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Presentation on theme: "About Science Prof OnlineScience Prof Online PowerPoint Resources Science Prof Online (SPO) is a free science education website that provides fully-developed."— Presentation transcript:

1 About Science Prof OnlineScience Prof Online PowerPoint Resources Science Prof Online (SPO) is a free science education website that provides fully-developed Virtual Science Classrooms, science-related PowerPoints, articles and images. The site is designed to be a helpful resource for students, educators, and anyone interested in learning about science. The SPO Virtual Classrooms offer many educational resources, including practice test questions, review questions, lecture PowerPoints, video tutorials, sample assignments and course syllabi. New materials are continually being developed, so check back frequently, or follow us on Facebook (Science Prof Online) or Twitter (ScienceProfSPO) for updates. Many SPO PowerPoints are available in a variety of formats, such as fully editable PowerPoint files, as well as uneditable versions in smaller file sizes, such as PowerPoint Shows and Portable Document Format (.pdf), for ease of printing. Images used on this resource, and on the SPO website are, wherever possible, credited and linked to their source. Any words underlined and appearing in blue are links that can be clicked on for more information. PowerPoints must be viewed in slide show mode to use the hyperlinks directly. Several helpful links to fun and interactive learning tools are included throughout the PPT and on the Smart Links slide, near the end of each presentation. You must be in slide show mode to utilize hyperlinks and animations. This digital resource is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0: Alicia Cepaitis, MS Chief Creative Nerd Science Prof Online Online Education Resources, LLC From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com Image: Compound microscope objectives, T. Port Tami Port, MS Creator of Science Prof Online Chief Executive Nerd Science Prof Online Online Education Resources, LLC

2 Inorganic Chemistry Image: Chemicals in Flasks, J. Sullivan, WikiChemicals in Flasks For additional resources on this lecture topic, see the Inorganic Chemistry Main Page on SPO.Inorganic Chemistry Main PageSPO

3 Chemical Basis of Life: Atoms, Molecules & Compounds _________ → Anything that occupies space and has mass. _________ → Substances that can’t be broken down any further. [ Living things are composed of 24 elements. More than 100 in the periodic table.] Atom → The smallest unit of an element. [atoms = protons (+) and neutrons in the nucleus orbited by electrons (-)] ● __________ → Atoms chemically bonded with other atoms. ● __________ → Molecules composed of two or more different kinds of elements. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

4 Reminder … Molecule vs. Compound Q: What do we call two or more atoms joined together chemically? Q: What do we call a molecule containing at least two different elements? All compounds are molecules but not all molecules are compounds. Examples of molecules: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ), molecular hydrogen (H 2 ), molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and molecular nitrogen ( N 2 ). Examples of compounds: Only molecules containing two or more elements, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). Image: Water Molecule, WikiWater Molecule From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

5 Chemical Shorthand Chemical __________ -Begins with one or two letters based on elements name. -Q: What if there is more than one element that starts with the same letter? -Example: Carbon (C), Calcium (Ca), Chlorine (Cl) Chemical _________ -“Shorthand” for a compound. -Contains chemical symbols of the elements that make up the molecule. -Numerical subscripts represent number of atoms of each element in molecule. Example: H 2 0 = water; has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. -More than one molecule of same type…the group of letters is preceded by number. Example 2H 2 0 = two water molecules. Image: Periodic Table of Elements, NASAPeriodic Table of Elements Follow this link to see Daniel Radcliff (Harry Potter) sing “The Element Song”.The Element Song From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

6 The Structure of an Atom Atoms are the basis for everything in the universe. Q: What are the three basic parts of an atom?: _________ = "-" negative charge _________ = "+" positive charge _________ = neutral (a charge of zero) The thing that makes each element unique is the number of protons, since the number of neutrons and electrons can vary. Protons and neutrons always in the center of atom (the nucleus). Electrons are found whizzing around nucleus in areas called orbitals. Q: If there is an equal number of electrons and protons in an atom, what is it’s charge? NERDY SCIENCE JOKE: A neutron walks into a bar and asks “How much for a drink?” Q: What does the bartender tell him? Images: Structure of Atom, Chem4Kids Website; Carbon, Universe Today WebsiteChem4KidsUniverse Today From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

7 Chemical Bonding and Electron Valences The electrons in an atom are located at different energy levels. Electrons in the highest energy level are called valence electrons. Number of valence electrons governs an atom’s bonding behavior. Q: What is the max number of valence electrons for a full valence shell? Atoms are much more stable, or less reactive, with a full valence shell. This stability can be achieved one of two ways: - ________ bond By moving electrons, the two atoms become linked. This is known as chemical bonding. Images: Carbon, Universe Today WebsiteUniverse Today From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

8 Three Main Types of Chemical Bonds: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ Image: Formation of ionic sodium fluoride, Wdcf; Methane Covalent Bonds, Dynablast, Wiki; DNA Chemical Structure, Madprime, WikiFormation of ionic sodium fluorideMethane Covalent BondsDNA Chemical Structure From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

9 _______ Bonds Involves transfer of electrons between two atoms. Found mainly … inorganic compounds. Images: Sodium Chloride, University of WinnepegSodium Chloride Ion = an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. Q: What are positively charged ions (+) called? __________ Q: What are negatively charged ions (-) called? __________ From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

10 Ions: Acids & Bases An _____ is any ionic compound that releases ________ _____ (H + ) in solution. A _____ is any ionic compound that releases _______ _____ ( - OH) in solution. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

11 Acidity of a solution > measured by concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). pHpH ranges: 0 (very _______) to 14 (very ________). Change in just one unit of scale = tenfold change in H+ concentration. If concentration of H+ = OH - … neutral. Measurements of Acidity & Alkalinity (pH)pH Images: pH scale, Edward Stevens, WikipH scale From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

12 An acid is any ionic compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Weak acids have a sour taste. Strong acids are highly corrosive (So don’t go around taste-testing acids.) Examples: Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6, Vitamin C) Citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7, a weak organic acid in citrus fruits) Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4, in pop…this stuff is also used to remove rust…hmmm) Ions & Acids Images: pH scale, Edward Stevens, WikipH scale From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

13 Images: Strong Acids, Department of Chemistry, CSUStrong Acids From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

14 From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

15 Ions & Bases A base is an ionic compound that releases hydroxyl ions (OH-) in solution. Bases are also called _____________ substances. Some general properties of bases include: Taste: Bitter taste (opposed to sour taste of acids and sweetness of aldehydes and ketones). Touch: Slimy or soapy feel on fingers. Reactivity: Strong bases are caustic on organic matter, react violently with acidic substances. Examples: Sodium hydroxide, NaOH, of lye or caustic soda used in oven cleaners. Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2, also known as milk of magnesia, a weak base used in antacids and laxatives. Images: pH scale, Edward Stevens, WikipH scale From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

16 Ions & _______ Compounds that dissociate in water and produce cations other than H+ and anions other than OH- are called salts. The most familiar salt is sodium chloride, the principal component of common table salt. Other examples of salts: Baking soda (NaHCO3) Epsom Salts (MgSO4) From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

17 Salts: The Role of ________ Certain salts, called buffers, can combine with excess hydrogen (H+) or hydroxyl (OH-) ions. Produce substances less acidic or alkaline. Example: Antacids like Tums are buffers made of the salt calcium carbonate (CaCo3). From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

18 Reactions Involving Ions Remember…Ion = an atom which has lost or gained one or more electrons, so it’s negatively or positively charged. The Principle of _______ ________ is a common water softening method. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

19 Lets use a Branganalogy to help us Understand the Concept of Ion Exchange… 1. Brad Pitt is a negatively charged resin bead 2. Jennifer Anniston is a positively charged Sodium ion 3. Angelina Jolie is a positively charged Calcium Ion Na+ Ca++ Now lets say that ‘positiveness’ equates with ‘drop-dead gorgeousness’ Negatively charged Brad is attracted to reasonably positive Jennifer. Na+ Ca Negatively charged Brad lets go of reasonably positive Jennifer in the presence of insanely positive Angelina. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

20 _________ Bonds Covalent Bonds: Involve the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms. Found mainly … organic compounds Image: Methane Covalent Bonds, Dynablast, WikiMethane Covalent Bonds From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

21 Oxidation - Reduction Reaction Or Redox reaction = chemical reactions in which electrons are gained, lost (Q: What kind of bond?) or shared (Q: What kind of bond?) in a chemical reaction. ________ describes the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. _________ describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

22 Oil Rig Image: Oil Rig Platform, NasaOil Rig Platform From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

23 _________ Bonds Hydrogen Bonds: When an atom of hydrogen is attracted to two atoms instead of only one. Hydrogen bonds attract molecules to each other, but do not technically bond atoms together. Bonding electrons are shared unequally by the hydrogen and oxygen atoms: negative charge (-) forms at ______ end positive charge (+) forms at _______end When the electrons in a covalent bond are not equally shared, the molecule is _____. Found in water, proteins & DNA Image: DNA Chemical Structure, Madprime, Wiki; Water Striders, Markus Gayda, WikiDNA Chemical StructureWater Striders From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

24 Neutrons Image: Parts of Atom, Chem4Kids WebsiteChem4KidsFrom the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

25 What is an ________? Normal Atoms Except for hydrogen (1 proton / no neutrons), every atomic nucleus in normal matter is made of both protons and neutrons. Typically, the number of protons and neutrons is the same. Protons in the nucleus are positively charged, and repel each other. Neutrons are neutral. They separate the protons slightly, making the atom stable. Isotopes An isotope is a variant of an element, with a different # of _________ than is typical. This makes a nucleus unstable. Image: Isotope, GRACIsotope From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

26 Isotopes & Radioactivity Isotope is ______________ if nucleus is unstable. Most isotopes disintegrate spontaneously with the release of energy by processes of nuclear or radioactive decay. When the nucleus changes in structure, energy and/or subatomic particles are given off. Other than radioactivity, isotopes behaves similarly to the natural variant. When controlled, radioactive isotopes can be valuable medical tools. (Ex. Gamma camera can produce images of soft tissue when radiopharmaceuticals are injected into or ingested by patient.) 1.Schizophrenic female 2.Female with depression 3.Healthy female From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

27 Simple Reactions Types From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

28 Synthesis, Decomposition & Exchange Reactions __________ Reaction (Combination or Anabolic Reaction) When two or more substances combine to form a single compound. Requires energy in order to take place The general form of a direct combination reaction is: A + B → AB where A and B are elements or compounds, and AB is a compound consisting of A and B. Examples of combination reactions include: 2Na + Cl 2 → 2 NaCl (formation of table salt) 4 Fe + 3 O 2 → 2 Fe 2 O 3 (iron rusting) _____________ Reaction (Catabolic Reaction) The opposite of a composition reaction. A compound is broken down. The generalized reaction formula for chemical decomposition is: AB → A + B ___________ Reactions (Transfer Reaction) Atoms are moved from one molecule to another. A + BC → AB + C Images: Animation decomposition reaction, Armando-Martin; Rust, Later KeiwosAnimation decomposition reactionRustFrom the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

29 ___________ Reaction _____________ Reaction Q: Based on the reaction types we just discussed, how would you categorize the reactions below? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

30 Mixtures, Compounds & Solutions From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

31 Mixtures & Compounds __________ = Physical combination of two or more pure substances (i.e., elements or compounds). __________ = Chemical combination of two or more pure substances in a fixed, definite proportion. Examples: Mixture - Iron & Sulfur Iron filings may be mixed with powdered sulfur in any proportion. The two components are easily separated by means of a magnet, The magnet will draw out the iron from the mixture. The components of a mixture usually can be separated by physical means such as distillation, evaporation, etc. Compound – Iron sulfide (Pyrite or Fools Gold) However, if: a.seven parts iron filings or powder are mixed with four parts powdered sulfur b.mixture is heated to a red glow c.iron and sulfur form a compound - iron sulfide; chemically combined, not readily separated. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

32 Solutions Solutions are mixtures in which one substance is dissolved in another. Solutions have two parts: solute and solvent Q: Which is the substance that is dissolved? So the substance that does the dissolving is called the _____. (Remember water, the ‘universal solvent’?) ____________ - A measure of how much of a given substance will dissolve in a liquid. A substance that does not dissolve in water is called insoluble. Example: Oil is insoluble in water. A substance that does dissolve in water is called soluble. Example: Sugar is soluble in water. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

33 Confused? Here are some links to fun resources that further explain Chemistry: Inorganic Chemistry Main Page on the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom of Science Prof Online.Inorganic Chemistry Main Page Science Prof Online “She Blinded Me With Science” music video Thomas Dolby.“She Blinded Me With Science” “What Kind of Bonds Are These?” song and slide show by Mark Rosengarten.“What Kind of Bonds Are These?” Chemical Bond Formation animated science tutorial.Chemical Bond Formation “Meet the Elements” music video by They Might Be Giants.Meet the Elements Redox Reactions video lecture by Kahnacademy.Redox Reactions Chem4Kids website by Rader.Chem4Kids Neutron Dance …a so-bad-its-good ’80s music video by The Pointer Sisters.Neutron Dance (You must be in PPT slideshow view to click on links.) Want to see me sing the Element Song? Element Song Image: Daniel Radcliff by Joella MaranoDaniel Radcliff From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comVirtual Cell Biology ClassroomScienceProfOnline.com

34 Assignment At the end of most lectures, I will give you some type of in-class assignment or homework to evaluate your understanding of that day’s topic. This assignment will always be open-book. Today, if assigned, you will be completing an essay question on the topic of Inorganic Chemistry. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.comScienceProfOnline.com See the ScienceProfOnline Virtual Cell Biology Classroom: Inorganic Chemistry Lecture for a printable Word.doc of this assignment.ScienceProfOnline

35 Are you feeling blinded by science ? Do yourself a favor. Use the… Virtual Cell Biology Classroom (VCBC) ! The VCBC is full of resources to help you succeed, including:VCBC practice test questions review questions study guides and learning objectives PowerPoints on other topics You can access the VCBC by going to the Science Prof Online website Images: Blinded With Science album, Thomas Dolby; Endomembrane system, Mariana Ruiz, WikiBlinded With ScienceEndomembrane system


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