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Techno-Crime in America: New Opportunities, Techniques, Offenders, and Victims Lecture: September 14, 2010 Professor James Byrne.

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Presentation on theme: "Techno-Crime in America: New Opportunities, Techniques, Offenders, and Victims Lecture: September 14, 2010 Professor James Byrne."— Presentation transcript:

1 Techno-Crime in America: New Opportunities, Techniques, Offenders, and Victims Lecture: September 14, 2010 Professor James Byrne

2 New Opportunities for Crime The old world adage still applies – crime follows opportunity. New technologies create provide new opportunities for crime. Today, computers provide new opportunities for crime and victimization Almost a century ago, it was the invention of the car

3 Cars and Criminal Opportunity: A Case Study In the 1920s private cars became widely affordable. This technology embodied the following characteristics: - affordability – wide spread across socio-economic groups - speed – cars were much faster than any previously available private transport (ie the horse) - distance – cars could travel long distances without resting (like a horse would have to) - carrying capacity – cars could carry much more than a horse - anonymity – occupants of a car could not be as easily recognized as someone on horseback or on foot.

4 Cars and Crime The result was significant growth in certain types of crime, including: - bank robberies and housebreaking; - abduction; - smuggling and other transport of illicit goods; and new crimes: theft of cars themselves.

5 Cars and Criminal justice NEW regulatory and law enforcement countermeasures included: - introduction of number plates, chassis and engine serial numbers; - introduction of motorcycle police and patrol and pursuit cars; - improved premises security including burglar alarms and security patrols; and - improved cross – jurisdictional arrangements. Some of the countermeasures were aimed at specifics new crimes, BUT most were aimed at counteracting old crimes using new technology.

6 Computers and Criminal Opportunity E-commerce is –global; accessible; automated, immediate; capable of operating without the “collateral info” we have all relied upon in the past; can be hidden from scrutiny through encryption and all these things together create new business models – new ways of doing business. electronic crime IS AN OUTGROWTH OF E-commerce: - global; criminals can operate around the world literally; - accessible in ways never before seen and to people who, in the past, may never have led lives of crime; - automated - lots of small crimes can be effected wherein the past that would have been all too hard; - immediate- criminals can move fast!; - anonymous, or as good as; OFFENDERS ARE HIDDEN.

7 The Link Between E-Commerce and Electronic Crime E-Crime is a variation on an old theme– old scams, old crimes done in new ways. So, just as the motor car became a vehicle for facilitation of crime – COMPUTERS are now used by criminals. But then, that is the risk run every time a new technological development occurs. In commercial terms, crime is a risk of doing business and it requires risk management. Not risk elimination, but management.

8 Categories of Computer Crime 1. The Computer is the instrument to commit the crime: e.g.credit card fraud 1. The Computer is the instrument to commit the crime: e.g.credit card fraud 2. The Computer is the target of the offense: e.g. theft of data files, personal info. 2. The Computer is the target of the offense: e.g. theft of data files, personal info. 3. The Computer is incidental to the offense: e.g. telemarketing fraud 3. The Computer is incidental to the offense: e.g. telemarketing fraud

9 New Technology of Crime Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Rave Parties Rave Parties Rave Parties Rave Parties Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Common Fraud Schemes - FBI Common Fraud Schemes - FBI Common Fraud Schemes Common Fraud Schemes New Technology of Crime: A Brief Overview Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Misuse and Abuse of 9/11 Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud Rave Parties Rave Parties Rave Parties Rave Parties Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Telemarketing Fraud Common Fraud Schemes - FBI Common Fraud Schemes - FBI Common Fraud Schemes Common Fraud Schemes

10 Check and Credit Card Fraud Check and Credit Card Fraud In 2000, Visa International estimated that the yearly cost of fraud worldwide was about 0.05 cent per every dollar spent. In 2000, Visa International estimated that the yearly cost of fraud worldwide was about 0.05 cent per every dollar spent. This small amount works out to 300 million pounds in Britain and an estimated $1 billion in the United States. This small amount works out to 300 million pounds in Britain and an estimated $1 billion in the United States. In the United States, the losses from online credit card fraud alone are estimated to reach $3.2 billion in In the United States, the losses from online credit card fraud alone are estimated to reach $3.2 billion in 2007.

11 How do offenders illegally acquire checks and cards? Altering checks and cards. Offenders can do so with the simplest equipment. However, altered checks and cards are sometimes easy to detect. Altering checks and cards. Offenders can do so with the simplest equipment. However, altered checks and cards are sometimes easy to detect. Counterfeiting checks and cards. Reasonably priced machines for embossing, encoding, and applying holograms to cards are available on the Internet. Counterfeiting checks and cards. Reasonably priced machines for embossing, encoding, and applying holograms to cards are available on the Internet. Committing application fraud. Offenders get a checking or credit card account by using another person's identity or a fictitious one. Committing application fraud. Offenders get a checking or credit card account by using another person's identity or a fictitious one. Stealing checks and cards through muggings, pickpocketing, theft from cars, and burglaries. Stealing checks and cards through muggings, pickpocketing, theft from cars, and burglaries. Intercepting checks and cards in the mail. Intercepting checks and cards in the mail. Getting another person's PIN through trickery, for example, by "shimming" (watching as the person punches in a PIN). Getting another person's PIN through trickery, for example, by "shimming" (watching as the person punches in a PIN). Manufacturing and marketing counterfeit cards via internationally organized crime rings. Manufacturing and marketing counterfeit cards via internationally organized crime rings. Renting or selling stolen or counterfeit cards to a group of "steady customers" via locally organized crime rings. Renting or selling stolen or counterfeit cards to a group of "steady customers" via locally organized crime rings. Hacking into a retailer's customer database to get credit card numbers. Hacking into a retailer's customer database to get credit card numbers. Setting up bogus websites that request credit card and other personal information. Setting up bogus websites that request credit card and other personal information.

12 New Drugs, New Crimes Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Clandestine Drug Labs Harms Caused by Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs Harms Caused by Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs Clandestine methamphetamine labs cause three main types of harm: (1) physical injury from explosions, fires, chemical burns, and toxic fumes; (2) environmental hazards; and (3) child endangerment. Clandestine methamphetamine labs cause three main types of harm: (1) physical injury from explosions, fires, chemical burns, and toxic fumes; (2) environmental hazards; and (3) child endangerment. Party Drugs Party Drugs

13 New drugs, New Crimes Rave-Related Drugs Rave-Related Drugs Although ravers might use any number of legal and illegal drugs, certain drugs are most commonly associated with the rave scene. Among them are: Although ravers might use any number of legal and illegal drugs, certain drugs are most commonly associated with the rave scene. Among them are: Ecstasy (or MDMA),† † MDMA is only one of perhaps over 200 analogues to the chemical MDA (3,4 - methylenedioxyamphetamine) (Spruit 1999). Ecstasy (or MDMA),† † MDMA is only one of perhaps over 200 analogues to the chemical MDA (3,4 - methylenedioxyamphetamine) (Spruit 1999). Ketamine,†† †† Because Ketamine is used as a veterinary anesthetic, trafficking in it is often connected to burglaries of veterinary clinics and pharmacies Ketamine,†† †† Because Ketamine is used as a veterinary anesthetic, trafficking in it is often connected to burglaries of veterinary clinics and pharmacies LSD (or "acid"), LSD (or "acid"), Rohypnol, and GHB. Rohypnol, and GHB.

14 Drugs and the Internet Nationwide in 1993, people spent an estimated $25 billion on prescription drugs in the illegal market, compared with $31 billion on cocaine, including crack. Nationwide in 1993, people spent an estimated $25 billion on prescription drugs in the illegal market, compared with $31 billion on cocaine, including crack. A recent study concluded that the number of people who abuse prescription drugs each year roughly equals the number who abuse cocaine­­— about 2 to 4 percent of the population. A recent study concluded that the number of people who abuse prescription drugs each year roughly equals the number who abuse cocaine­­— about 2 to 4 percent of the population. A variety of illegal drugs are bought and sold on the internet. A variety of illegal drugs are bought and sold on the internet.

15 Prescription Fraud Prescription Fraud People commit prescription fraud in numerous ways, including People commit prescription fraud in numerous ways, including forging prescriptions, forging prescriptions, going to several doctors to get multiple prescriptions (termed “doctor shopping”), going to several doctors to get multiple prescriptions (termed “doctor shopping”), and altering prescriptions to increase the quantity. and altering prescriptions to increase the quantity.

16 Fake Drugs and New Crimes Throughout history, scam artists have sold fake remedies for various diseases. Throughout history, scam artists have sold fake remedies for various diseases. Today, the internet is being used to sell fake drugs to cure a variety of diseases, including AIDS, and various forms of Cancer. Today, the internet is being used to sell fake drugs to cure a variety of diseases, including AIDS, and various forms of Cancer. Internet scams also target hair loss, anti-aging, weight loss, and human growth drugs. Internet scams also target hair loss, anti-aging, weight loss, and human growth drugs.

17 Common Fraud SchemesCommon Fraud Schemes - FBI Common Fraud Schemes Common Fraud Scams- Telemarketing Fraud- Fraud Alert - Nigerian Letter or 419 Fraud-Impersonation/Identity Fraud- Advance Fee Scheme-Health Insurance - Redemption/Strawman/Bond Fraud Common Fraud Scams- Telemarketing Fraud- Fraud Alert - Nigerian Letter or 419 Fraud-Impersonation/Identity Fraud- Advance Fee Scheme-Health Insurance - Redemption/Strawman/Bond FraudTelemarketing Fraud AlertNigerian Letter or 419 FraudImpersonation/Identity Fraud Advance Fee SchemeHealth Insurance Redemption/Strawman/Bond FraudTelemarketing Fraud AlertNigerian Letter or 419 FraudImpersonation/Identity Fraud Advance Fee SchemeHealth Insurance Redemption/Strawman/Bond Fraud Investment Related Scams- Letter of Credit Fraud- Prime Bank Note-Ponzi Scheme-Pyramid Scheme Investment Related Scams- Letter of Credit Fraud- Prime Bank Note-Ponzi Scheme-Pyramid SchemeLetter of Credit FraudPrime Bank NotePonzi SchemePyramid SchemeLetter of Credit FraudPrime Bank NotePonzi SchemePyramid Scheme

18 New Technology and Youth Violence New Technology and Youth Violence New Technology and Youth Violence New Technology and Youth Violence Cyberstalking Cyberstalking Cyberstalking Cyber child pornography Cyber child pornography Internet-related sex crimes, including solicitation and human trafficking Internet-related sex crimes, including solicitation and human trafficking Sexting Sexting

19 Reporting Computer-Related Crime Computer intrusion (i.e. hacking) Computer intrusion (i.e. hacking) FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Password trafficking Password trafficking FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Counterfeiting of currency Counterfeiting of currency U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service

20 Reporting Computer Crime Child Pornography or Exploitation Child Pornography or Exploitation FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office if imported, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement if imported, U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementU.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementU.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Child Exploitation and Internet Fraud matters that have a mail nexus Child Exploitation and Internet Fraud matters that have a mail nexus U.S. Postal Inspection Service U.S. Postal Inspection Service U.S. Postal Inspection Service U.S. Postal Inspection Service Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet Crime Complaint Center

21 Reporting Computer Crime Internet fraud and SPAM Internet fraud and SPAM FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office U.S. Secret Service (Financial Crimes Division) U.S. Secret Service (Financial Crimes Division) U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service Federal Trade Commission (online complaint) Federal Trade Commission (online complaint) Federal Trade Commissiononline complaint Federal Trade Commissiononline complaint if securities fraud or investment-related SPAM s, Securities and Exchange Commission (online complaint) if securities fraud or investment-related SPAM s, Securities and Exchange Commission (online complaint)Securities and Exchange Commissiononline complaintSecurities and Exchange Commissiononline complaint The Internet Crime Complaint Center The Internet Crime Complaint Center The Internet Crime Complaint Center The Internet Crime Complaint Center Internet harassment Internet harassment FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office Internet bomb threats Internet bomb threats FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office ATF local office ATF local office ATF local office ATF local office Trafficking in explosive or incendiary devices or firearms over the Internet Trafficking in explosive or incendiary devices or firearms over the Internet FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office FBI local office ATF local office ATF local office ATF local office ATF local office


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