Presentation on theme: "World Border Organization Serge Rinkel Director of Programs and services Brussels- 8-9 November 2011 European Border Security: External borders begin in."— Presentation transcript:
World Border Organization Serge Rinkel Director of Programs and services Brussels- 8-9 November 2011 European Border Security: External borders begin in West Africa
Borderpol is a non profit association which became a world border organization whose mission is to make borders safer and smarter and promote borders that connect as well as protect. This mission is being accomplished by working with national and international institutions or organizations where and whenever possible avoiding any duplication of existing efforts by legacy partners. The Director of programs and services is at the same time the head of a technical committee of BORDERPOL which is a group of about 200 border security experts, volunteers to intervene in any country which need them, with only one target: securing the borders and fighting against crime
In 2011 European Border security is vital: all the actors, should co- operate to detect and deter any threat against the civil society. We have to secure the borders, to protect our citizens ! Unfortunately boundaries are perfect places for "marriages of convenience" between gangs : Terrorism, piracy, human trafficking, illegal migrations, arms trafficking, drug smuggling, counterfeiting, endangered species, poaching and all types of fraud Let’s see the example of what is really happening across the borders of Africa, in fact in the approaches of the European borders..
AFRICA 53 COUNTRIES ~1 BILLION OF INHABITANTS Poverty Conflicts and victims Porous borders Corruption Culture of Impunity Permanent European involvement Important international smuggling networks linked to Europe.
European are engaged in almost all the conflict zones where they supply arms and ammunition : Ivory Coast, Sahel, Chad, Central Africa Rep, Darfour, South Sudan, Ogaden..
An example on how an illicit activity evolves into serious organized crime In South Africa : the story of the Abalone trafficking
Poaching may look insignificant, but Abalones became very expensive in Asia It explains why Abalone poachers have been gradually connected to the Chinese triads. South African triads have branched out into a range of criminal activities: various forms of fraud, drug-trafficking, firearms smuggling, extortion, money laundering, prostitution, illegal gambling, smuggling of illegal migrants, tax evasion, and large- scale importing of counterfeit goods. Similar Abalones circuits exist as well in Australia, United States and Europe; In Africa criminal activities are all inter-connected and in the most of them are linked to the European Market as it is going to be confirmed during this presentation.
Arms smuggling in Africa A few key actors :Victor Bout (Russia), Guus Kouwenhoven (Netherlands), Leonid Efimovitch Minin (Ukraine and Israel), Mahmoud al-Mabhouh (Gaza), Monzer Al Kassar (Syria), Jacques Monsieur (Belgium), Charles Taylor (Liberia), Arcadi Gaydamak (Russia – France-Israel) There are so many..
Smuggling aircraft in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo
Antonov 12, IL 76, Boeing 707 and 727, DC8, Led, Cessna, Beechcraft… are the aircrafts used in the weapons trafficking circuits.. They all fly in the European airspace..
A sad example: Democratic Republic of Congo conflict zone Since August 1998, more than 5 million people have died. It has been the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II. Although 19% of the population, children account for 47% of the deaths; Although many have returned home as violence has slightly decreased, there are still some 1 million internally displaced or refugees. Children continue to die and women are raped each day, still now in The rebels never miss arms and ammunition; they export illegally natural resources (including gold, uranium and cobalt) and drug against weapons and supply. In the conflict zone everybody smuggle with the neighbors, even the regular DRC Army. European smugglers are involved in those smuggling circuits.
The Libanese diaspora is associated to Pasdaran from Iran; Both are active in Erythrea and Yemen,in Sudan, they help Al Shabab from Somalia. They smuggle in West Africa towards Europe.
Afrique de l’Ouest West Africa This region is a paradise for organized crime, offering ideal conditions for smuggling: a strategic location, widespread poverty, porous borders, weak governance, and extensive corruption.
February 2009 seizure in Mali West Africa a permanent flow of arms towards the Sahel
The Ghana authorities organize regularly destruction of pieces of fire arms seized locally from people who possessed them illegally in various parts of the country or who supply mercenaries and rebels.
Saisies de drogue 2000 / 2004 Huge quantities of drug cross the borders from South America enroute to Europe via the Sahel
Cocaine from South America to West Africa 7/2/2008 Ex trawler « Junior » 3.2 tons Coke (+ a few kgs of Cannabis), seized by French Navy A week before the same warship seized 2 Tons aboard « Blue Atlantic » another fishing vessel, it means that West Africa needs a permanent regional maritime surveillance network.
Coopering at sea: very common in Africa
November 2009: Crash of a Boeing 727 loaded with cocaine in Northern Mali
officers) Main Intermediary with Europe : Moktar Belmoktar, Emir of the Sahel, allias Mister Malboro Arms, cigarettes, counterfeit pharmaceuticals and DVD’S, kidnappings, stolen vehicles, attacks against customs and police posts (murders of more than 30 Customs and police officers)
Go Fast AQIM and Hezbollah, ETA, Italian Mafia, Turkish Mafia…Drug trafficking and contraband from W Africa enrich a lot of people, in Africa, in Europe, in Latin America and in the USA.
Piracy Oil Bunkering GULF OF GUINEA a very nice part of West-Africa but a complete lack of Border security allowing Piracy and illegal oil bunkering, arms trafficking, drug smuggling, illegal migrations including Child slave trafficking, counterfeiting, Illegal fishing, environmental pollution, prostitution and of course all types of other criminal activities. Here Law enforcement officers have really to face a culture of impunity
Gulf of Guinea : source of oil, cocoa and metals to world markets. With more than 3 millions barrels of very high quality oil per day –4 % of the World– mostly for American and European markets, about a quarter of USA importations by China, India, have interests in the area. Corruption + absence of maritime surveillance and poor border security, no intelligence = armed robbery + money laundering
Flying-boat transportant du «éro» de Bota (Limbe) vers CALABAR au Nigeria Flying- boat transportant la marchandise frauduleuse venant de CALABAR vers IDINAO 24 Armed robbery with violence: pirates are drug abused, they dont hesitate to shoot on who resists, they easily kill. (Culture of impunity)
Illegal oil bunkering: analysts say Nigeria has lost over $25 billion US dollars in revenue within the last 10 years due to theft of its crude which is exported to be sold in the neighboring countries, with no reaction of the law enforcement agencies which tolerate this “insignificant” trafficking
CMC ZONE D 26 Gulf of Guinea: Illegal migrants caught at sea Sometimes up to 200 illegal migrants on board long dugouts, pregnant wifes, babies, there is a permanent flow mainly to Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon.
On any dugout or boat crossing the maritime borders of the Gulf of Guinea, the crew and the passengers do not have any document, every body is smuggling, there is no proper control by the law enforcement patrol teams.
Containers, ships, aircrafts and vehicles are not properly targetted and rummaged, so African ports are easily used to import and export illicit cargoes of arms, drugs, counterfeit goods, gold, ivory, cigarettes.. Seizure of drug, hidden in a container Arms Lagos Oct 2010 Counterfeit pharmaceuticals
This cocaine seizure was done in Antwerp after a good profiling, but there is a lack of training in Africa, a lack of equipment, a lack of methodolody, so seizures like this one, are very rare.. Found in the port of Lagos
II. Afrique centrale : RDC Un conflit lié aux ressources Très grand nombre de victimes environ 4 millions depuis 1998, 1 million lors du génocide rwandais et burundais (1994) La prolongation du combat Hutus- Tutsis L’Incapacité de l’Etat congolais à rétablir l’ordre dans le pays. Multiplications des milices criminelles; Beaucoup d’armes de provenances diverses / Renversements d’alliances Implication connue des pays voisins (Rwanda, Ouganda) dans le trafic pour s’emparer des richesses naturelles de la RDC
Africa : difficult to imagine a future
Borderpol recommands to embed free international law enforcement experts within African combined border units and anti smuggling teams in order to fight corruption, to maintain effective law enforcement presence among the borderline sensitive areas and pressure among the African political networks. A first step to the peace process.
On the approaches of the European borders we need to be vigilant and united. Alertness should be our watch word and any threat must be immediately fought for the defence of our citizens. Smugglers, pirates and terrorists easily cross the European borders, our experts are ready to go to the front line to help our weakest colleagues: the international law enforcement community should never give up. Thank you for your attention.