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Presentation on theme: "What’s Happening?! You will be color coded when you make a reservation on an airline. Bush proposal regarding illegal immigrants has hyped a big “made."— Presentation transcript:

1 What’s Happening?! You will be color coded when you make a reservation on an airline. Bush proposal regarding illegal immigrants has hyped a big “made in America” and job security debate. After all, it is an election year!

2 ATP Assignments Djurovic, MichaelAgilent Tekle, MichaelAgilent Braff, SamApple Computer Javaid, RaheedCisco Levchenko, StevenCisco Martin, BrandiCisco Stefanek, TeraCisco Vissell, MiraCisco Hanson, NathanDell Lalonde, EricDell Lau, SimonDell Rosander, EmilyDell Ward, DevonDell

3 Corona, AllenIntel Lee, VitaliyIntel Li, XuemeiIntel Lin, VictoriaIntel Patel, HemalIntel Poblete, AndrewIntel Mathur, NavneetOracle Watt, ElizabethOracle Wong, CindyOracle Bains, SatenderSun Microsystems Shusta, AlexanderSun Microsystems ATP Assignments

4 The Plan!? Start researching material immediately. Read syllabus regarding the assignment. Look at the Boeing paper in the textbook plus the Wal-Mart paper on the course web page. Use links on web page for your company.

5 Key Factors 1.Industry definition. 2.“Big Picture” data regarding the industry. 3.Business and IT leaders. 4.Porter Competitive Model analysis. 5.Business Strategy Model. 6.Identifying strengths and weaknesses of the company. 7.Figuring out who runs the business on a day-to-day basis and the relationship with the person running the IS organization. 8.Concluding what the company changed through the use of Information Systems.

6 Chapter 1 Summary Business and Information Systems Management Challenges

7 Overview of Chapter 1 Three Necessary Perspectives Three Necessary Perspectives Simultaneous Revolutions in the Business Environment Simultaneous Revolutions in the Business Environment Systematic Approach to IS Systematic Approach to IS Three Roles of IS Three Roles of IS

8 Three Necessary Perspectives Business Environment  Specific Industry Enterprise Environment  The Company Itself IT Environment  Creates a Competitive Advantage *Must understand the Business and Enterprise Environment first* Business Success

9 Simultaneous Revolutions The Business New Competitors New Political Agendas New Technologies New Employees and New Values Increasing Customer Expectation New Rules of Competition Industry Structure Changes New Regulatory Environment

10 Systematic Approach to IS Vision Strategy Tactics Business Plan Competitive Options Roles, Roles, and Relationships Redefine/Define Telecommunications as the Delivery Vehicle Success Factor Profile

11 Three Roles of IS   Efficiency   Effectiveness   Competitive Advantage

12 Three Roles of IS   Efficiency   Doing things better overall   Effectiveness   Doing better things within the organization   Competitive Advantage   Doing better and new things for the customer

13 In Conclusion…. Three Necessary Perspectives Three Necessary Perspectives –Business / Enterprise / Information Technology Simultaneous Revolutions Simultaneous Revolutions –Competitors / Rules / Structure / Regulatory / Customer Expectation / Employees / Technology / Politics Systematic Approach to IS Systematic Approach to IS –Separate Business from IT Three Roles of IS Three Roles of IS –Efficiency –Effectiveness –Competitive Advantage

14 Chapter 1 Questions Why is it important to know the business environment and enterprise environment before addressing the IT environment? Why is it important to know the business environment and enterprise environment before addressing the IT environment? Identify and explain the three roles of Information Systems including a specific company example that emphasizes each of the roles? Identify and explain the three roles of Information Systems including a specific company example that emphasizes each of the roles?

15 Chapter 2 Business Competitive Environment “The global market will come to you, if you don’t come to it.”

16 Competition Can Be… Local Local Regional Regional National National International International Going to be taking a look at competition, defining it and then focusing on global competition.

17 Why Do We Care?

18 What Is Competitiveness? “The degree to which a nation can, under free and fair market conditions. Produce goods and services that will meet the test of international markets while simultaneously maintaining or expanding the real income of its citizens” Three Inputs to improving domestic performance Human Resources Human Resources Capital Capital Technology Technology

19 Competitiveness: A Link to National Goals Human Resources Capital Technology Improved Domestic Performance More and Better Jobs Increased Standard of Living Stronger National Security Decreased Budget Deficit Trade Policy New Competition Increased World Market Competitiveness Reduced Trade Deficit Figure 2-1

20 How does a company gain a competitive advantage? Provide a value to customers Provide a value to customers –Real –Perceived Knowing/Understanding - Products - Customers - Competitors

21 International Competitive Advantage The way companies achieve competitive advantage in the global industry is based on the role played by the home nation.

22 The Diamond National Advantage Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries Chance Government Fig. 2-2

23 The Government’s Role Catalyst Catalyst Challenger Challenger

24 Overview What competitiveness is. What competitiveness is. How a company can gain competitive advantage. How a company can gain competitive advantage. How to gain an international competitive advantage How to gain an international competitive advantage The government’s role in fostering home-based companies. The government’s role in fostering home-based companies. “All good things take time.”

25 Chapter 2 Business Competitive Environment

26 1. The definition of competitiveness. 2. The key elements of competitive advantage. 3. The role of the nation relative to companies that compete successfully on a global basis. 4. The role of government within a nation. While contemplating the idea that information technology could make a difference. Position Some Important Factors

27 Competitiveness is the Pivotal Business Issue in the 21st Century

28 Global Economy Why the emphasis on globalization and the importance of global competition?

29 The global market will come to you, if you don’t go to it. Business Environment

30 An Essential Roadmap? Do nations, companies and individuals need to build wealth in a knowledge-based global economy? How significant in creating wealth are breakthrough technologies in microelectronics, biotechnology, new materials, telecommunications, robotics, and computers? Do these factors explain why relatively new industries are growing explosively and existing industries are being transformed?

31 US Status In the 1990s the US was the run away leading performer in the industrial world. Interest rates are at a forty year low. Inflation has been a minor issue. The US claimed nine of the ten largest companies in the world by 1998 compared to only two in Nine of the fifteen most profitable banks are in the US compared to none in The wealthiest man in the world is an American. American billionaires measure in the hundreds. US stock markets remain relatively high.

32 Some Important Questions Is the relatively unique US prosperity sustainable? Is global integration a boon or a threat to this prosperity? Will the forces that sparked the Asian meltdown provoke an era of stagnation or worse? Should global integration be slowed? What rules should be applied to the creation and protection of new ideas. (intellectual property rights) What skills are needed to succeed in this new economy? Can nations create a social system in which entrepreneurial spirit can flourish without also creating income and wealth inequities that threaten the system?

33 Global (International) Trade The US has truly become a global economy Global trade represented 10% of the US economy Global trade was nearly 25% of a much bigger US economy. Not in isolation to the rest of the world!

34 Foreign Direct Investment Since 1985 foreign direct investment in the US has increased five-fold. Five percent of the total labor force works for companies that are wholly or partially foreign owned. Employees of companies that work for companies that export earn more than those that do not. Forty percent of productivity improvements are in exporting companies.

35 What Countries “Own”: Nokia Burger King Chrysler Airbus Benetton Gillette Shell Finland UK Germany France, Spain, UK, Germany Italy US Netherlands

36 A Complex Political Environment Three of five American registered voters approve of free trade. Most agree that imports give them a larger selection of goods to choose from and that foreign competition forces US companies to be more competitive. They also feel that imports help lower income families afford a higher standard of living by lowering prices. They have concerns regarding the environment, human rights, jobs, taxes, societal problems and sovereignty.

37 Trade Issue Attitudes Attitudes lie along income, education, age and gender divides. Free trade proponents tend to be those that see themselves benefiting from globalization: men, those that are better educated, richer and live in cities. Those who question globalization include women, the elderly, those who are less well educated or poorer and those that live in rural areas.

38 How Trade Works General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) A loose agreement that had a restricted scope and limited powers based on an agreement that was originally signed in the late 1940s. World Trade Organization (WTO) Created in 1995, the WTO has the job of administering trade agreements, resolving trade disputes and conducting future trade negotiations.

39 WTO WTO members must abide by the group’s rulings. The most important of which is to give every member the same set of low tariffs and other favorable trade rules. The most significant recent development was the admission of China to the WTO in 2000.

40 Michael Porter Contributions Presidential Commission and Competitiveness Definition Competitive Model and Value Chain Competitiveness of Nations Study Present - Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School

41 Presidential Commission Letter to President Reagan Mr. President, it has been a great honor to serve you and the Nation. The competitive challenge calls for the leadership only you can provide. We thank you for your vision, interest and initiatives in making competitiveness a priority on our national agenda. John A. Young Chairman President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness

42 Competitiveness Definition The degree to which a nation can, under free and fair market conditions, produce goods and services that will meet the test of international markets while simultaneously maintaining or expanding the real income of its citizens. Source: President’s Commission on Industrial Competitiveness

43 Competitiveness: A Link to National Goals Human Resources Capital Technology Improved Domestic Performance More and Better Jobs Increased Standard of Living Stronger National Security Decreased Budget Deficit Trade Policy New Competition Increased World Market Competitiveness Reduced Trade Deficit Figure 2-1

44 Presidential Commission Recommendations: 1. Create, apply and protect technology. 2. Spur new industries and revive old ones. 3. Pursue productivity gains through technology. 4. Reduce the cost of capital to American industry. Increase the supply of capital available for investment, reduce its cost and improve its ability to flow freely to its most productive uses.

45 Who is going to make it happen? 1.Government cannot legislate competitive success. 2.Government should highlight the importance of competitiveness. 3.Everyone must recognize the competitive challenge and its significance.

46 How Does a Company Compete? If the bottom line to a business is profit, then the top line is value to customer.

47 A Good Optional Strategy? To produce quality products and services through effective leadership of skilled employees using advanced methods through the innovative use of technology.

48 A Good Competitor: 1.Knows its products and services. 2.Knows its customers. 3.Knows its competitors.

49 Competitiveness of Nations The striking internationalization of competition in the decades after World War II has been accompanied by major shifts in the economic fortunes of nations and their firms. 1. How did this happen? 3. What can companies and countries do with this knowledge? 2. What can one learn from this?

50 Competitiveness of Nations Why (how) are companies in a particular nation able to gain a dominant competitive position in a specific industry against the world’s best competitors?

51 Competitiveness of Nations Helps to anticipate from which country future competition is likely to come from? Helps to understand at least in basic terms the types of companies that will be primary competitors? Could help to anticipate what could be their primary competitive strategies? The point of all of this:

52 Organizations Compete Within Industries What is the role of the nation? Nations do not compete!

53 PorterCompanies and Industries EconomistsUnit Cost of Labor Adjusted for Inflation PoliticiansBalance of Payment CompaniesThe Right Strategies to Compete in Global Markets Previous Basis of Competitive Analysis

54 The industry was the basic unit of analysis. Industries are organizations that directly compete with each other. Some industries are well-defined, while others are not. To Understand Competitiveness

55 The role of the nation has increased as competition has shifted more to the creation and assimilation of knowledge. A Major Message

56 Competitiveness of Nations Study 1.Denmark 2.Germany 3.Italy 4.Japan 5.Korea 6.Singapore 7.Sweden 8.Switzerland 9.United Kingdom 10.United States Copenhagen School of Economics Deutsche Bank Ambrosetti Group (transportation company) MITI, Hitotsubashi University and Industrial Bank of Japan Seoul National University Economic Development Board University of Basel, University of St. Gallen, Union Bank of Switzerland The Economist Harvard Business School Institute of International Business, Stockholm School of Economics

57 Industry Case Studies Denmark Agriculture Machinery Building Maintenance Services Consultancy Engineering Dairy Products Food Additives Furniture Pharmaceuticals Specialty Electronics Telecommunications Equipment Waste Treatment Equipment Germany Automobiles Chemicals Cutlery Eyeglass Frames Harvesting/Threshing Combines Optical Instruments Packaging, Bottling Equipment Pens and Pencils Printing Presses Rubber, Plastic Working Machinery X-ray Equipment Italy Ceramic Tiles Dance Club and Theater Equipment Domestic Appliances Engineering/Construction Factory Automation Equipment Footwear Packaging and Filling Equipment Ski Boots Wool Fabrics Japan Air Conditioning Machinery Home Audio Equipment Car Audio Equipment Carbon Fibers Continuous Synthetic Weaves Facsimile Equipment Forklift Trucks Microwave and Satellite Communications Equip. Musical Instruments Optical Elements and Instruments Robotics Semiconductors Sewing Machines Shipbuilding Tires for Trucks and Buses Trucks Typewriters Videocassette Recorders Watches Korea Apparel Automobiles Construction Footwear Pianos Semiconductors Shipbuilding Steel Travel Goods Video and Audio Recording Tape Wigs Singapore Airlines Apparel Beverages Ship Repair Trading Sweden Car Carriers Communication Products Environment Control Equipment Heavy Trucks Mining Equipment Newsprint Refrigerated Shipping Rock Drills Semihard Wood Flooring Teller-operated Cash Dispensers Switzerland Banking Chocolate Confectionery Dyestuffs Fire Protection Equipment Freight Forwarding Hearing Aids Heating Controls Insurance Marine Engineers Paper Product Mfg. Equipment Pharmaceuticals Surveying Equipment Textile Machinery Trading Watches United States Advertising Agricultural Chemicals Commercial Aircraft Commercial Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Computer Software Construction Equipment Detergents Engineering and Construction Motion Pictures Patient Monitoring Equipment Syringes Waste Management Services

58 US Industries Advertising Agricultural Chemicals Commercial Aircraft Commercial Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Computer Software Construction Equipment Detergents Engineering and Construction Motion Pictures Patient Monitoring Equipment Syringes Waste Management Services

59 The ways that firms achieve and sustain competitive advantage in global industries provide the necessary foundation for understanding the role of the home nation in the process.

60 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Factor Conditions Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries Diamond of National Advantage Chance Government

61 Natural Resources Labor Pool Interest Rates and Currency Value Economies of Scale Competitive Success Is Not the Direct Result of:... Traditional Economic Thinking

62 The nation’s position in factors of production that are prerequisites to compete in a specific industry. Infrastructure People Skills and Training Factors Unique to a Specific Industry A nation usually does not inherit but creates the most important factors. Factor Conditions

63 Physical Resources: Abundance, quality, accessibility and cost of land, water, minerals, timber, hydroelectric power, etc. Climatic conditions. Location and geographic size. Time zone re: global communication. Factor Conditions

64 Infrastructure: Type, quality, and user cost. Transportation Communication Mail/freight Delivery Health Care Schools Housing Stock...Quality of life--to live and to work. Factor Conditions

65 Capital Resources: (Amount and cost of money) Secured Debt Unsecured Debt Equity and Venture Capital Savings Rate Tax Incentives Fiscal and Monetary Policies Factor Conditions

66 Knowledge Resources: Scientific, technical and market knowledge that pertains to goods and services. Universities Government Research Facilities Private Research Facilities Business and Scientific Literature Market Research Databases Trade Associations Factor Conditions

67 Human, knowledge and capital factors are mobile. Other elements of the diamond are more important to explain international success. Factor Conditions

68 Competitive advantage from factor conditions depends on how effectively and efficiently they are mobilized and deployed in the economy. Therefore

69 The Japanese created and expanded needed factors at a rate far exceeding that of all other nations. Study Conclusion

70 Factor Conditions: US Semiconductor Industry Universities to train engineers and other professional technical employees. Economic space for manufacturing facilities. Good transportation facilities. Good communications system. Access to raw materials. Water.

71 Brazilian Chicken Industry Second largest chicken producer after the US. Two large poultry companies: Perdigao and Sadia. Has factor condition advantages: A large domestic market that allows an economy of scale. A large number of farmers to raise chickens. Cheap, abundant corn and soya for feed.

72 The sophistication of customer demand. The more demanding the local buyers the better to hone the global competitiveness of home-based companies.. The local market provides an early picture of the emergence of buyer needs. This factor is a major positioner for success. Demand Conditions

73 Successful companies need suppliers who are: 1. Home-based. 2. Competitive on an international level. A close relationship with suppliers contributes to innovation and upgrading of products. Prompts a range of interconnected suppliers that are all internationally competitive. Related and Supporting Industries

74 The way in which companies are created, managed and choose to compete domestically. First Strategy, Structure and Rivalry

75 Study Findings: Company and individual goals vary. No one management style is universally appropriate. Differences in background of CEO and different company structures. Company structures are different. Contrasts in people motivation to work and learn. Career choices of the best students varies. Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry

76 Country Examples Germany Italy Japan

77 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Germany The preeminent trading nation when considering the entire postwar period. Have a very international orientation and export early. International success is built on many small and medium sized companies. They compete in highly sophisticated products and segments rather than high-volume ones. The breadth and success of German industries can only be understood in a historical context--achieved over decades. Industry success includes a wide range of industries but Germany does not dominate them as does the U.S. or Japan.

78 The economy is extensively clustered. There is wide-spread private ownership. The structure of companies tends to be hierarchical and patriarchal. Managers and workers are well trained in their industries. Pragmatism characterizes German management. Discipline and order is evident in the way that companies are managed. Owners often have a deep involvement in all aspects of the business, especially in technical areas. Managers maintain an enduring relationship with employees. Companies are particularly adept at complex production processes. Selling is technical versus advertising or intangible appeals. Complex product are supported by similar service requirements.

79 Achieve high levels of customer loyalty. Labor is very organized and is represented on company boards. New business formulation has traditionally been weak but has changed in the past decade. Most executives have technical or scientific backgrounds. Have a stubborn desire to achieve technical and quality excellence. Invariably compete on the basis of differentiation versus cost. Unrelated diversification is rare. Do not hesitate to invest abroad. Industry is prestigious and attracts outstanding people. The unique strength of the German economy is its capacity to upgrade its advantage by increasing the quality of human and technical resources.

80 Germany Share of Total World Exports Bisquettes of Coal, Coke 70.4% Potassium Sulfate 59.4% Reciprocating Pumps 58.1% High Pressure Steel Conduit 55.4% Fresh Milk and Cream 54.5% Rotary Printing Presses 51.1% Iron, High Carbon Steel Coil 49.8% Synthetic Luminophores 47.1% Spinning, Reeling Machines 42.7% Clothes Dryers 41.3% Aircraft over 15,000 kg 38.1%

81 Jukeboxes 36.5% Polyvinyl Chloride Plates 35.9% Rubber, Plastics Machines 35.5% Combine Harvester-Threshers 35.3% Packaging, Bottling Equip. 34.1% Sewing Machine Needles 33.2% Seventeen industries where Germany has 33% or more of the world’s export market.

82 German Companies BASF AG - Chemicals (1861) Bayer AG - Chemicals (1863) Bayerische Motoren Werke AG - Autos, Motorcycles (1913) Bertelsmann AG - Publishing (1835) Daimler-Benz AG - Autos and Aerospace (1882) Henkel KGaA - Detergents and Chemicals (1876) Hoechst AG - Chemicals (1863) Friedrich Krupp GmbH - Steel, Engineering, Trading (1587) Mannesmann AG - Steel Tubes, Auto Parts, Etc. (1885) Robert Bosch GmbH - Electronic Auto Equipment (1886) Siemens AG - Electrical and Electronics (1847) Volkswagen AG - Automobiles (1937)

83 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Italy Joined the ranks of advanced nations in the past two decades. Overall growth in world export share was second only to Japan. Illustrates the power of a growing alignment between national circumstances and the shifting demands of modern global competition. Benefited from a shift from standardized, mass-produced products toward more customized, higher-style, higher- quality goods. In many cases style was combined with investment in state- of-the-art production equipment. Achieved advantage based on segmentation, differentiation and process innovation.

84 The world’s leading exporter in textile/apparel, household goods and personal products and third in food and beverages. Are generally not successful where standardization, high-volume mass production, or heavy investments in fundamental research are involved. Companies tend to be highly specialized and compete through constant model changes. Companies tend to be medium to small that compete primarily through export with limited direct foreign investment. Large private firms tend to dominate the home market. Successful industries are highly clustered including geography. Remains a study in contrasts--industry successes and failures. Clearly contradicts its image as a country.

85 Companies are often managed by a commanding leader involved in all activities. Below the leader is often fluid, relatively unstructured (chaotic?) operation involving an interpersonal competition that would be rare in Japan. Managers are resourceful improvisers and able to adjust to changes, to circumvent constraints and to adapt to new rules. Most companies are privately owned and owners, managers and workers are closely attached to an industry. Deal with customers on a family-like and personal basis. Business is important and a magnet for talented individuals. Entreprenuership thrives in Italy--they are risk takers who are individualistic and desire independence. These factors lead to a long-term orientation and a commitment to sustained investment.

86 Italy Share of Total World Exports Meal and Pellets of Wheat 69.5% Worked Building Stone 62.2% Aperitifs 58.1% Glazed Ceramic Sets 56.6% Precious Metal Jewelry 49.6% Fresh Stone Fruit 45.5% Rubber and Plastic Footwear 41.9% Fabrics of Combed Wool 41.8% Domestic Washing Machines 38.2% Steel High Pressure Conduits 35.9% Sweaters of Synthetic Fibers 34.0% Handbags 33.7% Woolen Sweaters 33.1% Leather Footwear 32.8% Fourteen industries with one third of world’s export market.

87 Italian Companies Fiat SpA - Autos and Farm Equipment (1899) Olivetti - computers and office equipment (1908) IRI Holding Co. (state owned) companies 5% of GNP Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi - Petroleum & Petrochemical (1953) Perelli SpA - Power Transmission, T/C Cables, Tires (1872) Benetton - clothes manufacturer (1955) Luxotica - frame manufacturers (NY Stock Exchange) Gewiss - electrical fittings Marposs - precision measuring equipment Safilo - frame manufacturers Persol - frame manufacturers Iris - ceramics

88 Small Businesses in Italy Exemplify flexibility and thrive in niche markets. Provide more than 2/3 of private-sector industrial employment. Escape many of Italy’s oppressive labor laws. Exports increased 20% during a down economy. 99% of Italy’s small businesses are owned by one or two families. To survive Asian competition they concentrate on a higher level of specialization and devote more time to quality and innovation versus price. Many companies were founded following the end of WWII. (Less than 100 employees)

89 Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Japan Not far behind Germany in becoming a world economic power. Lacked Germany’s historical position. Achieved competitive advantage in some industries and failed in others. The role of the government and management practices does not explain the success of Japanese industries. Has an extraordinarily high share of world exports in many industries with a complete absence of a natural resource intensive industry. There is a unique ability in Japan for the “diamond” to function as a system.

90 Possesses a large pool of literate, educated and increasingly skilled human resources. Created and upgraded needed factors that far exceeded that of all other nations. Benefit from a large pool of trained engineers. A technical orientation is pervasive and many managers have engineering backgrounds. Japanese companies are hierarchical and disciplined. Cooperation and subordination are the norm with a unique ability to coordinate across functions. Relationships between labor and management are respectful and strikes are rare. Many of the talented people flow to industry.

91 An international outlook promoted by the amount of domestic rivalry is the single biggest explanation for the success of Japanese industries. Japanese companies often define their goals in terms of volume and market share. Strategies often follow a path of standardization and mass production with a major emphasis on quality. Companies relentlessly upgrade their competitive advantage. Ownership of companies is predominantly held in institutions and other companies. Workers define their status on how well the company is doing. Continual learning is emphasized and accepted. More willing to form new companies.

92 Japan Share of World Exports Motorcycles82.0% TV Image and Sound Recorders80.7% Dictating Machines71.7% Calculating Machines69.7% Mounted Optical Elements67.5% Photo & Thermocopy Apparatus 65.9% Still Cameras and Flash Equip.62.2% Cash Registers and Accounting Machines62.0% Outboard Marine Piston Engines 61.0% Electric Gramophones59.0%

93 Microphones, Loudspeakers and Amplifiers 55.7% Motorcycle Parts & Accessories 53.4% Track-Laying Tractors 51.8% Pianos & Musical Instruments 51.0% Self-Propelled Dozers 50.6% Color TV Receivers 49.5% Portable Radio Receivers 48.4% Other Radio Receivers 47.9% Special-Purpose Vessels 46.8% Electric Typewriters 45.0% Steam Boiler Plants & Parts 42.8% Motor Vehicle Radio Receivers 42.5% TV Picture Tubes 42.2%

94 Prepared Sound Recording Equipment.41.5% Photo Chemical Products41.5% Metalworking Lathes39.7% Coarse Ceramic Housewares39.3% New Bus or Truck Tires39.1% Buses38.7% Sewing Machines38.7% Iron, Steel Seamless Tubes38.7% Self-Propelled Shovels, Excavators 38.4% Computer Peripheral Units 37.9% Lorries and Trucks 37.5% Other Electronic Tubes 36.5%

95 Metal Cutting Machine Tools 36.5% Generating Sets with Piston Engine 36.1% Other Cargo Vessels 35.7% Iron, Simple Steel Rolled Plate 35.2% Continuous Synthetic Weaves 34.7% Clocks, Watch Movements 33.8% Rolling Mill Parts and Rolls 33.4% Liquid Dieletic Transformers 33.4% Forty-three industries with over one third of the world’s export market share.

96 Japanese Companies Honda Motor - Autos and Motorcycles Sony Crop. - Consumer Electronics Bridgestone Corp. - Tires Matsushita Electric - Consumer Electronics Toyota Motor Corp. - Automobiles Nissan Motor Corp. - Automobiles Nomura Securities - Brokerage Hitachi - Computers and Electronics NEC - Computers and Electronics Fujitsu - Computers and Electronics Mitsui Group - Trading and Holding Co. Sumitomo Group - Trading and Holding Co. Mitshubishi Group - Trading and Holding Co.

97 Study Postscript 1. The second largest economy in the world. 2. Arrogance based on what they had accomplished including an assumption that the only way their economic endeavors go is up. 3. A rigidity in approach that takes too long in a fast paced, global economy. What happened to Japan since 1990?

98 Forget the North Pole! Santa’s Workshop is in China

99 Ironic What makes Christmas festive for Americans is produced in the world’s officially atheistic country whose human rights abuses are deplored by officials of the US government. What this picture provides is a lesson in globalization and an example of how trade and tradition have brought together China and the US in a mutually beneficial relationship.

100 Minimal Inflation in the US? Because of China!

101 Imports from China Based on the first eight months of 2000 Artificial Christmas Trees - $78 million Christmas Tree Ornaments - $535 million Christmas Lights - $211 million Stuffed Toys - $755 million Dolls - $639 million Electric Trains - $32 million Puzzles - $21 million If not available, over half of this type of merchandise in US stores would disappear.

102 U.S. Merchandise Trade with China: Year U.S. Exports U.S. Imports U.S. Trade Balance

103 It is getting worse! billion billion US exports to the rest of the world went down 10% while China’s increased 66%. Unlike Japan in the past, China has not closed its borders to US imports. It is the fastest growing export market for US companies. Meanwhile a number of unfair trade accusations are being thrown around.

104 China Trade Barriers China remains a difficult market to penetrate, due largely to Chinese government policies, which attempt to protect and promote domestic industries. Goods and services not considered to be high priority, or which compete directly with domestic Chinese firms, often face an extensive array of tariff and non-tariff barriers.

105 China Trade Barriers Tariffs Quotas Non-Tariff Regulations Distribution rights Investment restrictions

106 It is helpful to ask what companies need to do and where does government need to play a key role? Competitiveness of Nations

107 Serve as a challenger and catalyst to companies to compete successfully: Focus on specialized factor creation. Avoid intervening in capital factor and currency markets. Enforce strict product, safety and environmental standards. Limit cooperation among industry rivals. Promote goals that lead to sustained investment. Deregulate competitors. Enforce domestic antitrust policies. Reject managed trade. Role of Government

108 Singapore An economic powerhouse. Three million people on a small island. Passed the US in average income in World’s best infrastructure!? Safe, clean (smoggy). Interesting racial, religious and language mix. Could go from great to awesome.

109 Singapore Model Strong Government (The smartest and most capable should govern) Long Term Planning Foreign Investment Clean Administration Education for All No Welfarism Family Values Law and Order Communal Harmony

110 Kenya From whiskey to cooking fat to batteries to clothes, Kenya is being swamped with counterfeit goods. Some are made locally but most are imported.

111 Kenya Focus on the negative impact of counterfeit goods in usually on wealthy nations where products are most often designed and developed. The effects can be even more devastating in poor and developing countries where profits of any kind are harder to come by, smuggling is more easily accomplished and enforcement is weak or non- existent.

112 Kenya Kenyan manufacturers are estimated to be losing hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue. This also costs the government $16 million in annual taxes.

113 Eveready Batteries Employs 350 people in Kenya. 40% of Eveready batteries sold in Kenya are counterfeit. If this continues, the company will terminate its operation in Kenya.

114 Kenya 80% of counterfeit goods are estimated to come from China. The business community blames much of their troubles on high costs, such as power and water, and government corruption. The government run port of Mombasa is notorious for bribery and kick-backs.

115 Kenya If the business opportunity exists, would you want to do business in Kenya?

116 Companies gain an advantage against competitors by responding to pressures and challenges.

117 The Company Agenda 1. Creating pressure within the company for innovation. 2. Seeking out the best, most successful competitors 3. View as a positive factor the presence of domestic competition. 4. Staying alert to customer, market and competitor trends. 5. Emphasizing the home base as the place to strengthen competitiveness. 6. Selectively pursuing international advantage opportunities. 7. As a company, playing a role in strengthening the national competitive diamond. :

118 Today’s competitive realities demand leadership. Leaders believe in change. They energize their people to innovate continuously. They recognize the need for pressure and challenges to accomplish this. Conclusions

119 Kenichi Ohmae: The Borderless World The key global economic entity is the true multinational company. Not Everyone Agrees

120 Ohmae Contentions Four factors are usurping economic power once held by nations: 1. Capital. 2. Corporations. 3. Consumers. 4. Communication.

121 Although political leaders will resist acknowledging the demise of the nation- state, only those who can accept it and promote region-states within and across their borders will be able to provide the best quality of life for their constituents. Kenichi Ohmae Putting Global Logic First

122 Global Competitiveness Ranking Criteria: 1. Quality of national business environment. 2. The set of institutions, market structures and economic policies supportive of high level of prosperity. 3. Company operations and strategy ranking. Michael Porter, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School World Economic Forum web page.

123 Global Competitiveness Ranking US (2) 2.Finland (1) 3.UK (7) 4.Germany (4) 5.Switzerland (5) 6.Sweden (6) 7.Netherlands (3) 8.Denmark (8) 9.Singapore (10) 10.Canada (11) 11. Japan (15) 12. Austria (13) 13. Belgium (14) 14. Australia (9) 15. France (12) 16. Taiwan (21) 17. Iceland (16) 18. Israel (17) 19. Hong Kong (18) 20. Ireland (22) 21. Norway (19) 22. New Zealand (20) 23. Korea (26) 24. Italy (24) 25. Spain (23) 26. Malaysia (37) 27. Slovenia (32) 28. Hungary (27) 29. South Africa (25) 30. Estonia (28)

124 Global Competitiveness Ranking 33. Brazil (30) 37. India (36) 38. China (47) 48. Poland (42) 55. Mexico (52) 61. Philippines (53) 58. Russia (58) 60. Vietnam (62) 79. Bolivia (75) 80. Haiti

125 1998 Rankings 1. Singapore Hong Kong US UK Canada Taiwan Netherlands Switzerland Norway Luxembourg Ireland Japan New Zealand Australia Finland Denmark Malaysia Chile Korea Austria.37 Source: World Economic Forum

126 Major Points It is no longer possible for a country to insulate itself from the rest of the world. The possible decline of the industrialized world is merely the narrowing of the gap between it and third world countries. The accelerated pace of change is what disturbs the pessimists, because they can see it happening. It took Britain 60 years to double its output, the US 50 years but developing countries are doubling output every 12 years. China has actually doubled its GDP in seven years. In many respects the developing world is unknown economic and financial territory.

127 Conclusions The diamond of national advantage makes sense as a means of understanding global economic success. Domestic success does prepare companies to compete globally. Major European and an increasing number of Asian countries are capable of competing on a global basis. The global marketplace is only going to get tougher based on more, tougher competitors. The diamond can help to anticipate new competitors.


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