the drug for 19 years and had taken 28 pills before meeting me. While he concedes that they were "whites" (the lower strength two milligram tablets, as opposed to the stronger "blues"), that amount is still more than nine times the effective daily dose for anxiety.
Background Started with diazepam analysis for student projects in 2012 Police Scotland – Kenny Simpson Discussions with Isobel Stewart Required to get Crown Office permission to use tablets from closed cases It was thought that this work could be expanded to provide drug intelligence information Awarded R-LINCS (Research-Led Innovative Nodes for Contemporary Society) PhD studentship from Abertay Began collaboration on the project with Police Scotland and RGU in September 2013
Background Aims of the R-LINCS Project: To provide drug intelligence information that could assist the police in determining links between different seizures. This will be attempted through the measurement of certain physical and chemical characteristics of illicit tablets and the extraction of information from the data set to construct a statistical model to identify different populations.
Scoping exercise Photography Tablet Weight and Measurements Diazepam quantification through HPLC (+RGU) DSC (RGU) Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (RGU) Scanning Electron Microscopy (RGU) GC-MS for the identification of active drug substances (+RGU) Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (RGU) Adulterants (+RGU) Identification of colourants Quantification of sugar – lactose?? Tabletting (RGU)
Initial selected Parameters Photography Tablet Weight and Measurements Diazepam quantification through HPLC GC-MS for the identification of active drug substances [Analysis of Dyes through UV-Vis] [Analysis of Sugars through HPLC]
Photography Images recorded using an Olympus DSX100 microscope on loan from Olympus
Diazepam Analysis Analytical Results of All Cases Received (54) 67% Diazepam Drug Substance 33% “Other” Drug Substances Analytical Results of Cases from 2013 (11) 27% Diazepam Drug Substance 73% Other Drug Substances Diazepam Quantification from All Cases Received Only 32% contain 10mg of Diazepam Highest recorded diazepam content = 48mg From a total of 1715 tablets analysed:
Diazepam First marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La-Roche is the archetypical benzodiazepine drug used to treat anxiety, panic attacks insomnia and seizures Phenazepam No methyl on Nitrogen and a bromine in place of the chlorine and extra chlorine in the non-fused phenyl ring. Etizolam Benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring, making the drug a thienodiazepine. It is also a fused triazole Benzodiazepines Plus other non-benzodiazepines
The Database Tablet Weights Imprint Details Identification and Quantification of Main Drug Substance Identification of Dyes Identification of Main Excipients Used to Build A Statistical Model
The Database The database requires constant updating as further results are produced. This will create an easily accessible tool for comparison and analysis of data. In addition, the use of statistical techniques should help with the visual interpretation and understanding of the results. At present the statistical analysis on the weight of the tablets has been utilised Early work using ‘Miner 3D’ produces an interesting and useful way to visualise the results.
Grouping of tablets using Miner 3D Illicitly manufactured tablets having 10 mg Do not contain diazepam Contain greater than 20 mg diazepam Possibly pharmaceutical grade Diazepam content Std. Dev of Weight Ave. of Weight
Results so far Genuine tablets (red) and Probably genuine Counterfeit tablets Variability in Level of Diazepam Different Active Drug Substances Potential Diverted Pharmaceutical Tablets Tablet Mass
The Future Dyes Sugars More Statistical modelling
The Collaboration Kenny Simpson (Police Scotland) David Bremner (AU) Kevin Farrugia (AU) Mae MacDougall-Heasman (AU) Anne Savage (AU) Isobel Stewart (AU) Graham Wightman (AU) Kerr Matthews (RGU) Raymond Reid (RGU) Ann Tough (RGU) Stuart Waddell (RGU)