Presentation on theme: "Review Draw a model of each of the hydrogen isotopes -Hydrogen-1 -Hydrogen-2 -Hydrogen-3."— Presentation transcript:
Review Draw a model of each of the hydrogen isotopes -Hydrogen-1 -Hydrogen-2 -Hydrogen-3
REVIEW Compare and contrast Carbon-12 and Carbon-13 (Note both commonalities and differences)
REVIEW Give the chemical notation for the following atoms. a)Nitrogen-15 b)Carbon-13 c) A sodium cation with a charge of +1 d)A sulfur anion with a charge of -2 Example:
REVIEW A) A sample of silver is 30.72% Silver-107 and 69.28% Silver-108. What is its average atomic mass/weight?
Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionNuclear Reaction Chemical reactions involve interactions between outer (valence) electrons of atoms or compounds. Nuclear reactions change the composition of the atom’s nucleus
Nuclear Reactions Most atoms have a stable nucleus and the nucleus will not change Unstable atoms can emit radiation Radiation: the process of sending out energy in the form of light, heat, x-rays or nuclear particles
Nuclear Stability Most atoms have a stable nucleus not radioactive Protons are positively charged, and like charges repel. Hmm…then why doesn’t the nucleus fly apart since all the protons are repelling each other???
Nuclear Stability Another force, called the strong nuclear force is holding the nucleus together. Strong nuclear force = the force that helps to hold the nucleus together. It is different from forces we encounter in daily life
Nuclear Stability Strong nuclear forces help to balance the electromagnetic repulsion that the positive protons experience. Electromagnetic forces and strong nuclear forces are constantly pitted against each other.
Nuclear Stability Strong nuclear forces… …help to hold the nucleus together act like glue in the nucleus
Nuclear Stability Elements 1-20 neutrons = protons Beyond element 20 more neutrons needed in nucleus to glue nucleus together Beyond element 83 (bismuth) no number of neutrons sufficient to glue the nucleus together indefinitely
Nuclear Stability There are “magic numbers” of protons and neutrons (2, 8, 20, 28, 50, and 82) that are stable Atoms with even number of protons and neutrons tend to be stable.
Radioactive Decay Radioactive Decay: We will study 3 types of radioactive decay.
As you learned during the previous lecture… It all deals with the forces inside the nucleus of an atom! Remember that a nucleus is just made up of + protons and neutral neutrons. Neutrons help hold the protons of the nucleus together, but another attractive force is also needed! This is called the strong nuclear force, which acts between all nucleons.
The strong nuclear force decays over distance though, so a large nucleus is not as stable as a small one. These result in radioactive elements, that lose protons over time.
Nuclear Fission When nuclei of certain isotopes (typically larger) are bombarded with neutrons, they undergo FISSION, the splitting of the nucleus into smaller fragments. When you do this, the strong nuclear forces keeping all the nucleons together are released as energy.
Nuclear Fission There are only two fissionable isotopes. Draw the symbols for each below its name. Uranium-235Plutonium-239
Fission of Uranium Can you write the equation for this reaction???
Fission of Uranium Notice that there the same numbers of protons on each side HOW MANY? 92 And the same number of neutrons on each side HOW MANY? 144
Nuclear Fission In a chain reaction some of the neutrons released react with other fissionable atoms, releasing more neutrons which react with still more fissionable atoms.
Nuclear Fission An atomic bomb is a device that starts an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction. To be used for energy, fission must be controlled so that energy is released more slowly.
Nuclear Fission & Energy If you multiplied 7 kilograms of Uranium by the speed of light squared, you get about 2.1 billion Joules of energy. By comparison, a 60-watt light bulb produces 60 Joules of energy per second. 2.1 billion Joules is the amount of energy contained within a million gallons of gasoline. What you should get out of this is that a baseball size of Uranium has a much energy as a 50 by 50 foot room full of gasoline!!
Nuclear Fusion Nuclear fusion can be thought of as the opposite of nuclear fission, that is small nuclei combine to produce a nucleus with a greater mass. This releases much more energy that a fission reaction, but only happens above 40,000,000 ⁰C Happens during life cycles of stars! In fact, elements 1-20 were formed this way.
Nuclear Fusion Write the formula for 4 hydrogen nuclei combining to create one helium nucleus: The following example shows the end result of a complex series of reaction where 2 of the 4 hydrogen nuclei are transformed into 2 neutrons. Then other changes in the nuclei results in the production of both deuterium and tritium. These fuse and release a neutron, thus creating Helium. It’s complicated!!