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David Evans CS588: Cryptography University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 18: Money

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Presentation on theme: "David Evans CS588: Cryptography University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 18: Money"— Presentation transcript:

1 David Evans CS588: Cryptography University of Virginia Computer Science Lecture 18: Money

2 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5882 Artist: Levente Jakab

3 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5883 Title 18, Section 474: Whoever prints, photographs, or in any other manner makes or executes any engraving, photograph, print, or impression in the likeness of any such obligation or other security, or any part thereof, or sells any such engraving, photograph, print, or impression, except to the United States, or brings into the United States, any such engraving, photograph, print, or impression, except by direction of some proper officer of the United States - is guilty of a class B felony. First Amendment: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

4 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5884 Properties of Physical Cash Universally recognized as valuable Easy to transfer Anonymous Works even when the banks are closed Big and Heavy –Average bank robbery takes $4552 –500 US bills / pound –Bill Gates net worth would be ~200 tons in $100 bills Moderately difficult to counterfeit small quantities Extremely difficult to get away with counterfeiting large quantities (unless you are Iran or Syria)

5 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5885 Bank IOU Protocol Alice {KU A, KR A } Trusty Bank {KU TB, KR TB } M M = “The Trusty Bank owes the holder of this message $100.” E KR TB [H(M)]

6 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5886 Bank IOU Protocol Alice {KU A, KR A } Trusty Bank {KU TB, KR TB } M E KR TB [H(M)] Bob M E KR TB [H(M)] Bob’s secret curry recipe E KU A [Bob’s secret curry recipe]

7 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5887 Bank IOU Protocol Trusty Bank M E KR TB [H(M)] Bob M E KR TB [H(M)] M

8 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5888 Bank IOU Protocol ¥Universally recognized as valuable €Easy to transfer £Anonymous xHeavy xModerately difficult to counterfeit in small quantities xExtremely difficult to get away with counterfeiting large quantities

9 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 5889 Bank Identifiers Bank adds a unique tag to each IOU it generates When someone cashes an IOU, bank checks that that IOU has not already been cashed Can’t tell if it was Alice or Bob who cheated Alice loses her anonymity – the bank can tell where she spends her money

10 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #1 1.Alice prepares 100 money orders for $1000 each. 2.Puts each one in a different sealed envelope, with a piece of carbon paper. 3.Gives envelopes to bank. 4.Bank opens 99 envelopes and checks they contain money order for $ Bank signs the remaining envelope without opening it (signature goes through carbon paper).

11 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #1 cont. 6.Bank returns envelope to Alice and deducts $1000 from her account. 7.Alice opens envelope, and spends the money order. 8.Merchant checks the Bank’s signature. 9.Merchant deposits money order. 10.Bank verifies its signature and credits Merchant’s account.

12 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #1 Is it anonymous? Can Alice cheat? –Make one of the money orders for $100000, 1% chance of picking right bill, 99% chance bank detects attempted fraud. Better make the penalty for this high (e.g., jail) –Copy the signed money order and re-spend it. Can Merchant cheat? –Copy the signed money order and re-deposit it.

13 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #2 Idea: prevent double-spending by giving each money order a unique ID. Problem: how do we provide unique IDs without losing anonymity? Solution: let Alice generate the unique IDs, and keep them secret from bank.

14 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #2 1.Alice prepares 100 money orders for $1000 each, adds a long, unique random ID to each note. 2.Puts each one in a different sealed envelope, with a piece of carbon paper. 3.Gives envelopes to bank. 4.Bank opens 99 envelopes and checks they contain money order for $ Bank signs the remaining envelope without opening it.

15 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #2 cont. 6.Bank returns envelope to Alice and deducts $1000 from her account. 7.Alice opens envelope, and spends the money order. 8.Merchant checks the Bank’s signature. 9.Merchant deposits money order. 10.Bank verifies its signature, checks that the unique random ID has not already been spent, credits Merchant’s account, and records the unique random ID.

16 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, Protocol #2 Is it anonymous? Can Alice cheat? Can Merchant cheat? Can bank catch cheaters?

17 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Mimicking Carbon Paper How does bank sign the envelope without knowing what it contains? Normal signatures Alice sends bank M Bank sends Alice, S M = E KR Bank (M) Alice shows S M to Bob who decrypts with banks public key.

18 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Blind Signatures Alice picks random k between 1 and n. Sends bank t = mk e mod n. ( e from Bank’s public key). Bank signs t using private key d. Sends Alice: t d = (mk e mod n ) d mod n = (mk e ) d mod n  m d k ed mod n What do we know about k ed mod n ?

19 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Blind Signatures Alice gets t d  m d k mod n Alice divides by k to get s m  m d k / k  m d mod n. Hence: bank can sign money orders without opening them!

20 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash Protocol #2 Instead of envelopes, Alice blinds each money order using a different randomly selected k i. The bank asks for any 99 of the k i ’s. The bank unblinds the messages (by dividing) and checks they are valid. The bank signs the other money order. Still haven’t solved the catching cheaters problem!

21 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Anonymity for Non-Cheaters Spend a bill once – maintain anonymity Spend a bill twice – lose anonymity Have we seen anything like this?

22 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash 1.Alice prepares n money orders each containing: AmountUniqueness String: X Identity Strings: I 1 = (h(I 1L ), h(I 1R ))... I n = (h(I nL ), h(I nR )) Each I n pair reveals Alice’s identity (name, address, etc.). I = I iL  I iR. h is a secure, one-way hash function.

23 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, cont. 2.Alice blinds (multiplies by random k ) all n money orders and sends them to bank. 3.Bank asks for any n-1 of the random k i s and all its corresponding identity strings. 4.Bank checks money orders. If okay, signs the remaining blinded money order, and deducts amount from Alice’s account.

24 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, cont. 5.Alice unblinds the signed note, and spends it with a Merchant. 6.Merchant asks Alice to randomly reveal either I iL or I iR for each i. (Merchant chooses n -bit selector string.) 7.Alice sends Merchant corresponding I iL ’s or I iR ’s. 8.Merchant uses h to confirm Alice didn’t cheat.

25 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, cont. 9.Merchant takes money order and identity string halves to bank. 10.Bank verifies its signature, and checks uniqueness string. If it has not been previously deposited, bank credits Merchant and records uniqueness string and identity string halves.

26 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash, cont. 11.If it has been previously deposited, bank looks up previous identity string halves. Finds one where both L and R halves are known, and calculates I. Arrests Alice. 12.If there are no i ’s, where different halves are known, arrest Merchant.

27 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash Protocol Universally recognized as valuable Easy to transfer Anonymous xHeavy Moderately difficult to counterfeit in small quantities ?Extremely difficult to get away with counterfeiting large quantities

28 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Digital Cash Summary Preserves anonymity of non-cheating spenders (assuming large bank and standard denominations) Doesn’t preserve anonymity of Merchants Requires a trusted off-line bank Expensive – lots of computation for one transaction Other schemes (Peppercoin, Millicent, CyberCoin, NetBill, etc.) proposed for smaller transactions

29 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Printing more valuable paper than cash?

30 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS 58830

31 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Germany 2006 Tickets Tickets will include RFID Encodes name, birthdate and passport number of purchaser

32 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS RFID Tags Passive devices –Uses RF signals from reader for power Range: a few meters Little memory: ~128 bits Little computation: no real cryptography Transmit number in response to request from reader

33 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS RFID Reader To avoid conflicts RFID reader queries bit-by-bit ? Graph from Ari Juels slide

34 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS RFID Applications From Ari Juels USENIX Security 2004 talk: RFID: Security and Privacy for Five-Cent Computers “Just in case you want to know, she’s got 700 Euro and 20 World Cup tickets…” More Efficient Mugging

35 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Blocking RFID [Juels, Rivest, & Szydlo CCS ‘03] Recall RFID Reader: ? Graph from Ari Juels slide

36 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS RFID Blocker Is there a tag that starts with 0? Is there a tag that stats with 1? Always respond yes, represent all possible tags

37 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Picture from Ari Juels talk

38 12 April 2005University of Virginia CS Charge Cryptographers can make infinite amounts of money (but can’t make it heavy) CS150 Plug: Fall 2005 Course –Computer Science: from Ada & Euclid to Quantum Computing and the World Wide Web –Open to all University students No computing background expected But…covers material that will be new to most 4 th year CS students –Recruit your friends (especially from the College) to take it


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