Presentation on theme: "Research Based Behavioral Interventions The Response to Intervention Best Practices Institute Wrightsville Beach, NC September 2010 Betsy Stanwood."— Presentation transcript:
Research Based Behavioral Interventions The Response to Intervention Best Practices Institute Wrightsville Beach, NC September 2010 Betsy Stanwood
Are Current Behaviors Learned? Children aren’t born aggressive, they learn it.” - Karen DeBord
Your kids leave Wet towels on the Floor. Your husband leaves The toilet seat up… Again!. Every time (at least it seems Like every time!) Todd does Something he shouldn’t, He always has an excuse Or blames someone else. Someone cuts You off in Traffic. Yesterday was the Last straw. Sarah Came to class Tardy for the Third time this week. Why? Because she was In her room trying To find her homework Before she could come to School. Your wife wants to Talk about the toilet Bowl seat During the Super bowl On Friday afternoon Your principal tells You to expect A new student On Monday. New kitten deposits Hairball on new carpet, Just as in-laws Are arriving for Dinner. Dinner burns! Think About Yourself! Science of Human Behavior, Kathi Wilhite (ECU) & Jessica Swencki, (NCDPI)
Level I Begin documentation of interventions, documentation, & data collection - Level I involves the practice of teaching and reinforcing students for displaying the school-wide expectations and is delivered to every student in every setting. Standards Based Classroom Learning - All settings & all students Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral (PBIS) supports system ( School wide rules & expectations) School Wide consequence system School Wide social skills program with lesson plans used to teach social skills/expectations (i.e. Second Step) Data (discipline, surveys, etc.) Professional development on behavior for teaching staff Classroom management plan & techniques (Rituals & routines, Teach-Model-Practice) Positive reinforcement systems for classroom (points, tickets, etc.) to reinforce expected/appropriate behaviors Parent training Differentiation (ex. More chances, missed recess, cool down time, proximity control, student/teacher conference, redirects, behavior plan, room to move, use of reinforcers) Planned parent communication system "Note: It is only after high-quality behavior instruction and interventions are established at both the school-wide and classroom levels that schools could conclude that a student has a need for additional resources provided by Level II"
Level II Continue effective Level I interventions while implementing Level II interventions. - Level II provides interventions that are easy to administer to small groups of students, and which require limited time and staff involvement. Needs Based Learning - Some students (At risk) Tweak Level I interventions Small group counseling with school counselor Bullying prevention program Classroom management techniques (Differentiated classroom behavior management plans based on PBIS) Applied Behavioral Analysis (e.g. reinforcement) Social Skills training (e.g. teach expected behavior by role play and modeling) Student/teacher inventories of student performance/interests Behavior contracts Verbal & Visual cueing Cognitive Behavioral therapy (e.g. problem-solving & rethinking strategies) Visualizations Self-monitoring & self -evaluation Mentoring Self talk Talk Tickets Planned movement breaks Response cost Offered choices Behavior checklist Data collected on effectiveness of interventions (teacher rating scales (for examples see the Florida PBIS website (http://flPBIS.fmhi.usf.edu/), teacher observation of frequency & duration using tally marks, paper clip counts, star charts, etc.- behavior checklist data - teacher (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence) ABC data sheets - referrals)
Level III Continue effective Level I & II interventions while implementing Level III interventions. - Level III provides interventions that are developed by a team and includes the support of staff outside of the general education setting. PSM/RtI Team Driven Interventions Individual counseling with school counselor Formal Functional Behavioral Plan (FBA) & Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) Teach replacement behaviors, reinforce replacement behaviors, & prevent target (inappropriate) behaviors
Teaching Replacement Behaviors BIP targets specific skillsBIP targets specific skills –Skills may include communication alternatives that provide an immediate mechanism for the person to meet their needs –Other skills that improve overall functioning such as independent living, social skills, leisure/recreation, tolerance All skills should be taught and approximations of new behavior rewarded while target behavior is correctedAll skills should be taught and approximations of new behavior rewarded while target behavior is corrected
How Should the NEW Behavior Skills Be Taught? Systematically! Systematic Instruction Involves: –effective instructional cues –analyzing & breaking down task components –employing appropriate teaching methods (e.g., prompting, shaping, fading procedures) –rewarding & correcting behaviors consistently KEY to Success is Consistency! KEY to Success is Consistency!
General Guidelines for Teaching Replacement Behaviors Meet with the student privatelyMeet with the student privately Discuss the planDiscuss the plan Get input from the student/Ask “Will this plan work for you?”Get input from the student/Ask “Will this plan work for you?” Follow throughFollow through As much as possible, get the student to self-monitor with visual gaugesAs much as possible, get the student to self-monitor with visual gauges Review the plan daily and if time allows act it out.Review the plan daily and if time allows act it out.
Some Research Based Strategies for Teaching Replacement Behaviors Applied Behavior AnalysisApplied Behavior Analysis Incidental Teaching MethodsIncidental Teaching Methods ShapingShaping Token EconomiesToken Economies Differential ReinforcementDifferential Reinforcement
What is Applied Behavior Analysis? Has been referred to by many different terms Behavior analysisBehavior analysis Behavior modificationBehavior modification Behavior managementBehavior management Contingency managementContingency management Positive approachesPositive approaches Operant conditioningOperant conditioning Skinnerian psychologySkinnerian psychology LovaasLovaas In the area of autism intervention, behavior analysis has come to be misrepresented by terms for specific behavioral methods (i.e. discrete trial training, incidental teaching, pivotal response training, verbal behavior analysis)
ANTECEDENT BEHAVIORCONSEQUENCE ABCs of Behavior or “Three-term Contingency” The Core of Applied Behavior Analysis
Myths of Applied Behavior Analysis Myths Behavior analysis consists only of discrete trial trainingBehavior analysis consists only of discrete trial training Behavior analysis is a “quick fix” without lasting effectsBehavior analysis is a “quick fix” without lasting effects
What are Incidental Teaching Methods? A way of using the student’s interests to encourage him/her to say or do something. The teaching and the learning occur incidentally Examples: -Pivotal Response -Greenspan Floortime
Five Steps of Incidental Teaching Watch & Listen Engage Wait Support ConfirmConfirm What are the Steps in Incidental Teaching ?
What is Shaping? Shaping is also known as “Successive or Progressive Approximations” A method that assists in setting goals for the behavior of a student Assists in changing aberrant behavior or creating an appropriate behavior that is not yet in the student’s repertoire Provides guidance and direction for behavior change program
What are the Steps to Shape Turning in Homework? Progressive Steps to the Desired Behavior Complete one problem of his choice Complete 5 problems of his choice Write his name at the top of the worksheet Complete all odd or all even numbered problems Complete all problems except one Complete all problems Remember to shape the behavior at each step by providing positive consequences As each step is mastered you tell the student that they must move to the next step to receive the reward.
What is a Token Economy? It is a system of individual reinforcement of target behaviors Tokens are administered and exchanged later for backup reinforcers To be successful, a person must be reinforced for increasing or decreasing existing behaviors as well as successive approximations for the behaviors we wish to establish
What are Common Forms of Tokens? Plastic or Metal circular chips or checkers Marks on chalk or white board Points marked on a point card Stars Holes punched in a card Stickers Paper clips Beans in a jar Happy Faces Play Money Point Card Tyler Teal
How to Build a Token Economy? 1. Pinpoint behaviors to be changed 2. Build the token economy Select tokensSelect tokens (Must be easily dispensed, difficult to counterfeit, and safe to use) Select reinforcersSelect reinforcers (Must get input from student or students) Set token valuesSet token values In assigned area =1 Raise hand = 1 On time = 1 Follow directions = 2 Kept Hands, Body & Objects to Self = 2 Set reinforcer costSet reinforcer cost Construct a bankConstruct a bank Arrange business hours to exchangeArrange business hours to exchange