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1 “Practical Cash Handling” Practical - defined as “being capable of being put to use.” Cash – defined as “money or its equivalent such as checks, money.

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Presentation on theme: "1 “Practical Cash Handling” Practical - defined as “being capable of being put to use.” Cash – defined as “money or its equivalent such as checks, money."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 “Practical Cash Handling” Practical - defined as “being capable of being put to use.” Cash – defined as “money or its equivalent such as checks, money orders, credit or debit cards, which can be used as payment for goods or services.” Handling – defined as “having overall responsibility for supervising or directing or to perform a required function.” Source: Definitions provided by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

2 2 Presented by: Practical Cash Handling Dan Allen, MBA, CFE, CISA Student Affairs Controller and Director of Fiscal Support Services PH:

3 3 THANKS!!! Practical Cash Handling There have been MANY involved in the development of this material, including: Student Affairs Fiscal Council Members Internal Audit University Police Office of the Treasurer A special thanks to Ed Ward from Recreational Sports for his work & participation.

4 4 Course Objectives Provide overview Cash Handling training to help prepare you to assume cash handling duties at The Ohio State University. This information is intended to augment your department-specific cash handling policies and procedures, by providing overview, higher-level University and best practices information. The overall intent of this course is to:

5 5 Objectives Discuss the importance of effective cash handling procedures Discuss federal, state, and University requirements Discuss potential risks associated with cash handling and actions to be taken Discuss cash handling procedures and best practices Discuss error/problem reporting procedures, and Provide a “walk-through” example of cash handling procedures In this course, we will:

6 6 Course Topics Topic 1: Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Topic 2: Potential Risks and Actions Theft Robbery Fraud Topic 3: Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Topic 4: Error/Problem Reporting Part I. Cash Handling Overview and Procedures Part II. “Walk-Through” Example - Cash Handling Procedures Part III. Conclusion

7 7 Part I. Cash Handling Overview and Procedures Practical Cash Handling

8 8 Topic 1: Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Practical Cash Handling

9 9 Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Answer: Helps to ensure that we are effectively protecting our staff Helps to ensure that we are effectively protecting our fiscal resources and keeping our costs as low as possible to our students, customers, and supporters Helps to ensure we are accurately reporting our financial condition Helps to ensure “public trust” Through effective fiscal resource management, we are better able to provide the best facilities, meals, programs, and services Because management and staff involved with handling cash are personally responsible and accountable Why is Cash Handling important?

10 10 The department’s money? The Vice President’s/Dean’s/Chair’s money? The University’s money? The Student’s money? The Taxpayer’s money? Whose Money Is It? When we handle money in any of our University operations, whose money is it? Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

11 11 Whose Money Is It? Answer: A combination of the University’s, Students’ and Taxpayers’. It is the “Public’s” Money Because it is the “Public’s” Money – we must comply with a number of Federal, state, and University requirements. Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

12 12 What are some of the requirements? Answers: We must comply with… Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) The Ohio Ethics Law Various tax codes related to such things as Sales Tax or Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBIT) Internal controls requirements, including the University’s policies and procedures Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

13 13 Why are we discussing (GAAP) accounting requirements? Because every time you: Your entries are the “Front End” of our accounting system! Every cash, check, or credit card transaction must be properly recorded in the University’s general ledger. Enter a sales transaction into the cash register or onto a cash receipts log Process credit card payments Process BuckID payments Process meal plan swipes Process sales tax transactions Enter a sales/deposit transaction into the general ledger and more Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

14 14 What is the Ohio Ethics Law? Enacted in 1973 to promote confidence in government. As a public employee, we should not accept any: Gifts Gratuities Additional Pay Other Incentives of Significant Value Each employee involved in the handling of public funds must be held to the highest degree of public trust. Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

15 15 Internal Controls All Deans and Vice Presidents along with their fiscal officers are required to annually sub-certify their level of compliance with sixteen internal controls. Six of the sixteen relate to “Cash Handling” # 1 – Requires training for staff with fiscal responsibilities # 9 – Requires retention of financial transaction documents per University guidelines #10 – Requires monthly reconciliations of GL transactions #12 – Requires monthly reconciliations of non-cash assets and liabilities #14 – Requires processes and monitoring activities to ensure compliance with the University Treasurer’s policies on “Cash Handling” #15 – Requires staff to understand and observe the Ohio Ethics Law Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures

16 16 University’s Policies and Procedures The University’s Treasurer’s Office has established cash handling policies and procedures. These policies and procedures are available from the University Treasurer’s web site at: Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Records Retention Schedule According to the University Archives, all cash register tapes (ACC1000) and banking documentation (FIN1000) are required to be retained for 4 years. The retention schedule is available from the University Archives web site at:

17 17 Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Answer: Helps to ensure that we are effectively protecting our staff Helps to ensure that we are effectively protecting our fiscal resources and keeping our costs as low as possible to our students, customers, and supporters Helps to ensure we are accurately reporting our financial condition Helps to ensure “public trust” Through effective fiscal resource management, we are better able to provide the best facilities, meals, programs, and services Because management and staff involved with handling cash are personally responsible and accountable Recap - Why is Cash Handling important?

18 18 Topic 2: Potential Risks and Actions Practical Cash Handling

19 19 Potential Risks Theft - depriving the owner of property or services without permission like taking a bicycle, passing counterfeit money, or stealing meat from the restaurant kitchen. Robbery – Committing or attempting to commit theft while using force or the threat of force or harm. Using a deadly weapon is armed robbery. Fraud – Intentional misrepresentation or concealment of information or resources in order to deceive or mislead. Fraud is illegal. Potential Risks of Cash Handling Safety is our highest concern!!

20 20 Theft Do not physically try to stop or interfere with the theft. If a theft is suspected, call the University Police at as soon as possible. If it is in progress, make sure to tell the police that the thief is still at the scene. If you believe anyone may possibly be in danger, call 911 instead. Notify your supervisor of the theft and actions taken – as soon as possible If possible and without risking personal danger, follow the person from the site to determine the direction they are traveling and what type of vehicle was used if any. Try to remember as much descriptive information about the vehicle as possible. Record as much descriptive information as possible about the person and the item(s) taken. Be prepared to give that information to the first officer who responds. Preserve any evidence being sure not to touch or handle if not necessary. Help the police identify others that may be potential witnesses. If a person is committing a Theft --

21 21 Theft Use the same procedures as when responding to a theft. If you notice that the bill is counterfeit while the customer is there, use your judgment, but consider asking the individual to stay and discuss the circumstances with the police. Recognize that many people that pass counterfeit money do not know that it is counterfeit. If the individual is not willing to stay, record identification information as soon as possible. You don’t need to accept it for payment – but it must be reported (regardless of accepting it or not)! If you mistakenly accept it for payment, the amount will be recorded as “cash short.” Minimize touching the money. Set it aside or place it into an envelope. Notify your supervisor of the counterfeit money and actions taken – as soon as possible. It is our responsibility to report it to the local Secret Service office who will take possession of the counterfeit currency. Do not try to pass it on to others. If you believe you have received counterfeit money, you must: How can you detect counterfeit money?

22 22 Theft One of the easiest ways is to use a “counterfeit detector” pen. Simply make a small mark on the money. If it is amber or yellow, it is generally OK. If it turns dark brown or black, it may be counterfeit. Know the money. There are a number of brochures available to educate you what to look for. You can also obtain considerable information from the U.S. Secret Service web site available at How can you detect counterfeit money?

23 23 Theft How can you detect counterfeit money? Due to increases in color copier technology, two security features were added to Series 1990, 1993 and 1995 U.S. currency. These new features appeared in denominations $5 through $100. Inscribed Security Thread A clear, inscribed polyester thread has been incorporated into the paper of genuine currency. The thread is embedded in the paper and runs vertically through the clear field to the left of the Federal Reserve Seal. Printed on the thread is a denomination identifier. On $100 and $50 denominations, the security thread has "USA 100" or "USA 50" repeated along the entire length of the thread. Lower denominations (i.e. $20, $10 and $5) have "USA" followed by the written denomination. For example, "USA TWENTY USA TWENTY" is repeated along the entire length of the thread. The inscriptions are printed so that they can be read from either the face or the back of the note. The thread and the printing can only be seen by holding the note up to a light source.

24 24 Theft How can you detect counterfeit money? Microprinting Concurrent with the addition of the security thread, a line of microprinting appears on the rim of the portrait reading "THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" and is repeated along the sides of the portrait. To the naked eye, the microprinting appears as little more than a solid line and can only be read by using magnification. Microprinting cannot be accurately reproduced by office machine copiers or printers. If it doesn’t look right or feel right, it probably isn’t right!

25 25 Robbery Do not resist or interfere. Provide any cash or property asked for but do not offer anything the robber has not asked. As soon as it is safe to do so, call University Police at 911. Explain exactly where you are, what has taken place, if a weapon has been seen or a threat made, and the direction of travel of the robber. Provide as much descriptive information about the robber as possible – be specific. (You may want to write down as much information as you can remember prior to the police arriving.) Do not try to follow the person or place yourself or others in personal danger. Notify your supervisor and explain the situation and actions taken – as soon as possible. Go to a secure place and await police. Do not discuss the description or the events with ANYONE until Police arrive. Close operations and lock the doors if possible to preserve any evidence. If a person is committing a Robbery --

26 26 Theft or Robbery Direction of Travel Height Weight Hair Color Clothing Facial Hair Race Age Marks, Piercings, Tattoo's, etc. Description Information to remember and record:

27 27 Fraud Fraud – Intentional misrepresentation or concealment of information or resources in order to deceive or mislead. Fraud is illegal. Cash Fraud Schemes – are not limited to schemes in which customers or employees steal currency. They also involve checks, bank drafts, and other forms of negotiable instruments. Most cash fraud schemes committed by customers or employees focus on either currency or checks.

28 28 Fraud Larceny – the removal of cash from an organization AFTER the cash has been recorded in the organization’s books (e.g., after the transaction has been entered into the cash register). Skimming – the removal of cash from an organization BEFORE the cash has been recorded in the organization’s books (e.g., prior to the transaction being entered into the cash register). Types of Cash Fraud/Theft Schemes:

29 29 Topic 3: Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Practical Cash Handling

30 30 The University does accept checks for payment of various fees and charges providing certain criteria are met. In efforts to minimize loss of University resources, OSU has created a set of guidelines that must be followed when accepting checks. Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Check Acceptance

31 31 Acceptable Checks: Cashier’s Check – A check purchased at a bank for any amount; the bank completes all information on the face of the check with a bank officer signing as the maker. Certified Check – A personal check guaranteed by the bank; the check is stamped “certified” and signed by a bank officer. Money Order - An item purchased at a bank, post office, or other business establishment for any amount normally up to and including $200. The bank completes only the amount information. Travelers Check – A special check supplied by banks or other companies for the use of travelers; these checks already bear the purchaser’s signature and must be countersigned in the cashier’s presence. Personal Check - A written order payable on demand, drawn on a bank by a depositor; a personal check is written against an individual's funds as opposed to a cashier's check, certified check, money order, or traveler's check, all of which are written against bank funds. Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Check Acceptance

32 32 Unacceptable Checks: Counter Checks - A non-personalized, non-encoded check that is available at most banks. Starter Checks - A non-personalized check that a person receives from a bank when they establish a checking account. Third Party Checks - A check made payable to a person or organization other than the one accepting or cashing the check (for example, a paycheck). Foreign Checks - A check written on a foreign bank (e.g., a Canadian bank) not specifically prepared as U.S. currency. The maker's address might be outside the United States; however, it is the bank's address that must be examined. Check Acceptance Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices

33 33 Check Acceptance: All checks must be restrictively endorsed immediately upon acceptance Proper identification is required or the check may be refused Identification must be documented or recorded on the check but you must ask for consent before recording a social security number on any check All checks must be immediately initialed by the accepting cashier Every check must be reviewed for completeness as follows: Preprinted Information Name & Address – must be printed on the check and must be complete and current. Check Number – must be printed in the upper right hand corner and often is included in the MICR encoding line Bank Name & Location – Verify that the bank is in the US Bank Encoding - MICR encoding with routing and account numbers should be professionally printed along the bottom of the check Check Acceptance Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices

34 34 Written Information Date – Must be completed by maker and not post dated. Checks more than 14 days old must be refused. Payee – All checks must be made payable to “The Ohio State University” but may be abbreviated appropriately as “OSU” or “Ohio State”. Signature – The signature of the maker must be present and should be compared to a valid form of identification. Amount – The amount written in numerals must agree with the written amount and equal to or less than the amount of purchase. No change will be given from checks written in excess of the amount due. Check Acceptance Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices

35 35 Proper Identification University Student – A student may use either their BuckID OR a valid unexpired driver’s license. Other forms of government issued photo IDs may be accepted when the student doesn’t have a driver’s license. University Employee – A current validated employee ID. Non-University Customer – A non-University customer must provide a driver’s license or other form of government issued photo ID AND some other form of valid unexpired identification such as a major credit card, employee ID or passport. Check Acceptance Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices

36 36 Safe and effective cash handling requires everyone involved to be aware of their responsibilities. The following are guidelines to be followed when handling cash payments. Safety and SecurityPersonal safety should be your highest priority Become familiar with US Currency Use counterfeit detection pens on all bills $10 and greater Never leave cash unattended Never share a cash drawer Accuracy MattersWhen possible, count cash three times Use a calculator or adding machine to verify your addition “Face” your currency in the same direction Sales totals must balance with cash/checks/credit cards at the end of your shift Common SenseTake your time by waiting on one person at a time Ask for help if you need it Do not put the customer’s cash away until change is made Do not accept foreign currency Don’t accept mutilated currency Cash Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices

37 37 Obtain secured cash drawer/box from supervisor In a secure location, count/verify cash balance before shift begins (never count cash in public view) Ensure appropriate denominations are in the cash drawer/box to be able to make change Ensure the drawer/box is able to be locked/secured Ensure appropriate “tools” are available: counterfeit detection pen, receipts, endorsement stamp, etc. Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Preparation

38 38 Keep area looking clean and neat Constantly be on the lookout for suspicious looking people or activity Don’t leave cash or register unattended Never share the cash drawer with others Take your time All sales should be recorded on the register (or appropriate cash receipts log) Receipts should be provided to customers for all sales Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling

39 39 The cash drawer should never be left open unless a transaction is in process Use counterfeit detection pen on all denominations of $10 or higher Do not put customer’s cash away until change is made “Face” all of the cash in one direction in the drawer Check customer identification and check that all required items are on the check Write customer’s identification information and your initials on the check Immediately endorse the back of the check with the endorsement stamp Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling

40 40 Do not accept mutilated currency, starter checks, third-party checks, foreign checks, checks that have been altered or smudged, checks marked “Paid in Full”, checks that are post-dated, or checks with the date greater than 14 days old. Check for identification and expiration date on all credit cards All refunds and voids must be reviewed and approved by management All corrections must be made through the register Minimize cash in the drawer by moving excess money to the safe Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling

41 41 Don’t count cash or receipts in public view All register totals (log totals) must be balanced at the end of the shift and reconciled at least daily Overages and shortages must be logged and fully explained Provide register totals and cash to management to o Recount/verify amounts o Verify change fund and sales receipts balance with cash on hand o Ensure money is secured at end of shift Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Close Out

42 42 Ensure that everyone that handles cash is trained Ensure the overall security of the area and security of cash/checks and credit card receipts (including access to safe) Ensure staff are not sharing cash drawers Ensure cash is counted and balanced before each shift and after each shift and management documents completion and agreement Ensure cash (change fund) is balanced at least daily and documented Ensure overages and shortages are logged and fully explained Review all refunds and voids Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Management

43 43 Perform periodic unannounced cash counts and reconciliations Ensure no bags or ways to hide cash are permitted near cash registers or deposit centers, including wallets, purses, etc. Frequently observe the overall sales and cash handling environment, looking for organization, cleanliness, suspicious persons or activities, and compliance with policies and procedures Consider use of video recording camera Ensure an appropriate returned check fee sign is posted at check-acceptance sites Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Management

44 44 Ensure deposits are made at least once a week or when $500 or more in cash and checks has accumulated, whichever comes first Ensure supporting documentation is kept in accordance with records retention schedules (4 years) Ensure all accounting transactions are reconciled to the University’s general ledger in a timely manner. Best Practices Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Management

45 45 Topic 4: Error/Problem Reporting Practical Cash Handling

46 46 Error/Problem Reporting In the event that you believe that there may be problems or issues regarding cash handling: If possible, address it with your supervisor first. If you are uncomfortable with this, you can always report concerns to a higher level. Feel free to contact: Internal Audit OR The OSU Anonymous Reporting Line at

47 47 Part I. Cash Handling Overview and Procedures Practical Cash Handling Topic Review

48 48 Topic 1: Importance of Effective Cash Handling Procedures Topic 2: Potential Risks and Actions Theft Robbery Fraud Topic 3: Cash Handling Procedures & Best Practices Topic 4: Error/Problem Reporting Part I. Cash Handling Overview and Procedures Practical Cash Handling

49 49 Part I. Objectives Review Discussed the importance of effective cash handling procedures Discussed federal, state, and University requirements Discussed potential risks associated with cash handling and actions to be taken Discussed cash handling procedures and best practices, and Discussed error/problem reporting procedures In Part I, we

50 50 Part II. “Walk-Through” Example Practical Cash Handling

51 51 Situation: Walk-Through Example Department ABC is sponsoring a two-day international conference here at OSU. It is anticipated that there will be approximately 300 participants from around the country. The conference will be held at the Blackwell Inn. Registration is from 7:30 AM to 9:30 AM both days. The department has worked hard to keep the conference costs as low as possible and it intends to just “break-even”. The fees will be $22.00 per person (250 participants expected) for those attending the first and second days, and $16.00 (50 participants) for those that are attending only the second day of the conference. You have been asked to collect the cash for the conference and to work with another person to register the participants and to handout conference materials and “goodies.” Participants have been informed that payments must be in the form of cash or checks and that only US currency and checks will be permitted. The department has received $100 as a change fund, mostly in $1 and $5 denominations, and will work from a lockable change box. Blackwell has agreed to secure the money in their safe over night.

52 52 Situation (continued): It is now 6:30 AM on the first day of the conference. What do you do? Walk-Through Example

53 53 Obtain secured cash drawer/box from supervisor In a secure location, count/verify cash balance before shift begins (never count cash in public view) Ensure appropriate denominations are in the cash drawer/box to be able to make change Ensure drawer/box is able to be locked/secured Ensure appropriate “tools” are available: counterfeit detection pen, receipts, endorsement stamp, etc. Best Practices Preparation Walk-Through Example

54 54 Keep area looking clean and neat Constantly be on the lookout for suspicious looking people or activity Don’t leave cash or register unattended Never share the cash drawer with others Take your time All sales should be recorded on the register (or appropriate cash receipts log) Receipts should be provided to customers for all sales Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling Walk-Through Example

55 55 The cash drawer should never be left open unless a transaction is in process Use counterfeit detection pen on all denominations of $10 or higher Do not put customer’s cash away until change is made “Face” all of the cash in one direction in the drawer Check customer identification and check that all required items are on the check Write customer’s identification information and your initials on the check Immediately endorse the back of the check with the endorsement stamp Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling Walk-Through Example

56 56 Do not accept mutilated currency, starter checks, third-party checks, foreign checks, checks that have been altered or smudged, checks marked “Paid in Full”, checks that are post-dated, or checks with the date greater than 14 days old. Check for identification and expiration date on all credit cards All refunds and voids must be reviewed and approved by management All corrections must be made through the register Minimize cash in the drawer by moving excess money to the safe Best Practices Perform – Cash Handling Walk-Through Example

57 57 Don’t count cash or receipts in public view All register totals (log totals) must be balanced at the end of the shift and reconciled at least daily Overages and shortages must be logged and fully explained Provide register totals and cash to management to o Recount/verify amounts o Verify change fund and sales receipts balance with cash on hand o Ensure money is secured at end of shift Best Practices Close Out Walk-Through Example

58 58 Ensure that everyone that handles cash is trained Ensure the overall security of the area and security of cash/checks and credit card receipts (including access to safe) Ensure staff are not sharing cash drawers Ensure cash is counted and balanced before each shift and after each shift and management documents completion and agreement Ensure cash (change fund) is balanced at least daily and documented Ensure overages and shortages are logged and fully explained Review all refunds and voids Best Practices Management Walk-Through Example

59 59 Perform periodic unannounced cash counts and reconciliations Ensure no bags or ways to hide cash are permitted near cash registers or deposit centers, including wallets, purses, etc. Frequently observe the overall sales and cash handling environment, looking for organization, cleanliness, suspicious persons or activities, and compliance with policies and procedures Consider use of video recording camera Ensure an appropriate returned check fee sign is posted at check-acceptance sites Best Practices Management Walk-Through Example

60 60 Ensure deposits are made at least once a week or when $500 or more in cash and checks has accumulated, whichever comes first Ensure supporting documentation is kept in accordance with records retention schedules (4 years) Ensure all accounting transactions are reconciled to the University’s general ledger in a timely manner Best Practices Management Walk-Through Example

61 61 Part III. Conclusion Practical Cash Handling

62 62 Part I. Objectives Review Discussed the importance of effective cash handling procedures Discussed federal, state, and University requirements Discussed potential risks associated with cash handling and actions to be taken Discussed cash handling procedures and best practices, and Discussed error/problem reporting procedures In Part I: Cash Handling Overview and Procedures, we In Part II, we C reated a cash handling scenario and performed a “walk-through” of cash handling “best practices”

63 63 Course Objectives Review Provide overview Cash Handling training to help prepare you to assume cash handling duties at The Ohio State University. Have we met our objective? The overall intent of this course was to: If you have questions, please contact Your unit management Your Senior Fiscal Officer Office of the Treasurer, or Internal Audit


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