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About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the.

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Presentation on theme: "About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS Group hosts over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organize over 300 International Conferences annually all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS Group

2 All Rights Reserved 2 About Omics Group conferences OMICS GroupOMICS Group signed an agreement with more than 1000 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access. OMICS Group Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentationsOMICS Group Omics group has organised 500 conferences, workshops and national symposium across the major cities including SanFrancisco,Omaha,Orlado,Rayleigh,SantaClara,Chic ago,Philadelphia,Unitedkingdom,Baltimore,SanAntanio, Dubai,Hyderabad,Bangaluru and Mumbai.

3 University of Connecticut Multi-level Authentication Platform Using Electronic Nano-Signatures Kiarash Ahi, Anas Mazady, Abdiel Rivera, Mohammad Tehranipoor and Mehdi Anwar Reflection from ENS Laser pointer

4 The Challenge Increased proliferation of counterfeit electronic components threatens both commercial and defense industries in the areas of product performance, reliability and dependability. Impacts Negative impact on innovation The threat to welfare of consumers

5 All Rights Reserved 5 Existing Solutions Visual Inspection Optical Characterization Electrical Testing Material Inspection X-ray Imaging THz Imaging/Analysis (another ongoing effort at CHASE) Counterfeit detection still has much intrinsic subjectivity, and thus the confidence level of the associated results is lacking Lacks Conclusivity and Cross Referencing

6 All Rights Reserved 6 Smart Electronics PUFS/Smart Electrical-Optical Technology May be designed and incorporated in electronic components in the design phase ensuring component authenticity. Components currently either in the market or in the production line (without any built in component authentication signatures) The challenge is to be able to incorporate counterfeit identification signatures in COTS electronic components. Requirements Inexpensive Dependable/Electrically Robust Integrable with existing production flow Fast – able to incorporate signatures within a few seconds without causing delay in production line Difficult to imitate

7 All Rights Reserved 7 ENS – Engineered Nano-Signatures Technology Comparison

8 All Rights Reserved 8 Multi-Layer Authentication

9 All Rights Reserved 9 Metamaterials are periodic or quasi-periodic, sub-wavelength metal structures. The electro-magnetic material properties are derived from its structure rather than inheriting them directly from its material composition. Electromagnetic properties altered to something beyond what can be found in nature, i.e. negative refractive index Introduction to Metamaterials empty glassregular water, n = 1.3“negative” water, n = -1.3

10 All Rights Reserved 10 ε ε < 0, μ < 0 Not found in nature ε > 0, μ < 0 Gyrotropic ε > 0, μ > 0 Dielectrics ε 0 Plasma ABSORPTION POSITIVE REFRACTION NEGATIVE REFRACTION!! Introduction to Metamaterials μ

11 All Rights Reserved 11 Snell`s Law Negative Refractive Index Metamaterial Regular Material

12 All Rights Reserved 12 Split ring resonator (SRR) made from copper. c=0.8 mm, d=0.2 mm, r=1.5 mm. Resonance at 4.845 GHz Both permeability (μ) and permittivity ( ɛ ) are negative in microwave range Realization of Metamaterials Smith et al. Physical Review Lett. vol. 84, no. 18 (2000)

13 All Rights Reserved 13 Realization of Metamaterials Yao et al. Science. vol. 321 (2008)  Ag nanowires: diameter=60 nm, length = 1.5  m  Negative refraction was observed in optical frequencies for TM wave  Ag NWs inside porous alumina matrix acts as metamaterials.  The effective permittivity parallel to the NW is negative while along perpendicular direction it is positive

14 All Rights Reserved 14 ENS Employing Metamaterials A tool allowing identification of good ICs, already been capped and in post design phase. Allows the detection of over-produced or counterfeit ICs as the counterfeiters will not be able to re-generate the random ENS and resurfacing will destroy the ENS. Non-destructive Inexpensive detection: only a laser pointer does the job !! The ENS array can be tailored to provide signatures unique to the IC.

15 All Rights Reserved 15 9 µm 0.5 µm Single pixel of metamaterial ENS using a 5×5 array of metamaterials Schematic of ENS ENS was written on a commercially available IC using Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) followed by Au sputtering

16 All Rights Reserved 16 SEM Images

17 All Rights Reserved 17 Optical Microscope Images (> 1000x)

18 All Rights Reserved 18 Laser Focus IC Experimental Setup

19 All Rights Reserved 19 2nd Reflection Video Demonstration Demonstration

20 All Rights Reserved 20 Optical Image of Metal Patches 20CHASE Meeting

21 All Rights Reserved 21 Reflection from the metal patch is very weak and the 2 nd reflection spot is not observed. Laser Experiment on Metal Patch

22 All Rights Reserved 22 Reflection from ENS Laser pointer Laser Experiment on ENS (Background Minimized) Video Demonstration Height Adjustment Distance Adjustment Y-axis Adjustment

23 All Rights Reserved 23 Reflection from ENS Laser pointer Frequency Information Height Adjustment

24 All Rights Reserved 24 Preparing Images for Extracting Structural Information 1. Adjusting the dimension: The images have been rescaled to 181×242 pixels. Rescaling have been done By resizing and cropping. The aspect-ratios of the images have been maintained. 2. Removing the color: The color data has been removed from the images; only Y matrices which represents the Luma information of the images have been kept for the comparisons. 3. Filtering the unwanted disturbances and noise: For removing the unwanted disturbances and noise on the background of the images pixels with intensities lower than 0.2 has been set to 0. 4. Image Registration: For the sake of keeping the aspect ratio, in the first set of similarity measurements, the images are not aligned by Image Registration process. In a second set of similarity measurements, the images have been first aligned by employing image registration principles using Matlab (results are not presented in this paper).

25 All Rights Reserved 25 Luminance (Y) Inphase (I)Qudrature (Q) Original image is decomposed into three parts using the YIQ model: Luminance (Y) – containts the information about brightness Inphase (I) and Quadrature (Q) – contain color information Processing is performed on the luminance part, and the other two reamain untouched to reconstruct the original color Image Processing

26 All Rights Reserved 26 Luminance Reconstracted image Inphase (I) Qudrature (Q)

27 All Rights Reserved 27 Histogram of Image Intensity

28 All Rights Reserved 28 Image with background removed Reconstructed color image Image Reconstruction: Zone 1 Original color image

29 All Rights Reserved 29 Image with higher intensity pixels Reconstructed color image Image Reconstruction: Zone 2

30 All Rights Reserved 30 Image with highest intensity pixels Reconstructed color image Image Reconstruction: Zone 3

31 All Rights Reserved 31 Image at 3.1VImage at 3.5VImage at 4.5V Estimated Dimension (um) OriginalSegmentedOriginalSegmentedOriginalSegmented Lower200.6073.8994.3160.29259.9577.02 Higher812.84151.10132.91108.08273.36160.37 MATLAB Routine 1.Load image 2.Decompose image into YIQ model 3.Calculate image resolution 4.Calculate image size in cm 5.Create histogram and segmentize the image 6.Compute FFT distribution in terms of wavenumber 7.Determine the wavenumber at which peak occurs 8.Calculate dimension Extracted Structural Information

32 All Rights Reserved 32 Effects of Aging and Ambient Room Humidity High Moisture Histogram of the original image and the filter. Histograms after filtration Luma components (Y matrix) of the Images after filtering Extracted dimension from FFT 60 µm × 108 µm The horizontal axis represents brightness levels and the vertical axis represents number of pixels with corresponding brightness. 3 Months Old ENS

33 All Rights Reserved 33 Similarity Analysis Table 1: Structural SIMilarity (SSIM), for identical images value = 1, for the poorest similarities value =0 Table 2: Mean squared error (MSE), for identical images value = 0, for the poorest similarities value = 1 Table 3: Euclidean distance(ED), for identical images value = 0 Room HumidityHigh Moisture3 Months Old ENS Room Humidity10.99880.9791 High Moisture0.998810.9779 3 Months Old ENS 0.9791 0.97791 Room HumidityHigh Moisture3 Months Old ENS Room Humidity00.00770.1333 High Moisture0.007700.1408 3 Months Old ENS 0.1333 0.14080 Room HumidityHigh Moisture3 Months Old ENS Room Humidity018.345776.4078 High Moisture18.3457078.5268 3 Months Old ENS 76.4078 78.52680

34 All Rights Reserved 34 Risk and Roadblocks Initial Demonstration Metal Thickness Needs to be Optimized Metal Type and Processing Steps Need Optimization Significance of Optical Readout and Identifying areas of Interest

35 All Rights Reserved 35 Conclusion Metamaterials were employed to create ENS IC chips with appropriated ENS show distinct features in the reflection IC chips with inappropriate ENS or just metal patches do not show such features Image processing was performed to extract the structural information of the ENS 35CHASE Meeting

36 All Rights Reserved 36 Let Us Meet Again We welcome all to our future group conferences of Omics group international Please visit:

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