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©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Managing Intelligence Functions Effectively: Challenges & Issues February 13 th, 2006
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Today’s Discussion: Setting the Stage Preliminary Survey Results Applying a Management Framework to your organization World Bank Group Case Study British American Tobacco Case Study Conclusion
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Learning Objectives To illustrate why management concepts should be included in intelligence education curriculums. Provide a framework of management concepts that can be applied to intelligence organizations. Provide case studies illustrating successful use of the management framework to help intelligence functions adapt to change.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Setting The Stage In a survey conducted by Kenneth Al Sawka titled “If You Can’t Live Without Me, Why Aren’t You Dead Yet?” 64% of all respondents reported that intelligence users in their organizations were not fully aware of the intelligence unit functions or its outputs.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Mirroring Mr. Sawka’s findings was a Feburary 2005, Ostiches and Eagles, Competitive Intelligence Usage and Understanding in U.S. Companies survey that revealed that while a majority of companies surveyed claimed to have an organized competitive intelligence function, most admitted they did not have the means, interest, or understanding to use it properly. In addition, Mirroring Mr. Sawka’s findings was a Feburary 2005, Ostiches and Eagles, Competitive Intelligence Usage and Understanding in U.S. Companies survey that revealed that while a majority of companies surveyed claimed to have an organized competitive intelligence function, most admitted they did not have the means, interest, or understanding to use it properly. In addition, half of the respondents claim that a lack of trained analysts is a key reason why intelligence is not more highly valued inside their companies. Setting The Stage (Continued)
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates The question that must be answered therefore, is “ How have successful Security/Intelligence Managers overcome these perceived prejudices?” The question that must be answered therefore, is “ How have successful Security/Intelligence Managers overcome these perceived prejudices?” Setting The Stage (Continued)
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates McManis & Monsalve Ongoing Study Utilizing a Delphi survey approach we have approached corporate security units that utilize intelligence. Essentially the study asked: What are the greatest challenges you face in managing a CIU and your security program overall? How do you establish your priorities? What methodologies/processes did you use to gain recognition and success?
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Preliminary Survey Findings A sea change is underway in the world of corporate security requiring practitioners to add value to an organization by proactively identifying and quantifying risk across all aspects of the business. A sea change is underway in the world of corporate security requiring practitioners to add value to an organization by proactively identifying and quantifying risk across all aspects of the business. Multinational corporations want professional subject matter experts capable of understanding and participating in today’s global business environment and making security decisions utilizing the calculus and language of business. Multinational corporations want professional subject matter experts capable of understanding and participating in today’s global business environment and making security decisions utilizing the calculus and language of business.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Corporations are also seeking individuals who, not only possess the traditional skills of the security profession but, posses knowledge and expertise in the intelligence profession and as a result, understand the value, and limitations of exploiting information. Corporations are also seeking individuals who, not only possess the traditional skills of the security profession but, posses knowledge and expertise in the intelligence profession and as a result, understand the value, and limitations of exploiting information. Preliminary Survey Findings
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Subject Areas Identified by Corporate Security/Intelligence Managers Investigations Network Security Risk Management Business Continuity Emergency Preparedness Access Control International Marketing Physical Security Compliance Issues Sarbanes Oxley Crisis Communications Reputation Management Competitive Intelligence Foreign Languages & Culture
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Preliminary Finding - Intelligence To be effective, intelligence must be forward-looking and decision relevant. This can only be accomplished with an organizational framework that establishes the intelligence function as an integrated and valued consultant to management for policy formulation and resource allocation.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Why is Management Important? Allows organizations and individuals to achieve established goals. Establishes a mission and vision needed to achieve commitment from employees Provides direction for organizational efforts. Provides goals that allow for the measure of success. Management is the mechanism that turns people’s efforts into practical achievements. It takes people, processes and resources, knowledge and transforms it into something the organization values.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Creating a Framework for Success Conducting an Environmental Assessment What is our declared mission? Where does my function fit in the organization’s hierarchy? Who is in my chain of command and where do they fit in the organizational hierarchy – what is their agenda vis-vis the stated goals of the organization? Respondents based their success on their ability to design and implement a strong management plan. Each plan centered on objectives that aid their organizations meet stated goals. Terms describing plan components varied, but the function descriptions remained almost universal and included:
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Key 2: Defining A Vision Statement: Usually oriented towards the future by addressing questions such as: What does the organization wish to achieve? What does the organization wish to become in the future? Defining Keys for Framework Key 1: Defining A Mission Statement: A brief statement indicating who the group is, what it does, and how it serves. It is oriented to the present reality.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Key 3: Effective Organizational Structure Does present organizational structure makes sense for the environment? Reorganizing for the sake of reorganizing usually does not provide benefits. Structural changes don’t easily change behavioral patterns. Once the mission & vision have been identified, the operational framework must also be defined. The two most frequently used by the survey respondents were: Stovepipe Matrix
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Key 4: Establishing Functions and Processes Defining roles & responsibilities, operating procedures. Defining the knowledge and skill capabilities needed. Providing necessary training to develop skill and knowledge levels. Educating staff on performance expectations. An examination of how to operate with your available resources. This usually involves human capital and includes activities such as:
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Intelligence managers create a framework for looking at their roles internally. The framework also provides a rational method for looking how a unit applies intelligence to different issues. Applying the Framework to an Intelligence Unit Defined Mission & Vision Organizational Structure Functions & Processes Intelligence Unit “Solving Problems?” External Environment Organization
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Function # 1 Function #2 Customer Intelligence Model Used Data Sources Utilized Analytical Tools Used Staff Required Relationships Product/Output Feedback Mechanism Function Matrix (Napkin Approach)
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Threat Monitoring Container Interdiction Customer Regional Sec. Managers Legal Team, Law Enforcement Responders Intelligence Model Used Watch & Warning Effects Based Operations Data Sources Utilized IJET, Social Software Cargo manifests, HUMINT Analytical Tools Used Threat Matrix Zebra Network Analysis, Commodity Flow Analysis Staff Required 2 3 staff, S.A. 12 Relationships ? Port Official, Inland Revenue Product/Output Daily Brief, Alerts Prosecution of cases Feedback Mechanism Insurance ?, Market Pricing Function Matrix (Napkin Approach)
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates The World Bank Group Security Management Function Case Study
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates World Bank Group Overview: The World Bank Group (WBG) provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Management Challenge: A new Security Director was brought on to build a global security program capable of protecting WBG’s personnel, facilities and operations worldwide. WBG, Washington D.C.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates World Bank Group Step 1 – Defined the Mission New director met with senior WBG representatives and clarified and redefined performance goals and expectations for the new WBG global security force: Need for in-house forecasting and analytical capability. Need for a global security standards policy to protect WBG personnel, facilities, and business processes. Need for the establishment of executive protection capability. Need for the establishment of continuity of operations capabilities and programs.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Step 2: Identified the Organizational Structure Established of a worldwide regional security officer platform Created a personal protection unit Created a 24/7 intelligence support capacity – The Watch Officers Group Step 3: Established Functions & Processes Established a risk management/mitigation program based on recognized standards and procedures. Established knowledge of and expectation levels for all security provided services among WBG clientele. Built cooperative relationships with governmental and non- governmental information providers. World Bank Group
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Step 4: Established the WOG (Watch Officers Group) Intelligence Processes: Developed conceptual models for each intelligence function. Defined the manpower requirement by defining work product (15 analysts). Defined potential clients and support (product) requirements. Defined time frame for each support service – forecasting vs. same day tactical. Identified critical internal and external support networks. Performed training needs assessment for analysts corps. Instituted formal training program for WOG. World Bank Group
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates World Bank Group Results The WOG products is now considered an essential element in the decision process for WBG global operations. Both daily and for future investments. WOG personnel are now embedded in both Federal and non-governmental intelligence advisory groups.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Security Function Management Case Study
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates British American Tobacco Overview: British American Tobacco is the world’s second largest tobacco firm. It sells 855 billion cigarettes in more than 190 countries. Brands include Dunhill, Kent, Pall Mall. If has an operating profit of £ 2,830 million Generates over £ 22 billion a year in taxes including excise tax for countries.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Security Challenge: Protecting Brand Identity Through Effective Use of Intelligence Differences in excise tax cause two main illicit trade issues for BAT: Counterfeit Cigarettes Contraband Demand: Counterfeiting is driven by market demand, particularly, in those markets with high excise duties. Illegal profits approaching those of drug dealing, but with at lesser risk and with far weaker penalties. The potential profit margin on a standard container (42,000 cartons) of counterfeit cigarettes sold in Western Europe is about US$2million. British American Tobacco
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Perceived Future Trends: Organized Crime will be more focused on cigarettes because of low punishment. EU Governments will continue to focus efforts on stopping drugs and human smuggling. Existence of “old factories”, expertise and unemployment will lead to an increase of illicit production of counterfeit, based on demand. Organised crime groups of different nationalities are coming together due to profitability and low chance of being caught. British American Tobacco
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates RoutesInEuropeRoutesInEurope 0.1$ 10$ 0.6$ 1.5$ 4 $ 6 $
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Great Britain, Nov. 2002
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Great Britain, 2002
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Designing a Successful Management Solution On assuming his new role as Global Security Director for BAT the new director asked the following questions : What is the mission of the security/intelligence function? Does the current organization structure make sense? What are the core functions the group needs to perform? How will the intelligence function support the mission (People, Products, Processes)? British American Tobacco
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates British American Tobacco Step 1 & 2: Defined the Mission and Organizational Structure Counterfeit and Contraband activities violate BAT intellectual property and trademark rights. BAT wishes to act in good will in cooperating with governments to help collect the excise tax. Director decided to replicate the European Security Unit that had been highly engaged and successful in illicit counterfeit and contraband interdiction throughout the BAT security organization Need for intelligence required that the Brand Enforcement Group report to the security director
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Step 3: Functions & Processes Began to implement a centralized management process for all BAT security functions, bringing all regional security directors directly under the new Global Security Directorate Began to standardize operational and procedural security standards Refocused efforts of Brand Enforcement Group to provide: Risk Management Intelligence – assess the likelihood of actions that can harm the financial, physical and human assets of the company Produce intelligence to contribute to the business evaluation of the political and security risks in the end market Established working relationships with competitor (JT, PM) analytical groups Enhanced working relationships with applicable international police and intelligence forces. British American Tobacco
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates British American Tobacco Global Security Director Regional Security Office Local Security Managers BAT Senior Leadership Other BAT Functions Law Enforcement/ Competitors Reporting Communication Brand Enforcement Group
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Step 4: Managing the Brand Enforcement Group (BEG) Intelligence Function (Internal) 5 Individuals: 1 Chief, 2 Investigators, 2 Analysts Roles & Responsibilities Developing conceptual models for intelligence functions (Effects Based Approach, Target modeling) Timeframes for intelligence short term (tactical) vs. forecasting (operational support) Use of Vendors Developing support networks (law enforcement, Overseas Advisory Council, Competitors) British American Tobacco
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Sweden, Oct. 2003
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Sweden, Oct. 2003
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Lessons Learned: Intelligence organizations must integrate themselves into their organization. Effective management creates the bridge between technical competency and operational efficiency. Management concepts should be included in intelligence education curriculums.
©2006 McManis & Monsalve Associates Contact Us: Burley P. Fuselier, Jr. Todd DeBruin
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