Presentation on theme: "2014 Legislative Update for Law Enforcement. More detailed information about individual bills (including the final text and legislative history) is available."— Presentation transcript:
2014 Legislative Update for Law Enforcement
More detailed information about individual bills (including the final text and legislative history) is available at the General Assembly website: New laws are effective on July 1, 2014, unless otherwise noted.
Magistrates; authorized to issue search warrants throughout Commonwealth HB 138/SB 485 Amends §§ and A magistrate may issue search warrants in accordance with Va. Code § , et seq., throughout the Commonwealth. Local law enforcement still must execute such search warrants.
Warrant requirement for certain tele- communications records; real-time location data HB 17 Amends § Law enforcement must get a search warrant to “ping” a suspect’s phone to collect real-time location data. Exceptions: ▫To respond to user’s call for emergency services ▫With consent of the owner/user ▫With consent of legal guardian/next of kin if owner/user is missing
Warrant requirement for certain tele- communications records; real-time location data (con’t.) HB 17 Exceptions (con’t.): ▫If law enforcement believes that there is an immediate danger to a person and there is insufficient time to get a warrant. Historic cell tower information can still be obtained by a § court order.
Administrative subpoenas; human trafficking-related offenses HB 485 Amends § Adds abduction and prostitution as crimes for which CA’s can issue administrative subpoenas for records from electronic communication and remote computing service providers. The CA must certify on the face of the subpoena that the records are relevant to a legitimate law enforcement investigation.
Multi-jurisdictional Grand Juries; numerous changes to laws governing HB 56 Expands with whom information may be shared (chief LEO and sworn investigators). Clarifies that Special Counsel may issue subpoenas for records without requiring a custodian to appear. Clarifies the use of testimony for perjury charges and for impeachment purposes. Clarifies how, where, and how long records are to be maintained. Amends § § , , , ,
Suspected child abuse or neglect; reports to law enforcement HB 405 Amends § Requires local social services to notify CA and law enforcement of suspected child abuse and neglect no more than 2 hours from receipt of complaint. Social services also must provide records related to the investigation of the complaint.
Multidisciplinary teams; child sexual abuse HB 334/SB 421 Adds Virginia Code § Requires CA’s to establish local MDT’s for cases of child sexual abuse and to conduct regular reviews. Mandatory members: CA, child abuse investigator, CPS and CAC’s & ICAC’s (if available). Optional members: school superintendents, local sexual assault crisis center, V/W director, health care professional. Upon request of member, MDT also can review cases of abuse & neglect. Effective date: July 1, 2015
Seizure of property; human trafficking HB 660 Adds Virginia Code § Property used in connection with certain human trafficking-related offenses is subject to forfeiture.
Seized drugs and paraphernalia; forfeiture to law enforcement HB 186/SB 349 When possession or title cannot be established, seized drugs and paraphernalia may be forfeited to law enforcement agencies. ▫Must be for training purposes. ▫Only by court order. ▫Limits on amounts retained. ▫Monthly inventories required. ▫Must be destroyed within 12 months. Amends §
Bond conditions; no contact provision SB 501 Amends § Removes the 72 hour limit on the ‘no contact with household members’ bond condition that judicial officers may impose.
Arraignment; conditional guilty plea in circuit court HB 80 Amends § Gives a defendant the right to enter a conditional guilty plea in a misdemeanor case in circuit court.
Witnesses; right to nondisclosure of certain information SB 640 Amends §§ and Adds witnesses in serious gang & drug offense and violent felony trials to list of witnesses who may request to have their address, phone numbers and place of employment withheld.
Prior sex offenses admissible; sex crimes against children HB 403 Adds Virginia Code § :1. When a defendant is accused of a felony sexual crime against a child, evidence of defendant’s previous convictions of sex offense(s) may be admissible if they are relevant. Rule of Evidence 2:403 still applies (weighing probative versus prejudicial value.)
911 calls as evidence; admissibility HB 1248 Amends § calls are deemed authentic and admissible if accompanied by a certificate containing: ▫Custodian’s authentication that it is a true copy, ▫Date and time of the call, ▫Incoming phone number associated with that call, if available.
Certificates of Analysis; electronic signature HB 518 Amends §§ , and :7. Allows DFS to scan blood withdrawal certificate and electronically submit it and the certificate of analysis to the clerk of court. Allows DFS to sign electronically certificates of analysis for drugs or alcohol.
Rejection of plea agreement; recusal HB 452 Amends § and adds § If a judge rejects a plea agreement, she must immediately recuse herself from the proceeding unless the parties agree otherwise.
Recording; misdemeanor trials in circuit court HB 704 Adds Virginia Code § Allows the defendant, the CA, or both, to record misdemeanor trials in circuit court.
Crime victim’s rights; offenses by juveniles HB 171 The victim of a delinquent act, that would have been a felony or specified misdemeanor if committed by an adult, can request notice of: 1.Charge (s) brought; 2.Findings of the court; 3.Disposition of the case. Specified misdemeanors: A&B, stalking, violation of P/O, sexual battery or attempted sexual battery. Amends §§ and
Crimes & Offenses
Certain homicides; accessories after the fact HB 976 Amends § An accessory after the fact to a homicide punishable by death or as a Class 2 felony is guilty of a Class 6 felony. Currently punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.
Sodomy, crimes against nature, penalty SB 14 Response to MacDonald v. Moose. Adds the words “anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio and anilingus” to numerous Code sections to clarify what behaviors are prohibited. Clarifies sex crimes prohibited by crimes against nature statute. Bill was an emergency and was effective on passage. Amends §§ :1, , , , , , , , and
Sex offender registry; solicitation; pandering; minors HB 235/SB 454 Amends §§ and Adds solicitation of minors and pandering of minors to sex offender registry requirements. Provides that a person engaged in pandering involving minors is guilty of a Class 4 felony.
Sexual battery; touching person’s intimate parts; penalty HB 567 Amends § A person is guilty of sexual battery if, within a two-year period, such person sexually abuses intentionally and without consent: ▫more than 1 victim; or ▫one victim more than once. Class 1 misdemeanor.
Incest; definitions SB 476 Amends § Provides that term ‘parent’ includes step-parent, term ‘grandparent’ includes step-grandparent, term ‘child’ includes minor step-child and term ‘grandchild’ includes minor step-grandchild.
Unlawful dissemination/sale of images of another; Class 1 misdemeanor HB 326 Amends § to include images created “by any means whatsoever.” Adds § which creates a Class 1 misdemeanor for maliciously disseminating or selling “revenge porn.”
Assault & battery; family or household member; enhancement HB 708 Amends § Adds unlawful wounding (§ ) and strangulation (§ ) to list of offenses that can be used to enhance the penalty for A&B 3 rd or subsequent within 20 years from Class 1 misdemeanor to Class 6 felony.
Assault & battery; school employees; penalty HB 851/SB 570 Amends § Adds enhanced penalty for A&B against any full or part-time school employees engaged in their duties (not just teachers, principals, guidance counselors). Class 1 misdemeanor. Minimum of 15 days in jail, with at least 2 days to serve.
Reckless handling of firearm; permanent physical impairment; penalty HB 810/SB 65 Amends § “Celebratory Gunfire” bill establishes that: ▫Handling a firearm in gross, wanton, culpable disregard of human life; ▫ Resulting in permanent and significant physical impairment; ▫Is punishable as a Class 6 felony.
Dextromethorphan Distribution Act HB 505/SB 213 Adds §§ , , No pharmacy or retailer can sell a dextromethorphan (cough suppressant) product to a minor ($25 civil penalty.) No minor may knowingly & intentionally purchase such products ($25 civil penalty.) Retailer must require proof of age. Distribution or PWID of unfinished dextromethorphan is a Class 1 misdemeanor. Effective date: January 1, 2015.
Cannabimimetic agents; regulation by Board of Pharmacy; penalties HB 1112/SB 594 Substitutes the term “cannabimimetic agents” for “synthetic cannabanoids”. Places “cannabimimetic agents” on Schedule I. Subject to same penalties as other Schedule I. ▫Exception: Simple possession is a Class 1 misd. Allows Board of Pharmacy to expedite adding of substances to Schedule I or II or the list of cannabimimetic agents.
Purchase of tobacco products by minors HB 218/SB 96 Amends § Adds nicotine vapor products and alternative nicotine products to list of tobacco products that cannot be sold to, or possessed by, minors. Targeted at electronic cigarettes. Provides definitions of ‘nicotine vapor products’ and ‘alternative nicotine products’.
Cigarette laws; administration and enforcement, etc. HB 853/SB 285, SB 352, SB 364, SB 365, SB 366, SB 478, SB 489 Provides, in part, that: ▫Violations can be investigated by multijurisdictional grand jury. ▫Counterfeit or unstamped cigarettes may be assigned by the court for use by law enforcement undercover investigations. ▫Person convicted no longer eligible to be an authorized dealer. ▫Sealed, labeled packaging is prima facie evidence that it is a pack of cigarettes.
Cigarette laws; administration and enforcement, etc. (con’t.) HB 853 Penalties are graduated based on the number of offenses. Amends §§ , , , , Adds §
DUI; probation; license suspension, etc. SB 482 Removes provision that a defendant convicted of 4 th or subseq. DUI/10 years shall be on probation and under suspended sentence for the same period as his O/L was suspended, not to exceed 3 years. Provides that suspension can occur for refusal to submit to breath test or blood test. Clarifies that VASAP is required for all convictions under §
DUI; probation; license suspension, etc. (con’t.) SB 482 Fixes two incorrect cross-references. Corrects an omission regarding administrative suspension of licenses for failure to order ignition interlock. Amends §§ , ; and
Wearing masks in public; exceptions; penalty HB 542 Amends § Adds intent element to the offense. Must prove wearer had intent to conceal his identity. ▫Exception for children younger than 16. Class 6 felony.
Automated sales suppression devices; penalty SB 611 Amends §§ and An automated sales suppression device is an electronic means of falsifying cash register and point-of-sale records. Makes it a Class 1 misdemeanor to use such a device. Offender also subject to $20,000 civil penalty.
Bicycles, etc.; minimum clearance for passing SB 97 Amends § Increases from 2 to 3 feet the minimum clearance necessary between a passing vehicle and: ▫Bicycles; ▫Electric personal mobility device; ▫Electric power-assisted bicycle; ▫Moped; ▫Animal; ▫Animal-drawn vehicle.
Commitment to DJJ; social history HB 183/SB 128 Unless waived by agreement with CA, a judge must consider a social history before committing a juvenile to DJJ. Currently, a social history can be completed up to 15 days after commitment. Amends §§ , , ,
Fraudulent conversion or removal of leased property; restitution HB 159 Amends § Requires a court to order a person found guilty of fraudulent conversion of leased property to make restitution. Restitution may include: ▫Cost of repair; ▫Actual value, if damage irreparable; and ▫Any reasonable loss of revenue.
Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund (CICF); filing of claims HB 885/SB 186 Allows CICF to extend time for filing claims based upon newly discovered evidence. Applies to crimes committed between July 1, 1977, and July 1, Amends §§ , ,
Name changes: sex offenders, probationers, inmates HB 233 Amends § Court is required to send such name change applications to CA and to conduct a hearing. Court may order a name change if it finds: It would not frustrate a legitimate law enforcement purpose, It is not sought for fraudulent purpose, and It would not infringe on rights of others. A non-complying order is invalid.
Sex offenders; registration; name change HB 1251 Amends §§ and Sex offenders must re-register within 3 days following a name change. Those incarcerated or civilly committed must notify the sex offender registry within 3 days of name change. Registry information must include former name.
Emergency protective orders; arrests for DV, etc.; definition of LEO HB 285/SB 71 Amends §§ and Adds qualified conservators of the peace to definition of LEO’s who can: ▫ Make arrests for A&B on a family or household member, stalking and violations of a protective order. ▫Obtain an emergency protective order.
Protective Orders; companion animals HB 972 Allows court to award petitioner custody of companion animals. Amends §§ , , , , , and
Protective Orders; motor vehicle maintenance HB 335/SB 151 Amends § When court grants petitioner possession or use of vehicle, court can direct respondent to maintain insurance, registration and taxes.
2014 Virginia Civil Commitment Code Changes HB293/HB323/HB478/HB1172/SB260/SB439 Amends §§ , , , , , , , , , Adds §§ :1, , Incorporate or identical to HB 234, HB 574, SB 200, SB 263, SB 370, SB 458. Mental Health Task Force to study impact on law enforcement and make recommendations to reduce burden on law enforcement resources.
Emergency custody HB 478/SB 260 ECO valid for a period not to exceed 8 hours from the time of execution. ▫No extension required to reach 8 hour period. ▫8 hour period applies to both paper and “paperless” ECO’s Old law: 4 hour period with possible 2 hour extension ▫8 hours to execute an ECO from the time of issuance Old law: 6 hours to execute
Emergency custody SB 260 At the end of the 8 hour period… If: ▫The individual is detained in a state facility because a temporary detention facility could not be identified (state facility used as a “facility of last resort”), Then: ▫The CSB and the state facility may continue for 4 additional hours to i.d. an alternative facility (TDO already issued.) ▫This provision expires June 30, 2018.
Emergency custody; notification of CSB HB 478/SB 260 Requires LEO to notify CSB as soon as practicable when minor/adult taken into emergency custody or the ECO is executed. ▫Applies to both paper and “paperless” ECO’s.
Emergency custody; notification of rights HB 478/SB 260 Any person taken into emergency custody shall be given a written summary of procedures and statutory protections. ▫Supreme Court form DC4050. ▫Statute silent on who has this responsibility – locality needs to determine procedure. ▫Forms available from Virginia Supreme Court website on July 1, ▫General District Court Clerks will have limited copies of this form.
Determining Temporary Detention Facility HB 293/SB 260 Upon receiving notification of the need for an evaluation, the CSB shall contact the State facility serving the area in which the CSB is located and notify it that the individual will be transported to it upon the issuance of a TDO if an alternative facility cannot be identified by the expiration of the 8 hour emergency custody order. Upon completion of the evaluation, the CSB shall provide information about the individual to the State facility to allow it to determine the services the individual will require on admission.
Determining temporary detention facility HB 293/SB 260 Once notified, the State facility may conduct a search for an alternative facility ▫May contact another state facility if it is unable to provide temporary detention and appropriate care If State finds an alternative facility, it shall notify the CSB and the CSB shall designate the alternative facility on the preadmission screening report.
Determining temporary detention facility; role of state facilities HB 293/SB 260 A State facility shall not fail or refuse to admit an individual who meets the criteria for TDO unless an alternative facility agrees to accept the individual. If a facility of temporary detention cannot be identified by the expiration of the 8-hour emergency custody period, the individual shall be detained in the State facility. ▫State facility = facility of last resort. An individual who meets the criteria for TDO shall not be released. ▫Custody potential problematic issue.
Temporary detention; change of facility HB 1172 Amends §§ and CSB may change the facility of TDO and may designate an alternative facility at any point during the period of temporary detention. ▫Must determine alternative facility is a more appropriate facility given the specific security, medical, or behavioral needs of the person. ▫CSB must provide written notice to the clerk of the name and address of the alternative facility.
Temporary detention; change of facility; transportation HB 1172 If the facility of temporary detention is changed transportation is provided in accordance with ▫If law enforcement or an alternative transportation provider has custody of the person when the change is made, individual shall be transported to the alternative facility. ▫If individual has been transported to initial TDO facility, CSB will request the magistrate to enter an order specifying an alternative transportation provider, or if no alternative transportation provider, the local law enforcement agency where the person resides or is located if 50 mile rule is applicable.
Temporary detention; transportation HB 1172 In determining the primary law enforcement agency to provide transportation, the magistrate shall specify in the TDO the law enforcement agency of the jurisdiction where the person resides or any other willing law enforcement agency that has agreed to provide transportation ▫Provides for active collaboration among law enforcement agencies
Temporary detention; notification of rights HB 478/SB 260 Any person detained shall be given a written summary of procedures and statutory protections. ▫Supreme Court form DC4050. ▫Statute silent on who has this responsibility – locality needs to determine procedure. ▫Forms available from Virginia Supreme Court website on July 1, ▫General District Court Clerks will have limited copies of this form.
Temporary detention; commitment hearing HB 574/SB 260 Commitment hearing shall be held within 72 hours of the execution of the TDO If the 72-hour period ends on a Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday, or day on which the court is lawfully closed, person may be detained until COB on the next business day when the court is open ▫Old Law: 48 hours
Commitment hearing HB 574/SB 260/SB 439 When the judge informs the individual of his right to apply for voluntary admission and advises him that if he chooses to be voluntarily admitted he will be prohibited from possessing or purchasing a gun, the judge must now advise the individual that he will also be prohibited from transporting a gun. ▫Consistent with :3.
Mental health; prohibition of firearms HB 743/SB 576 The following documents must be filed in the clerk’s office where hearings are held by COB the following day: ▫Commitment orders or certifications of voluntary commitment. ▫Court findings in guardianship/conservator cases. Requires clerk to certify and forward to CCRE certain orders by COB the next day. The current requirement is “forthwith.” Amends §§ and
Minors HB 478/SB 260 ECO period increased to 8 hours (was 4) ▫Provision for extension removed ▫8 hours to execute an ECO (was 6) ▫TDO period unchanged for minors (96 hours) Law enforcement agency that executes the ECO shall notify the CSB responsible for conducting the evaluation as soon as practicable after taking the person into custody. ▫Applies to paper and “paperless” ECOs.
Minors HB 293/SB 260 Provisions for determining the facility of temporary detention are same as for adults. ▫State facility if an alternative facility is not identified before expiration of the ECO. If detention in a state facility occurs at expiration of 8 hour period because another facility could not be identified, CSB and the state facility may continue to identify an alternative for an additional 4 hours. ▫Expires June 30, ▫HB1172 only applicable to adults.
Psychiatric bed registry SB 260/SB 439 Establishes acute psychiatric bed registry with real time information on bed availability. Bed registry shall: ▫Include descriptive information for each inpatient psychiatric facility, residential crisis stabilization unit, including contact information ▫Provide real-time information about the number of beds available and for each bed: The type of patient that may be admitted Level of security provided Any other information to allow identification of appropriate facilities for temporary detention
Human trafficking; DCJS model policy SB 654 Amends § Requires DCJS to publish and disseminate a human trafficking model policy for law enforcement. Must be designed to ensure that investigators and patrol officers are sensitive to and aware of human trafficking offenses and the identification of victims.
College police & security depts.; DCJS to identify core operational functions HB 587/SB 440 DCJS is required to conduct a study to identify potential minimum core operational functions for college campus police and security departments. DCJS also shall determine costs of compliance and legislative amendments necessary to require compliance.
Central station dispatchers; exempt from training if station has certification SB 85 Adds § Central station dispatchers at central stations certified by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory are exempt from training requirements established by DCJS.
PERKS; inventory by DFS SB 658 Requires state and local law enforcement to report inventory of untested PERKS to DFS. DFS must submit report of inventories to the General Assembly prior to 2015 session. Requirement conditional on funding.
Interjurisdictional law enforcement agreements; loan of unmarked units HB 872 Amends § Interjurisdictional law enforcement agreements may allow for the loan of unmarked police vehicles.
Regional Criminal Justice Academy Training Fund; local fee HB 1049/SB 597 Amends § Changes the date by which a locality must have been operating a certified independent criminal justice academy from 7/1/2010, to 7/1/2012, to allow certain localities to charge a fee for operating their criminal justice academies.
Concealed handgun permits HB 100 Amends §§ and Any references to issuance of concealed handgun permit in any order book before 7/1/2008 are exempt from requirement that such orders be withheld from public disclosure. Requires circuit court clerks to issue replacement concealed handgun permits to permit holders undergoing lawful name change.
Inspection stickers; increases grace period for members of armed forces HB 411/SB 138 Amends § Increases grace period for vehicle safety inspections from 5 business days to 14 calendar days. ▫Applies only to members of the armed forces who are on active duty.
Jane Sherman Chambers Director, Commonwealth’s Attorneys’ Services Council William & Mary Law School 613 S. Henry Street, Room 220 P. O. Box 3549 Williamsburg, Virginia