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Priorities in Financing the Control of Malaria in the Asia-Pacific Prabhat Jha

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Presentation on theme: "Priorities in Financing the Control of Malaria in the Asia-Pacific Prabhat Jha"— Presentation transcript:

1 Priorities in Financing the Control of Malaria in the Asia-Pacific Prabhat Jha

2 Conclusions Fight artemisinin and insecticide resistance –Regulation for counterfeit and sub-standard drugs –Double spending on regional anti-resistance efforts to $400 M Engage the private sector –Asian Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria for quality- assured ACT and RDTs Sustainable finance –Raise more revenue: domestic spending inc. tobacco tax –Spend better: strengthen national programs, enable results-based financing, change health aid –Regional Malaria/Infectious Disease Fund

3 Background Diverse epidemiological scenarios in region –Most countries report declines in malaria cases over last 10 years –Control to elimination Common needs (1) protect current tools of control, most importantly artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT); (2) engage the private sector, where most people continue to purchase malaria treatments; and (3) achieve sustainable finance in the region at the domestic and developmental assistance levels.

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6 Past resurgence of malaria

7 1. Fight Resistance Double spending to about $400 M –Currently $180 M or about 4% of total required malaria investment in region between or 0.5% of total to eliminate malaria in 19 countries by 2030 Insurance against global risks –R&D spending for new drugs is about 5-10% of total spending –Strengthen regulation against counterfeit and sub- standard drugs –Pilot elimination strategies

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13 2. Engage Private Sector Asian Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria –Negotiated price reductions with private pharma to sell quality-assured ACTs –High-level subsidy “factory gate” –Support countries in regulation and quality assurance –Focus on ACT and RDTs –Various models all of which would with GFATM on new internal AMFm

14 Malaria incidence and drug consumption in India

15 US Institute of Medicine (IOM) proposal, 2004: now “AMFm” (Affordable Medicines Facility- malaria) Global high-level subsidy for procurement of ACTs; facilitate low-cost low-supervision distribution via public & private sectors Allows effective, affordable clinic or health- care facility treatment of malaria & informal near-home treatment of suspected malaria

16 AMFm: getting ACTs affordably available worldwide & so, much more widely used -Allows better treatment in public and private clinics of all types (including faith-based & other NGO clinics, dispensaries, shops etc) -Avoids mono-therapy (less rapidly effective & risks resistance emerging to artesunate) -Avoids counterfeiting (cf. aspirin) -Will eventually allow near-home treatment (which could greatly reduce child and adult mortality)

17 Source: Laxminaryanan et al, Lancet 2010

18 AMFm: Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria $250M pilot phase hosted by GF in Geneva AMFm, 2013→ Procure ~300M complete courses of high-quality artesunate combination therapy (ACT) per year for $300M, but sell at only ~$0.05 per complete course through all major wholesale outlets in all countries. Retail price then undercuts/compares with the cheapest available poor products (eg SP, CQ, poor-quality artesunate monotherapy, counterfeits). Governments, NGOs and clinics that want to provide antimalarials free of charge can buy them in bulk at low cost and do so with little corruption. $250M pilot phase, , now running well throughout 8 countries (including Cambodia, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda): spot surveys in 60 random outlets/country show low-cost ACT is on sale. GF board vote in late 2012 for/against full worldwide AMFm scale-up; if implemented, AMFm will save lives, undermine smuggling/counterfeiting and prevent/substantially delay emergence of resistance to artesunate.

19 AMFm: Median Prices of AL 20/120 mg (pack size 6x4) by country: AMFm vs non AMFm (OB- Other Brands and LPG – Lowest Priced Generic)

20 In the November 2011 HAI survey of AMFm antimalarial availability in 360 outlets distributed throughout six African pilot-phase countries, AMFm ACTs were found available at low price in 83% of the outlets (informal ones 72%, formal ones 94%).

21 AMFM objections Inappropriate use by non-malaria patients –60% of malaria contacts in public sector in Asia have microbiological diagnosis Use by adults –Adult malaria/fever deaths common- eg rural India Subsidy is captured by rich –Subsidy was pro-poor in Africa –No major rent seeking by private pharma (and indeed reduces monotherapies and decreases artemisinin resistance)

22 * WHO indirect estimates of Indian malaria mortality rates Study-attributed Indian malaria mortality rates Age-specific all-India malaria-attributed death rates estimated from the present study, and those estimated indirectly for WHO * No. of study deaths per age class (in red) Indian malaria mortality rates in 2005 were high in early childhood and in middle age

23 Malaria deaths occurred where the most dangerous type (Plasmodium falciparum) of malaria parasite occurs

24 CGHR.ORG Death rates from malaria in Mozambique: national mortality survey

25 3A. Sustainable finance Current spending $0.3B; need is $1.5B/year: Wide variation in per capita spending and reliance on donor support Most donor support for IRS/nets and other key inputs GFATM resources slowing Raise more revenue: 2% of health budgets is target Malaria control yields at least 2X benefits than costs Consider tobacco tax: 200% higher tax=$24 B in just 5 countries

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29 3B. Sustainable finance More malaria control for the money: Strengthen national programs to be less input-driven approaches, more evidence-based spending Result-based financing (but complex to manage) Big investments in surveillance/monitoring (esp. to aid elimination) Change malaria donor assistance: Fund what governments will not fund easily (regional or global public goods) Regional cooperation and Regional Fund

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31 Conclusions Fight artemisinin and insecticide resistance –Regulation for counterfeit and sub-standard drugs –Double spending on regional anti-resistance efforts to $400 M Engage the private sector –Asian Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria for quality- assured ACT and RDTs Sustainable finance –Raise more revenue: domestic spending inc. tobacco tax –Spend better: strengthen national programs, enable results-based financing, change health aid –Regional Malaria/Infectious Disease Fund

32 Background slides

33 MILLION DEATH STUDY IN INDIA: (1) visit 1 M homes with a recent death & ask standard questions and get a narrative ; (2) use non-medical surveyors (electronic entry + GPS) & central double coding by 500 doctors; (3) study all diseases, work with census dept; (4) keep costs <$1 per home “For sanitary purposes it is indispensable to know the relative mortality in small and, as far as possible, well-defined tracts to ascertain the death rates in each of these communities; to see how far this arises from preventable causes; and to apply the remedies” Sanitary Commissioner of India, 1869

34 Malaria deaths before age 70 in the study 90% (2422/2685) were in rural areas 86% (2315/2685) did not occur at a health facility

35 All India, 2005 Age range Deaths (thousands)Death rate per (lakh) <1 months months years years years years years Subtotal, ages 0-69 years (lower, upper bounds) 205 (125, 277) Malaria-attributed deaths: estimated national totals, by age 120 thousand at ages 15-69

36 * Malaria death rates, India 2005, standardised to population aged 0-69 ~100 Half of the malaria deaths were in a few high-malaria states in eastern India

37 Risk of a newborn Indian dying from malaria before age 70 (at current rates, in the absence of other disease) About 2% overall in India Over 12% in Orissa

38 Geographical variation in absolute numbers of malaria deaths in the different populations studied by the MDS and NVBDCP StateMDS malaria- attributed deaths before age 70, NVDCP slide-positive, clinically-confirmed malaria deaths, No.% % Orissa82331%210237% Northeast46817%102318% Chhattisgarh1315%1092% Jharkhand1184%1523% Madhya Pradesh2178%2625% All other states92835%199935% All India % %

39 Malaria deaths did not occur in states where dengue or meningitis or typhoid * were common (1) * These diseases can be confused with malaria

40 Malaria deaths did not occur in states where dengue or meningitis or typhoid * were common (2) * These diseases can be confused with malaria

41 Malaria was a minority cause of rural, unattended fever deaths in 2005 (1.3M

42 Indian Malaria Program (NVDCP): average People tested for malaria: 100 M in public hospitals/clinics No. positive for malaria: 1.6 M – 0.8 M P. falciparum No. of deaths: 1304 Thus, with a successful treatment program, establishing a reliable death rate among UNTREATED population is difficult, if not impossible.

43 NVBDCP Malaria testing in public hospitals People tested for malaria (millions) Cases positive for malaria (and PF) in millions 1.8 (0.8) 1.5 (0.7) 1.5 (0.8) 1.6 (0.8) No. of deaths

44 Death rates from malaria in other African settings: INDEPTH sites and national surveys

45 Rectal artesunate and child survival in Africa/Asia Source: Gomes et al, Lancet 2009


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