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Welcome to Biology

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Concepts in scientific method 1 Match the word with the correct example Observation Inference Generalisation Theory Law For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction. The leaf is green. All living things contain cells. All cells come from other cells. The leaf must contain chlorophyll. All plant cells contain chloroplasts.

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Concepts in scientific method 1 Match the word with the correct example Observation Inference Generalisation Theory Law For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction. The leaf is green. All living things contain cells. All cells come from other cells. The leaf must contain chlorophyll. All plant cells contain chloroplasts.

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Concepts in scientific method 2 Identify the: Hypothesis Independent variable Dependent variable Control Variables that need to be controlled Question: Which type of insect repellent is the most effective? Experiment: Spray sticky strips with different repellents. Leave outside for several hours. Count the number of insects that are stuck to each strip.

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Concepts in scientific method 2 Identify the: Hypothesis Brand X will repel less/more insects than Brand Y Independent variable brand/type of repellent Dependent variable insects stuck to strip Control sticky strip with no repellent Variables that need to be controlled – same size, shape & colour of strip, same amount of repellent, same temperature, humidity, location of strip Question: Which type of insect repellent is the most effective? Experiment: Spray sticky strips with different repellents. Leave outside for several hours. Count the number of insects that are stuck to each strip.

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Dealing with data Collecting, displaying and analysing data

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Tables Key points: Independent variable Dependent variable(s)

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Graphs - Key points Title Dependent variable3Grid goes on the Vertical axis (Y) 2 Plotted points or line or curve Use an even scale1 and include units 0 1234 5 Independent variable goes on the Horizontal axis (X) Use an even scale and include units Graph should take up 1/2 – 2/3 of the page. Allow enough space to extrapolate the next point or two.

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Types of graphs

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Line graphs used to plot continuous data used to look for relationships where one affects the other

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Column or Bar graphs used to plot discontinuous data (categories) used to show how many in each category

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Histograms used for grouped data

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Scatter graphs used for look for relationships

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DayHeight (cm) 164 268 592 7110 10134 12140 14152 17160 18162 20168 Growth of a plant

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Birds seen at school Galah 4 Raven7 Pigeon6 Wattle bird 3 Willie wagtail1

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Height (m)Number of students 139 140 – 149 2121 150 - 1592 160 - 1693 170 - 1791 180 - 1891 190 - 1991 200 0

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StudentHeight (m) Leg length (m) 10 steps (m) 11.640.975.9 21.671.057.45 31.540.936.1 41.490.916.78 51.831.026.58 61.761.08.0 71.530.876.5 81.911.0710.1 91.680.956.45 101.440.795.7

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Graphing. The Important Elements of a Graph Horizontal Axis (X-Axis) The Independent Variable. A change in this variable affects the y variable.

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