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The Matter of England First Tetralogy Henry VI Part 1 1592 Henry VI Part 2 1591 Henry VI Part 3 1591 Richard III 1592-3 Second Tetralogy Richard II 1595.

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Presentation on theme: "The Matter of England First Tetralogy Henry VI Part 1 1592 Henry VI Part 2 1591 Henry VI Part 3 1591 Richard III 1592-3 Second Tetralogy Richard II 1595."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Matter of England First Tetralogy Henry VI Part Henry VI Part Henry VI Part Richard III Second Tetralogy Richard II Henry IV Henry IV Henry V King John1596 Henry VIII1613 (with Fletcher) King Lear Cymbeline1610

2 YORK: Seek you to seize and grip into your hands The royalties and rights of banished Hereford? Is not Gaunt dead? And doth not Hereford live? … Take Hereford’s rights away, and take from Time His charters and his customary rights Let not tomorrow then ensue today; Be not thyself, for how art thou a king But by fair sequence and succession? … KING RICHARD: Think what you will, we seize into our hands His plate, his goods, his money and his lands. Richard II, , * * * RICHARD: I wasted time, and now doth time waste me. Richard II, [Richard’s original ‘fault’? Action & Consequence]

3 RICHARD: Northumberland, thou ladder wherewithal The mounting Bolingbroke ascends my throne, The time shall not be many hours of age More than it is ere foul sin, gathering head, Shall break into corruption. Thou shalt think, Though he divide the real and give thee half, It is too little helping him to all. He shall think that thou, which know’st the way To plant unrightful kings, wilt know again, Being ne’er so little urged another way, To pluck him headlong from the usurpèd throne. The love of wicked friends converts to fear, That fear to hate, and hate turns one or both To worthy danger and deserved death. NORTHUMBERLAND: My guilt be on my head and there an end. (Richard II, )

4 KING HENRY: ’Tis not ten years gone Since Richard and Northumberland, great friends, Did feast together; and in two year after Were they at wars. It is but eight years since This Percy was the man nearest my soul, Who like a brother toiled in my affairs, And laid his love and life under my foot, Yea, for my sake, even to the eyes of Richard Gave him defiance. But which of you was by, You, cousin Neville, as I may remember, When Richard, with his eye brimful of tears, Then checked and rated by Northumberland, Did speak these words, now proved a prophecy? – ‘Northumberland, thou ladder by the which My cousin Bolingbroke ascends my throne’ – Though then, God knows, I had no such intent, But that necessity so bowed the state That I and greatness were compelled to kiss – ‘The time shall come’ – thus did he follow it – ‘The time shall come that foul sin, gathering head, Shall break into corruption’; so went on, Foretelling this same time’s condition, And division of our amity. (Henry IV Part 2, )

5 WARWICK: There is a history in all men’s lives Figuring the natures of the times deceased; The which observed, a man may prophesy, With a near aim, of the main chance of things As yet not come to life, who in their seeds And weak beginnings lie intreasurèd. Such things become the hatch and brood of time; And by the necessary form of this King Richard might create a perfect guess That great Northumberland, then false to him, Would of that seed grow to a greater falseness, Which should not find a ground to root upon Unless on you. Henry IV Part

6 KING HENRY: Had I so lavish of my presence been So common-hackneyed in the eyes of men, So stale and cheap to vulgar company, Opinion, that did help me to the crown, Had still kept loyal to possession, And left me in reputeless banishment, A fellow of no mark nor likelihood. By being seldom seen, I could not stir But like a comet I was wondered at, That men would tell their children, ‘This is he.’ Others would say, ‘Where, which is Bolingbroke?’ And then I stole all courtesy from heaven, And dressed myself in such humility That I did pluck allegiance from men’s hearts, Loud shouts and salutations from their mouths, Even in the presence of the crowned King. Thus did I keep my person fresh and new, My presence like a robe pontifical – Ne’er seen but wondered at – and so my state, Seldom but sumptuous, showed like a feast, And won by rareness such solemnity. Henry IV Part 1, [Compare Richard II, , ‘great Bolingbroke/ Mounted upon a hot a fiery steed…/Bare-headed, lower Than his proud steed’s neck, / Bespake them thus: ‘I thank you countrymen.]

7 KING HENRY: The skipping King, he ambled up and down With shallow jesters and rash bavin wits, Soon kindled and soon burnt, carded his state, Mingled his royalty with cap’ring fools, Had his great name profaned with their scorns, And gave his countenance, against his name, To laugh at gibing boys and stand the push Of every beardless vain comparative; Grew a companion to the common streets, Enfeoffed himself to popularity, That, being daily swallowed by men’s eyes, They surfeited with honey, and began To loathe the taste of sweetness, whereof a little More than a little is by much too much. So when he had occasion to be seen, He was but as the cuckoo is in June, Heard, not regarded, seen but with such eyes As, sick and blunted with community, Afford no extraordinary gaze Such as is bent on sun-like majesty When it shines seldom in admiring eyes, But rather drowsed and hung their eyelids down, Slept in his face, and rendered such aspect As cloudy men use to their adversaries, Being with his presence glutted, gorged, and full. Henry IV Part 1,

8 HOTSPUR: Shall it for shame be spoken in these days, Or fill up chronicles in time to come, That men of your nobility and power Did gage them both in an unjust behalf, As both of you, God pardon it, have done: To put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose, And plant this thorn, this canker, Bolingbroke? Henry IV Part I,

9 KING RICHARD: Not all the water in the rough rude sea Can wash the balm from an anointed king. The breath of worldly men cannot depose The deputy elected by the Lord. Richard II, * * * * * * RICHARD: Alack, why am I sent for … ? To do what service am I sent for hither? YORK: To do that office of thine own good will Which tired majesty did make thee offer: The resignation of thy state and crown To Henry Bolingbroke. Richard II, , * * * * * * KING HENRY: They love not poison that do poison need; Nor do I thee. Though I did wish him dead, I hate the murderer, love him murdered… Lords, I protest my soul is foll of woe That blood should sprinkle me make me grow. … I’ll make a voyage to Holy Land To wash this blood off from my guilty hand. Richard II, , 45-50

10

11 HAL: Do thou stand for my father …

12 KING HENRY:... thou mak'st me sad, and mak'st me sin In envy that my lord Northumberland Should be the father to so blest a son -- A son who is the theme of honour's tongue, Amongst a grove the very straightest plant, Who is sweet Fortune's minion and her pride, Whilst I by looking on the praise of him See riot and dishonour stain the brow Of my young Harry. O, that it could be proved That some night-tripping fairy had exchanged In cradle clothes our children where they lay, And called mine Percy, his Plantagenet! Then would I have his Harry, and he mine. Henry IV Part 1,

13 PRINCE HAL:... I am not yet of Percy's mind, the Hotspur of the North -- he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Scots at a breakfast, washes his hands, and says to his wife, 'Fie upon this quiet life! I want work!' 'O my sweet Harry,' says she, 'how many hast thou killed today?' 'Give my roan horse a drench,' says he, and answers, 'Some fourteen'; an hour after, 'a trifle, a trifle.' I prithee call in Falstaff. I'll play Percy, and that damned brawn shall play Dame Mortimer his wife. 'Rivo,' says the drunkard. Call in Ribs. Call in Tallow. Henry IV Part I, * * * * * * HOTSPUR:... Where is his son, The nimble-footed madcap Prince of Wales And his comrades that daffed the world aside And bid it pass?... Let them come! They come like sacrifices in their trim... Come, let me taste my horse, Who bears me like a thunderbolt Against the bosom of the Prince of Wales. Harry to Harry shall, hot horse to horse Meet and ne'er part till one drop down a corpse. Henry IV Part I, ,

14 Model/Alternative Sons?Duty/Delinquency? Model/Alternative Fathers... Hotspur:Hal: NorthumberlandBolingbroke WorcesterFalstaff Glendower FALSTAFF: There's villainous news abroad...you must to court in the morning. That same mad fellow of the North, Percy, and he of Wales that... made Lucifer a cuckold... what a plague call you him? [Owain Glendower]... and his son-in-law Mortimer, and old Northumberland, and that sprightly Scot of Scots, Douglas, that runs a horseback up a hill perpendicular... Worcester is stolen away tonight. Thy father's beard is turned white with the news. You may buy land now as cheap as stinking mackerel... But tell me Hal, art not thou horribly afeard? Thou being heir-apparent...? PRINCE HAL: Not a whit, i'faith. I lack some of thy instinct. Henry IV Part 1,

15 WORCESTER: O no, my nephew must not know, Sir Richard, The liberal and kind offer of the King. VERNON: 'Twere best he did. WORCESTER: Then we are all undone. It is not possible, it cannot be, The King should keep his word in loving us. He will suspect us still, and find a time To punish this offence in other faults. Supposition all our lives shall be stuck full of eyes... Look how we can, or sad or merrily, Interpretation will misquote our looks... My nephew's trespass may be well forgot; It hath the excuse of youth and heat of blood, And an adopted name of privilege -- A hare-brained Hotspur, governed by his speen. All his offences live upon my head, And on his father's... We... shall pay for all. Therefore, good cousin, let not Harry know In any case the offer of the King. VERNON: Deliver what you will; I'll say 'tis so. Henry IV Part I,

16 Playwriting and Play Structure : Scenic juxtaposition/Scenic composition Binaries / Antitheses that contain each other/ Oxymorons: Loyal/RebelRule/Misrule Choleric/Phlegmatic Credulous/Sceptical Duty/Delinquency Riot/Restraint Prodigal/Careful Old/Young Fat/Thin Satan/Angel Horseback-breaker/Pull's Pizzle Coward/Valiant Honour/Dishonour

17 1.1 KING HENRY: What think you coz, Of this young Percy's pride? The prisoners Which he in this adventure hath surprised To his own use he keeps, and sends me word I shall have none but Mordake Earl of Fife. WESTMORELAND: This is his uncle's teaching... KING HENRY: But I have sent for him to answer this Wednesday... Council... Windsor......, more is to be said and to be done Than out of anger can be utterèd. WESTMORELAND: I will my liege. 1.2 FALSTAFF: Now, Hal, what time of day is it, lad? HAL: Thou art so fat-witted with drinking of old sack, and unbuttoning thee after supper, and sleeping upon benches after noon, that thou hast forgotten to demand that truly which thou wouldst truly know...

18 2.3 PRINCE HARRY:...Now merrily to horse. The thieves are all scattered, and possessed with fear So strongly that they dare not meet each other. Each takes his fellow for an officer. Away, good Ned. Falstaff sweats to death And lards the lean earth as he walks along. Were't not for laughing, I should pity him. POINS: How the fat rogue roared! Exeunt 2.4 Enter... reading a letter HOTSPUR: 'But for mine own part, my lord, I could be well contented to be there, in respect of the love I bear your house.’ He could be contented; why is he not then?... 'The purpose you undertake is dangerous' -- why, that's certain... but I tell you, my lord fool, out of this nettle danger we pluck the flower saftey.

19 2.5 PRINCE HAL: What hast found? PETO: Nothing but papers, my lord. PRINCE HAL: Let's see what they be. Read them. PETO [reads]: Item: a capon. 2s.2d Item: sauce. 4d Item: sack, two gallons 5s.8d Item: anchovies & sack after supper 2s.6d Item: bread ob. PRINCE HAL: O monstrous! But one halfpennyworth of bread to this intolerable deal of sack! What there is else, keep close; we'll read it at more advantage. There let him sleep till day. I'll to the court in the morning. We must all to the wars, and thy place shall be honourable. I'll procure this fat rogue a charge of foot, and I know his death will be a march of twelve score. The money shall be paid back again, with advantage. Be with me betimes in the morning; and so good morrow, Peto. PETO: Good morrow my lord. EXEUNT 3.1 ENTER HOTSPUR [et al.] MORTIMER: These promises are fair, the parties sure And our induction full of prosperous hope. HOTSPUR: Lord Mortimer and cousin Glendower Will you sit down? And Uncle Worcester? A plague upon it, I have forgot the map! GLENDOWER: No, here it is. Sit, cousin Percy, sit...

20 Theatre Stuff: Pieces of paper... Letter [Hotspur, 2.4] Map [Hotspur, 3.1] 'Certain papers’ [Falstaff, 2.5] More letters: Sent [York, 4.4: ‘…bear this sealed brief…If you knew how much they do import you would make haste] Delivered: [Messenger, 5.2, ‘My lord, here are letters for you.’ Hotspur: ‘I cannot read them now. O gentlemen, the time of life is short…’]

21 The final show-down... The Battle of Shrewsbury

22 5.4 Alarum. Excursions. Enter King, Harry [wounded], John of Lancaster, Westmoreland King to Hal: Withdraw; you bleed. Hal to King: [No way!] John to Westmoreland: [Let's go] Exeunt John, Westmoreland to fight. Hal: [me too!] Exit to fight. Enter The Douglas to King. ['Another king! They grow like Hydra’s heads!... What art thou that counterfeit'st the person of the king?' 'The King himself'. Fight. The king being in danger, enter Prince. 'Hold up thy head, vile Scot...' Douglas flieth. '...this fair rescue': 'Thou hast redeemed thy lost opinion' Exit king Enter Hotspur

23 Enter Hotspur. 'If I mistake not, thou art Harry Monmouth.' 'Two stars keep not their motion in one sphere, / Nor can one England brook a double reign / Of Harry Percy and the Prince of Wales'. 'I can no longer brook thy vanities'. They fight Enter Falstaff Enter Douglas. He fighteth with Falstaff, who falls down... The Prince killeth [Hotspur] [He covers Hotpur's face] He spieth Falstaff 'What, old acquaintance! Could not all this flesh /Keep in a little life?... Embowelled will I see thee by and by' Falstaff riseth up 'Embowelled?... twas time to counterfeit... Counterfeit?... no counterfeit... counterfeit... counterfeit... counterfeit... counterfeit... How... counterfeit too and rise?... better counterfeit. make him sure... and swear I kill'd him...new wound in your thigh. He takes up Hotspur on his back Enter Prince and John of Lancaster 'But soft: whom have we here?' 'Come, bring your luggage nobly on your back.'

24 Henry IV Part II [or: here we go again….] Prologue: Rumour ‘painted full of tongues’ Scene 1: Northumberland ‘crafty sick’ Scene 2: Falstaff: ‘Sirrah you giant, what says the doctor to my water?’ Lord Chief Justice: ‘You have misled the youthful Prince … Your day’s service at Shrewsbury hath a little gilded over your night’s exploit on Gad’s Hill…The king hath severed you and Prince Harry’. ‘Well, God send the Prince a better companion’; ‘God send the companion a better prince’.

25 ARCHBISHOP OF YORK: Let us on, And publish the occasion of our arms. The commonwealth is sick of their own choice; Their over-greedy love hath surfeited. An habitation giddy and unsure Hath he that buildeth on the vulgar heart. O thou fond many, with what loud applause Didst thou beat heaven with blessing Bolingbroke, Before he was what thou wouldst have him be! And being now trimmed in thine own desires, Thou, beastly feeder, art so full of him That thou provok'st thyself to cast him up. So, so, thou common dog, didst thou disgorge Thy glutton bosom of the royal Richard; And now thou wouldst eat thy dead vomit up And howl'st to find it. What trust is in these times? Henry IV Part 2,

26 DOLL TEARSHEET: Ah, you sweet little rogue, you! Alas, poor ape, how thou sweatest!... Thou whoreson little tidy Bartholomew boar-pig, when wilt thou leave fighting o'days, and foining o'nights, and begin to patch up thine old body for heaven? FALSTAFF: Peace, good Doll, do not speak like a death's head, do not bid me remember mine end.... PRINCE HAL [behind, as Drawer]: Look whe'er the withered elder hath not his poll clawed like a parrot. POINS [behind, as Drawer]: Is it not strange that desire should so many years outlive performance? FALSTAFF: Kiss me, Doll... I am old, I am old…. [knocks at the door] Mistress Quickly: Who knocks so loud at door? Peto: I met … a dozen captains / Bareheaded, sweating, knocking at the taverns/And asking every one for Sir John Falstaff. Prince Harry: By heaven, Poins, I feel me much to blame / So idly to profane the precious time…Give me my sword and cloak. Falstaff: More knocking at the door! Henry IV Part II

27 KING HENRY: How many thousand of my poorest subjects Are at this hour asleep? O sleep, O gentle sleep, Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee, That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down And steep my senses in forgetfulness?... Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast Seal up the ship-boy's eyes... ? give thy repose To the wet sea-boy... And... Deny it to a king?... Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.... O God, that one might read the book of fate And see the revolution of the times Make mountains level and the continent, Weary of solid firmness, melt itself Into the sea... how chance's mocks And changes fill the cup of alteration With divers liquors! O, if this were seen, The happiest youth, viewing his progress through, What perils past, what crosses to ensue, Would shut the book and sit him down and die. Tis not ten years gone Since Richard and Northumberland... …were these inward wars once out of hand We would, dear lords, unto the Holy Land. Henry IV Part II

28 SHALLOW: Come on, come on, come on! Give me your hand, sir, give me your hand, sir. An early stirrer, by the rood! And how doth my good cousin Silence? … Jesu, Jesu, the mad days that I have spent! And to see how many of my old acquaintance are dead. SILENCE: We shall all follow, cousin. SHALLOW: Certain, ‘tis certain,; very sure, very sure. Death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all; all shall die. How a good yoke of bullocks at Stamford fair? SILENCE: By my troth, I was not there. SHALLOW: Death is certain. Is old Double of your town living yet? SILENCE: Dead, sir. SHALLOW: Jesu, Jesu, dead! A’drew a good bow; and dead! A shot a fine shoot. John o’Gaunt loved him well, and betted much money on his head. Dead! A would have clapped i’th’clout at twelve score and carried you a forehand shaft a fourteen and fourteen and a half, that it would have done a man’s heart good to see. How a score of ewes now? SILENCE: Thereafter as they be. A score of good ewes may be worth ten pound. SHALLOW: And is old Double dead? [Enter Bardolph and the Page] SILENCE: Here come two of Sir John Falstaff’s men, as I think. Henry IV Part 2,

29 Clay-brained guts Horse-back-breakerVanity in Years Knotty-pated fool Trunk of humoursBed-presser Sanguine coward Reverend ViceHuge hill of flesh Swollen parcel of dropsiesGrey IniquityOld white-bearded Satan Sweet creature of bombast Abominable misleader of youth Greasy tallow-catch ‘on bacons on: young men must live’ ‘my soldiers…Tut, tut, good enough to toss, food for powder, food for powder. They’ll fill a pit as well as better. Tush, man, moral men, mortal men.’ ‘Men of all sorts take a pride to gird at me … I am not only witty in myself, but the cause that wit is in other men.’ ‘honour pricks me on. Yea, but what if honour prick me off when I come on? How then? Can honour set-to a leg? … What is honour? A word… Who hath it? He who died o’Wednesday. Honour is a mere scutcheon. And so ends my catechism.’ ‘Soft, who are you? – Sir Walter Blunt. [dead] There’s honour for you. Here’s no vanity … I like not such grinning honour as Sir Walter hath. Give me life … and there’s an end.’ ‘Good faith, this same young sober-blooded boy doth not love me, nor a man cannot make him laugh. But that’s no marvel; he drinks no wine … valour comes of sherry … If I had a thousand sons, the first human principle I would teach them should be to forswear thin potations and to addict themselves to sack.’ ‘Master Shallow – my lord Shallow – be what thou wilt, I am fortune’s steward—get on your boots; we’ll ride all night … I know the young King is sick for me. Let us take any man’s horses – the laws of England are at my commandment.’

30 PRINCE HARRY: I spake unto the crown as having sense And thus upbraided it: 'The care on thee depending Hath fed upon the body of my father...thou... Hast eat thy bearer up.' Henry IV Part II

31 KING HENRY: God knows, my son, By what bypaths and indirect crook'd ways I met this crown; and I myself know well How troublesome it sat upon my head. To thee it shall descend with better quiet, Better opinion, better confirmation; For all the soil of the achievement goes With me into the earth. It seemed in me But as an honour snatched with bois'trous hand;... For all my reign hath been but as a scene Acting that argument. Henry IV Part II

32 PRINCE HARRY: This new and gorgeous garment, majesty, Sits not so easy on me as you think. Brothers, you mix your sadness with some fear. This is the English, not the Turkish court; Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, But Harry Harry... You all look strangely on me and [to LORD CHIEF JUSTICE] you most.... How might a prince of my great hopes forget So great indignities you laid upon me? What – rate, rebuke, and roughly send to prison Th’immediate heir of England?... LORD CHIEF JUSTICE: I then did use the person of your father. The image of his power lay then in me… The image of the King … I presented… Question your royal thoughts, make the case yours, Be now the father, and propose a son; Hear your own dignity so much profaned… Behold yourself so by a son disdained; And then imagine me taking your part… PRINCE HARRY: You are right Justice, and you weigh this well. Therefore still bear the balance and the sword. And I do wish your honours may increase Till you do live to see a son of mine Offend you and obey you as I did…There is my hand. You shall be as a father to my youth… Henry IV Part II ; 63;67-70;72-78;90-95; ;


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