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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 16 – HANDWRITING & DOCUMENT ANALYSIS"— Presentation transcript:

Historical dating—the verification of age and value of a document or object Fraud investigation—focuses on the money trail and criminal intent Paper and ink specialists—date, type, source, and/or catalog various types of paper, watermarks, ink, printing/copy/fax machines, computer cartridges Forgery specialists—analyze altered, obliterated, changed, or doctored documents and photos Typewriting analysts—determine origin, make, and model Computer crime investigators—investigate cybercrime Kendall/Hunt

2 Document Examination Chapter 15 Forensic document examination involves the analysis and comparison of questioned documents with known material in order to identify whenever possible, the author or origin of the questioned document. Kendall/Hunt

3 Handwriting Handwriting analysis involves two phases:
Chapter 15 Handwriting analysis involves two phases: The hardware—ink, paper, pens, pencils, typewriter, printers Visual examination of the writing Kendall/Hunt

4 Handwriting Characteristics
Chapter 15 Line quality Word and letter spacing Letter comparison Pen lifts Connecting strokes Beginning and ending strokes Unusual letter formation Shading or pen pressure Slant Baseline habits Flourishes or embellishments Diacritic placement Kendall/Hunt

5 Handwriting Identification
Chapter 15 Analysis of the known writing with a determination of the characteristics found in the known Analysis of the questioned or unknown writing and determination of its characteristics Comparison of the questioned writing with the known writing Evaluation of the evidence, including the similarities and dissimilarities between the questioned and known writing The document examiner must have enough exemplars to make a determination of whether or not the two samples match. Kendall/Hunt

6 Handwriting Samples Chapter 15 The subject should not be shown the questioned document. The subject is not told how to spell words or use punctuation. The subject should use materials similar to those of the document. The dictated text should match some parts of the document. The subject should be asked to sign the text. Always have a witness. Kendall/Hunt


8 Hand writing: Individual or Class evidence?
Class Characteristics: Features and dimensions of letters. Connection of letters to each other Capitalization Punctuation Individual Characteristics: Unique features of letters. Is the letter “O” open or closed Is the “n”written with a pointed tip **Handwriting samples change about every seven years**

9 Basic characteristics for comparing Handwriting
Overall Form The size, shape, slant, and strokes of the letters Line Features Writing speed, pen pressure, spacing between letters and words and how the letters are connected. Margins and Format Content Grammar, punctuation and word choice

10 Handwriting Analysis – on a piece of loose leaf, copy the following passage. 2 minutes.
Writing is a form of expression and neat handwriting is important when writing anything that will be read by someone else. We are often judged by the quality of our handwriting and when our penmanship is poor we appear to be lazy or incompetent.

11 Handwriting Analysis Look through the 5 indicator results (Emotional Indicators, Goals, Self-Image, Social Skills, Attitude) Match your score with the profile Do you agree with all of the results?? After looking at all of your results, write a brief reaction (quick write). Do you agree with the analysis? Do you think this form of analysis is useful? Explain. To be handed in.

12 Methods of Forgery Chapter 15 Simulated forgery—one made by copying a genuine signature Traced forgery—one made by tracing a genuine signature Blind forgery—one made without a model of the signature Kendall/Hunt

13 Types of Forgery Check fraud Forgery Counterfeit Alterations
Chapter 15 Check fraud Forgery Counterfeit Alterations Paper money Identity Social Security Driver’s license Kendall/Hunt

14 Credit cards Theft of card or number Art—imitation with intent to deceive Microscopic examination Electromagnetic radiation Chemical analysis Contracts—alterations of contracts, medical records

15 Document Alterations Chapter 15 Obliterations—removal of writing by physical or chemical means can be detected by: Microscopic examination UV or infrared (IR) light Digital image processing Indentations can be detected by: Oblique lighting Electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA) Kendall/Hunt

16 Famous Forgers and Forgeries
Chapter 15 Famous Forgers and Forgeries Major George Byron (Lord Byron forgeries) Thomas Chatterton (literary forgeries) John Payne Collier (printed forgeries) Dorman David (Texas Declaration of Independence) Mark Hofmann (Mormon, Freemason forgeries) William Henry Ireland (Shakespeare forgeries) Clifford Irving (Howard Hughes forgery) Konrad Kujau (Hitler diaries) James Macpherson (Ossian manuscript) George Psalmanasar (literary forgery) Alexander Howland Smith (historical documents) Kendall/Hunt

17 Forensic Linguist Chapter 15 Expert who looks at the linguistic content (the way something is written) of a questioned document Language that is used can help to establish the writer’s age, gender, ethnicity, level of education, professional training, and ideology. NZPk Kendall/Hunt


19 Ink Chapter 15 Chromatography is a method of physically separating the components of inks. Types HPLC—high-performance liquid chromatography TLC—thin-layer chromatography Paper chromatography Kendall/Hunt

20 Paper Chromatography of Ink
Chapter 15 Two samples of black ink from two different manufacturers have been characterized using paper chromatography. Kendall/Hunt

21 Chapter 15 Retention Factor (Rf) A number that represents how far a compound travels in a particular solvent It is determined by measuring the distance the compound traveled and dividing it by the distance the solvent traveled. 18 Kendall/Hunt

22 Paper Differences Raw material Weight Density Thickness Color
Chapter 15 Differences Raw material Weight Density Thickness Color Watermarks Age Fluorescence Kendall/Hunt

23 Pencils Lead Hardness scale
Chapter 15 Lead Hardness scale a traditional measure of the hardness of the “leads” (actually made of graphite) in pencils. The hardness scale, from softer to harder, takes the form ..., 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, ..., with the standard “number 2” pencil being of hardness 2H. Kendall/Hunt

24 Evidence Class characteristics may include: general types of pens
Chapter 15 Class characteristics may include: general types of pens pencils paper. Individual characteristics may include: unique, individual handwriting characteristics trash marks from copiers printer serial numbers. Kendall/Hunt

25 There are 5 things that differ in these pictures! Can you find them all?

26 Spot the Counterfeit

27 Spot the Counterfeit

28 Spot the Counterfeit (same 2 bills)

29 Counterfeiting Chapter 15 In 1996 the government starting adding new security features to our paper money due to the advanced copying technologies that have raised the incidence of counterfeiting. The $20 bill entered circulation on October of 2003, followed by the $50 in September of 2004, and then the $10 in September of 2005. Subtle background colors have been added along with other features to discourage counterfeiting. Kendall/Hunt

30 Know Your Money Paper Consists of 25% linen 75% Cotton with red & blue fibers. Federal Reserve Indicators Check Letter/Quadrant Number Watermark Color-Shifting Ink (Copper to Green) Face Plate Number Series Year Security Thread Back Plate Number (on back of bill - right side) Serial Numbers

31 Internet Crimes Computer intrusions Identity theft
Chapter 15 Computer intrusions Identity theft Transmission of illegal items Extortion and harassment Piracy Cyberterrorism Kendall/Hunt

32 More about Document Analysis
Chapter 15 More about Document Analysis For additional information about document and handwriting analysis, check out truTV’s Crime Library at: Or learn about forgery cases at: Kendall/Hunt


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