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Global Health 2035: Implications for Economic Policy Lawrence H. Summers Charles W. Eliot University Professor, Harvard University Presentation at IMF,

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Presentation on theme: "Global Health 2035: Implications for Economic Policy Lawrence H. Summers Charles W. Eliot University Professor, Harvard University Presentation at IMF,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Health 2035: Implications for Economic Policy Lawrence H. Summers Charles W. Eliot University Professor, Harvard University Presentation at IMF, Feb 12, 2014

2 Global Health 2035: 4 Key Messages The returns from investing in health are extremely impressive A grand convergence in health is achievable within our lifetime Fiscal policies are a powerful, underused lever for curbing non- communicable diseases and injuries Progressive pathways to universal health coverage are an efficient way to achieve health and financial protection

3 Two Centuries of Divergence; ‘4C Countries’ Then Converged

4 Now on Cusp of a Historical Achievement: Nearly All Countries Could Converge by 2035

5 Rwanda: Steepest Fall in Child Mortality Ever Recorded Farmer P, et al. BMJ 2013; 346: f65 Investment ($70B/year) is Not a High Risk Venture: Rapid Mortality Decline Is Possible

6 2035 Grand Convergence Targets are Achievable: “16-8-4” Under-5 death rate per 1,000 live births 16 Annual AIDS deaths per 100,000 population 8 Annual TB deaths per 100,000 population 4 In line with US/UK in 1980

7 Impact and Cost of Convergence

8 Full Income: A Better Way to Measure the Returns from Investing in Health income growth value life years gained (VLYs) in that period change in country's full income over a time period Between 2000 and 2011, about a quarter of the growth in full income in low-income and middle-income countries resulted from VLYs gained

9 With Full Income Approach, Convergence Has Impressive Benefit: Cost Ratio

10 Sources of Income to Fund Convergence Economic growth IMF estimates $9.6 trillion/y from in low- and lower middle-income countries Cost of convergence ($70 billion/y) is less than 1% of anticipated growth Mobilization of domestic resources Taxation of tobacco, alcohol, sugar, extractive industries Inter-sectoral reallocations and efficiency gains Removal of fossil fuel subsidies, health sector efficiency Subsidies account for an 3.5% of GDP on a post-tax basis Development assistance for health Will still be crucial for achieving convergence

11 Crucial Role for International Collective Action: Global Public Goods & Managing Externalities Best way to support convergence is funding R&D for diseases disproportionately affecting LICs and LMICs and managing externalities e.g. flu pandemic Current R&D ($3B/y) should be doubled, with half the increment funded by MICs Current global spending on R&D for ‘convergence conditions’ Total: $3B/y

12 Global Public Goods: Important or Game-Changing Products Likely to be available before 2020: DiagnosticsDrugsVaccinesDevices ImportantPoint-of-care diagnostics for HIV, TB, malaria New malaria and TB co-formulations; long- acting contraceptives; new influenza drugs Efficacious malaria vaccine; heat- stable vaccines Self-injected vaccines Game-changingSingle dose cure for vivax and falciparum malaria DiagnosticsDrugsVaccinesDevices ImportantAntibiotics based on new mechanism of action Combined diarrhea vaccine (rotavirus, E.coli, typhoid, shigella) Game-changingNew classes of antiviral drugs HIV vaccine, TB vaccine, universal flu vaccine Likely to be available before 2030:

13 Managing Cross-Border Externalities Tackling global crisis of antibiotic resistance Ending the global crisis of counterfeit drugs Preparing for the next influenza pandemic

14 Preparing for the Next Influenza Pandemic Growing concern about a new pandemic similar to 1918 pandemic, which killed 50 million people in era before mass international transit WHO’s influenza budget was just $7.7 million in 2013, less than a third of what one city, NYC, devotes to public health preparedness International community must support development of a universal influenza vaccine and of surveillance and response systems Must develop adequate production capacity for flu drugs and vaccines and an IP regime that ensures universal access

15 Single Greatest Opportunity To Curb NCDs is Tobacco Taxation 50% rise in tobacco price from tax increases in China  prevents 20 million deaths + generates extra $20 billion/y in next 50 y  additional tax revenue would fall over time but would be higher than current levels even after 50 y  largest share of life-years gained is in bottom income quintile 50% rise in tobacco price from tax increases in China  prevents 20 million deaths + generates extra $20 billion/y in next 50 y  additional tax revenue would fall over time but would be higher than current levels even after 50 y  largest share of life-years gained is in bottom income quintile

16 We Argue for Taxes on Sugar and Sugar- Sweetened Sodas  Taxing empty calories, e.g. sugary sodas, can reduce prevalence of obesity and raise significant public revenue  Taxes need to be large (20% or more) to change behavior  These taxes do not hurt the poor: main dietary problem in low- income groups is poor dietary quality and not energy insufficiency  Taxing empty calories, e.g. sugary sodas, can reduce prevalence of obesity and raise significant public revenue  Taxes need to be large (20% or more) to change behavior  These taxes do not hurt the poor: main dietary problem in low- income groups is poor dietary quality and not energy insufficiency

17 Our Recommendation on Universal Health Coverage: Progressive Universalism (Blue Shading)

18 Thank GlobalHealth2035.org


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