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Organized Crime CHAPTER Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Organized Crime CHAPTER Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organized Crime CHAPTER Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved SIXTH EDITION The Business of Organized Crime 5

2 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Delivery of Illicit Goods and Services Organized crime provides a wide array of illegal goods and services to millions of customers on a daily basis. Some organizations operate world- wide.  Organized crime also conducts its business in a legal way.

3 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Corruption Corrupt relationships between organized criminals and public officials must occur:  At the law enforcement level.  Between the organized criminals who infiltrate businesses and the public officials who regulate these businesses.

4 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Pornography Soft-Core  Results from restrictiveness of public policy that prohibits hard-core pornography. (Simulated sex.) Hard-Core  Depict more specific and explicit sexual acts (and private parts of the body).

5 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Prostitution Any sexual exchange in which the reward is neither sexual nor affection Legal definition: (Something of monetary value)  Cash  Promiscuity  Relationship to a sexual partner  Subtlety

6 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Prostitution Types of Prostitutes  Streetwalkers  Massage Parlor  Stag Party Girls  Hotel and Convention  Bar Girls  Escort Service

7 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Drug Trafficking The Distribution Chain  Importers bring large quantities of cocaine or heroin into US.  Importer hires skilled smugglers to transport the drugs.  Once drug is in US, wholesaler purchases drugs from importer.  Mules or runners – transport drugs for wholesaler.

8 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Drug Trafficking Wholesalers receive nearly pure drugs. Drugs must be diluted (stepped on) with chemicals to increase the amount of the drug.

9 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Drug Trafficking Drugs, Guns, and Armed Conflict  Transfer of Arms in “Gray” Market Fraudulent documents issued by the company, may be used to disguise the actual customer. Fraudulent documents may disguise the military nature of the goods.

10 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Drug Trafficking Drugs, Guns, and Armed Conflict  Transfer of Arms in “Gray” Market False declarations by the company may hide the actual identity of the supplier. The arms transfer may be disguised as humanitarian. Difficult to do without corrupt customs officials.

11 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Contraband Smuggling Seeks to achieve high levels of illicit profits by avoiding taxes, tariffs, and duties on certain consumer items. US is a primary transit country for contraband being shipped to other destinations. US is a major source of considerable contraband.  Automobiles, alcohol, tobacco products.

12 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Counterfeiting Currency Typically outside the portfolio of organized crime  High risk  Labor intensive  Relatively low yield profits Half of the counterfeit money is produced in US. Therefore; half the counterfeit money is produced outside the US!

13 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Counterfeiting Consumer Goods Counterfeit goods are called knockoffs and is global. Consumer goods that are desirable and easy to produce are targets of counterfeiting.

14 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Gambling The Process  Writers - write bets  Bets taken to central office.  Layoff bank covers extraordinary high bets.  Banker is the person that supplies capital to establish the business.

15 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Loan Sharking Provides money at a high interest rate to people who have little choice but to go to such sources in search of financial support. Because the loan is illegal, default cannot be sought in a court of law “unclean hands doctrine”. This leads to “self-help measures” to collect the debt.

16 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Environmental Crime Legitimate business of waste removal for organized crime. Illegal waste disposal. Illegal international trade in animal parts. Unsafe shipping of Hazardous Materials.

17 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Business Racketeering Reasons to seek Legitimacy  Organized crime groups seek profitable and safe investments.  Active participation in legitimate business enhance the integration of crime group members with members of the business community.

18 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Business Racketeering Reasons to seek Legitimacy:  Organized crime often supplies investment capital that would otherwise not be available from other sources.  Provides money laundering opportunity.

19 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Labor Racketeering The use of union power for personal profit. Major activities by which organized crime realizes illicit profits:  Sweetheart contracts.  The misuse of union benefit funds.  Extortion or “strike insurance.”

20 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved High-Tech Crime Target computer networks:  Government entities  Public utilities  Industries  Businesses  Financial institutions

21 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved High-Tech Crime “Computer Crimes” (Any crime in which a computer is utilized):  Identity Theft & Subsequent Purchases  Trading in “kitty porn”  Arranging Prostitution  Communicating Conspiracies  Soliciting Financial Schemes

22 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Human Trafficking A significant current crime problem. Individuals are usually sold for forced into agricultural or industrial labor.

23 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Trafficking in Women and Children Source Countries of Traffickers  Poor economic and employment prospects for women.  Well-defined and organized extant criminal organizations.  A culture that emphasizes a subordinate role for women in society (e.g. Asia, Middle East).

24 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Money Laundering Process where criminals conceal or disguise the proceeds of their crimes or convert those proceeds into goods and services. Money Laundering Process:  Placement stage  Layering stage  Integration stage

25 Organized Crime, Sixth Edition Michael D. Lyman | Gary W. Potter Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Money Laundering Methods:  Bulk movement strategy  Use of financial institutions  Use of nonfinancial and commercial businesses  Movement through the underground banking system  The Underground Banking System


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