Presentation on theme: "Trademark and Unfair Comp. Boston College Law School February 27, 2008 Likelihood of Confusion."— Presentation transcript:
Trademark and Unfair Comp. Boston College Law School February 27, 2008 Likelihood of Confusion
Causes of Action Trademark Causes of Action –Infringement –Dilution –False Advertising –Cybersquatting
Infringement Lanham Act §32(1) (15 U.S.C. §1114): –Any person who shall, without the consent of the registrant - (a) use in commerce any reproduction, counterfeit, copy or colorable imitation of a registered mark in connection with the sale, offering for sale, distribution, or advertising of any goods or services on or in connection with which such use is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive … shall be liable in a civil action by the registrant for the remedies hereinafter provided.
Infringement Initial Questions –Issue of fact or issue of law? –Who must be confused? –How much confusion must there be? –Confused as to what?
Infringement Types of confusion –Product (e.g. Mike shoes) –Source (e.g. Nike mittens) –Sponsorship (e.g. Nike on soup can) –Initial interest (e.g. “buy Nike’s here”) –Reverse confusion
Polaroid v. Polarad 287 F.2d 492 (2d Cir. 1961) Polaroid Factors –(1) Strength of plaintiff’s mark –(2) Degree of similarity of marks –(3) Proximity of products or services –(4) Likelihood of plaintiff bridging the gap –(5) Evidence of actual confusion –(6) Defendant’s good faith –(7) Quality of defendant’s products –(8) Sophistication of buyers
Examples of Mark Similarity Sight –Squirt v. Quirst (soft drinks) –Cartier v. Cattier (cosmetics) –Tornado v. Vornado (appliances) Sound –Cygon v. Phygon (insecticide) –Huggies v. Dougies (diapers) –Bonamine v. Dramamine (drugs) Meaning –Cyclone v. Tornado (link fencing) –Pledge v. Promise (furniture polish) –Mountain King v. Alpine Emperor (christmas trees)
Hypothetical AMF “SLICKCRAFT” Nescher “SLEEKCRAFT” Recreational boats Used for waterskiing, fishing, etc Local retail boat stores $50 million annual sales Power boats Used for racing, etc. Local retail boat stores $6 million annual sales
Trade Dress Infringement Lanham Act §43(a) (15 U.S.C. §1125(a)): –(a) (1) Any person who, on or in connection with any goods or services, or any container for goods, uses in commerce any word, term, name, symbol, or device, or any combination thereof, or any false designation of origin … which -- (A) is likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive as to the affiliation, connection, or association of such person or with another person … shall be liable in a civil action ….