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Seerah of The Prophet Islam in Medinah The Era of Military Confrontations.

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Presentation on theme: "Seerah of The Prophet Islam in Medinah The Era of Military Confrontations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seerah of The Prophet Islam in Medinah The Era of Military Confrontations

2 The Situation in Medina The direct danger of Quraysh The danger from the Pagans of Medina The risk of conflict with Jewish Tribes in Medina The danger of the Hypocrites

3 The Situation in Medina The Relationship with Quraysh – Continuous threats – Clear and present danger – Confiscation of wealth and property – Expulsion from Mecca – Preventing Muslims from performing worship in the Sanctuary

4 The Situation in Medina – Continuous threats – Clear and present danger ‏ أن كفار ‏ ‏ قريش ‏ ‏ كتبوا إلى ‏ ‏ ابن أبي ‏ ‏ ومن كان يعبد معه الأوثان من ‏ ‏ الأوس ‏ ‏ والخزرج ‏ ‏ ورسول الله ‏ ‏ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ يومئذ ‏ ‏ بالمدينة ‏ ‏ قبل وقعة ‏ ‏ بدر ‏ ‏ إنكم آويتم صاحبنا وإنا نقسم بالله لتقاتلنه أو لتخرجنه أو لنسيرن إليكم بأجمعنا حتى نقتل مقاتلتكم ونستبيح نساءكم فلما بلغ ذلك ‏ ‏ عبد الله بن أبي ‏ ‏ ومن كان معه من عبدة الأوثان اجتمعوا لقتال النبي ‏ ‏ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ فلما بلغ ذلك النبي ‏ ‏ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ لقيهم فقال ‏ ‏ لقد بلغ وعيد ‏ ‏ قريش ‏ ‏ منكم المبالغ ما كانت تكيدكم بأكثر مما تريدون أن تكيدوا به أنفسكم تريدون أن تقاتلوا أبناءكم وإخوانكم فلما سمعوا ذلك من النبي ‏ ‏ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ تفرقوا مسند أبو داوود

5 The Situation in Medina Expulsion from Mecca Preventing Muslims from performing worship in the Sanctuary عن عبد الله بن مسعود ‏ ‏ رضي الله عنه ‏ حدث عن ‏ ‏ سعد بن معاذ ‏ ‏ أنه قال كان صديقا ‏ ‏ لأمية بن خلف ‏ ‏ وكان ‏ ‏ أمية ‏ ‏ إذا مر ‏ ‏ بالمدينة ‏ ‏ نزل على ‏ ‏ سعد ‏ ‏ وكان ‏ ‏ سعد ‏ ‏ إذا مر ‏ ‏ بمكة ‏ ‏ نزل على ‏ ‏ أمية ‏ ‏ فلما قدم رسول الله ‏ ‏ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ ‏ المدينة ‏ ‏ انطلق ‏ ‏ سعد ‏ ‏ معتمرا فنزل على ‏ ‏ أمية ‏ ‏ بمكة ‏ ‏ فقال ‏ ‏ لأمية ‏ ‏ انظر لي ساعة خلوة لعلي أن أطوف ‏ ‏ بالبيت ‏ ‏ فخرج به قريبا من نصف النهار فلقيهما ‏ ‏ أبو جهل ‏ ‏ فقال يا ‏ ‏ أبا صفوان ‏ ‏ من هذا معك فقال هذا ‏ ‏ سعد ‏ ‏ فقال له ‏ ‏ أبو جهل ‏ ‏ ألا أراك تطوف ‏ ‏ بمكة ‏ ‏ آمنا وقد أويتم ‏ ‏ الصباة ‏ ‏ وزعمتم أنكم تنصرونهم وتعينونهم أما والله لولا أنك مع ‏ ‏ أبي صفوان ‏ ‏ ما رجعت إلى أهلك سالما فقال له ‏ ‏ سعد ‏ ‏ ورفع صوته عليه أما والله لئن منعتني هذا لأمنعنك ما هو أشد عليك منه طريقك على ‏ ‏ المدينة ‏ ( البخاري )‏

6 The Situation in Medina The need for Muslims to arm – Self-defense. – Restoration of confiscated wealth and property – Protect their rights to worship freely

7 The Permission to Fight Permission to fight (against disbelievers) is given to those (believers) who are fought against, because they have been wronged; and surely, Allah is Able to give them (believers) victory. Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah." For had it not been that Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. Verily, Allah will help those who help His (Cause). Truly, Allah is All-Strong, All- Mighty. Those who, if We give them power in the land, enjoin Salat, pay the Zakat, and they enjoin Al- Ma‘ruf and forbid Al-Munkar And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures).

8 The Campaigns Campaigns and Expeditions – Campaign (Ghazwah) الغزوة : Led by the Prophet himself. Regardless if fighting occures. – Expedition (Sariyyah) السرية : Ordered by the Prophet and led by a companion.

9 Goals: – Control the area around Medina including trade routes. – Protection of Medina against attacks. – Establishing Muslims as a strong defensible state. – Forming non-aggression and mutual defense treaties around Medina – Pressuring Quraysh and repel their aggression. The Campaigns

10 Expedition of Sayf Al-Bahr سرية سيف البحر : – Led by Hamza (1 AH) Intercepting a caravan. No fighting. Expedition of Rabegh سرية رابغ : – Led by Ubaydah bin Al-Harith (1 AH). – “First arrow shot” for the sake of Allah by Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas Expedition of Kharrar سرية الخرار : – Led by Sa’d (1 AH) Intercepting a caravan. No fighting. The Campaigns

11 Campaign of Waddan غزوة ودّان ( الأبواء ) : – (Safar, 2 AH) The First Campaign of the Prophet – Intercepting a caravan. – No fighting. – Non-aggression treaty with Bani Dhumrah Campaign of Buwatt غزوة بواط : – (Rabi I, 2 AH) – Intercepting a caravan. – No fighting. The Campaigns

12 Campaign of Sefwan (Lesser Badr) –غزوة سفوان ( بدر الصغرى ) – (Rabi I, 2 AH) – Kirz Al-Fihri raided Medina and took cattle. – The Prophet chased him close to Badr (Sefwan) ~100 miles. – No fighting. But showed the tribes around Medina the seriousness of Muslims in defending themselves. No tribal attacks after this. Campaign of Al-’Ashirah غزوة ذي العشيرة : – (Jumada I, 2 AH) – Intercepting a caravan led by Abu Sufian to the Levant – Same caravan that caused Badr – Muslims missed it. No fighting. – Non-aggression treaty with Bani Mudlej The Campaigns

13 Expedition of Nakhlah سرية نخلة : – Led by Abdullah bin Jahsh (Rajab, 2 AH) – Scouting a caravan. 12 men only. – Muslims attacked on the last day of the sacred month of Rajab. Violating the customs of the Arabs. – Killed the leader of the caravan (Amr bin Al- Hadhrami), seized the loaded camels, and imprisoned two of Quraysh. The Campaigns

14 The Violation of The Sacred They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar, Muharram, Rajab, Thu-Al-Qi’dah, Thu Al- hijjah). Say "Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion if they can. Exposing double standards

15 – All the campaigns and Expeditions before Badr, were from Al-Muhajiroon (the Immigrants) None of the Ansar. – Gave Muslims control of the area around Medina including trade routes. – Protection of Medina against attacks of the bedwin tribes. – Established Muslims as a power to be reckoned with, not a weak prey. – Forming non-aggression and mutual defense treaties around Medina The Campaigns

16 The Obligation to Defend Islam Sha’ban, 2 AH And fight in the Way of Allah those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allah likes not the transgressors. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al- Fitnah is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-Al-Haram (the sanctuary at Makkah), unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. But if they cease, then Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (persecution)and all religion is (dedicated) for Allah (Alone). But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against oppressors.

17 – After this revelation, the Ansar started to volunteer in the campaigns and Expeditions. – This was revealed in Sha’ban, and Badr immediately followed in Ramadhan. The Campaigns

18 – News of the returning caravan from Shaam reached the Prophet (pbuh) – The Muslims moved to intercept the caravan. No intention to face the army of Quraysh. – Many Shahaba stayed in Medina. These were voluntary expeditions. No anticipation of battle. The Battle of Badr

19 The Muslim Army: – men Muhajir, banner carried by Ali bin Abi Talib 231 Ansari (61 Aws, 170 Khazraj) banner carried by Sa’d bin Mu’ath – Two horsemen only Az-Zubayr leading the right side. Al-Miqdad leading the left side. – 70 Camels The Battle of Badr

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24 As your Lord caused you (O Muhammad) to go out from your home with the truth; and verily, a party among the believers disliked it, Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death, while they were looking (at it). And (remember) when Allah promised you (Muslims) one of the two parties (of the enemy i.e. either the army or the caravan) that it should be yours; you wished that the one not armed (the caravan) should be yours, but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words and to cut off the roots of the disbelievers. That He might cause the truth to triumph and bring falsehood to nothing, even though the Mujrimun (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals) hate it. الأنفال The Battle of Badr


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