Presentation on theme: "The Structure of Matter because you can’t understand how it works until you have some small idea of what it is…"— Presentation transcript:
The Structure of Matter because you can’t understand how it works until you have some small idea of what it is…
In the past I never really taught much of this stuff… So why start now? – With the probable discovery of the Higg’s Boson (a.k.a. The God Particle, or the G.D. Particle depending on the reference you choose) during the summer of 2012, it is apparent to me that young people should not be leaving high school without at least a very small notion of the modern understanding of the elements that make up matter.
Clearly this is not the realm of biology (life science) and while most good chemists admit that their field is really a specialty of atomic physics, chemistry stops right there: at the atom. Physics is so broad and encompassing that the discussion of matter is really just a small, but increasingly important, aspect of the whole science.
Particle Physics: The structure of stuff Let’s start with the atom… – About 130 years ago atoms were considered “fundamental.” That is to say that they were thought to be the smallest, most elementary pieces of matter possible. Image of a uniform surface from a scanning-tunneling (electron) microscope
Around 1880 theoretical models of the atom are born to help scientists understand other physical phenomena, particularly electromagnetism and radioactive decay So we enter the realm of the “sub-atomic” particles: the electron, the proton, (and much later) the neutron.
Electrons Discovered by J.J. Thompson and colleagues in 1897, Thompson produced the first known measurements of the particle: It’s charge to mass ratio (e/m). The actual charge of the electon (and therefore its mass using Thompson’s data) was discovered by Robert Milikan in 1909 in his famous “Oil Drop” experiment. Interestingly the electron is still considered a fundamental particle, belonging to a class known as leptons.
Protons & Neutrons Lots of back history here, but most important: – Discovery of the nucleus, Rutherford, Gold Foil Experiment, 1911 – Nuclear charge = atomic number, Van den Broek & Moseley, 1913 – Isolation of a proton via low energy nuclear reaction, Rutherford, 1917 – Conceived by Rutherford in 1920, Neutron discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick to explain specific nuclear phenomena Later recognized as a key component in thermonuclear processes Important thing: Protons and Neutrons are no longer considered fundamental!
So where do we go from here? Lots of history between 1932 and the present, but I will sum up: – Lots of experiments with nuclear reactions both high energy (blowing stuff up) and lower energy (turning one type of atom into another) – Lots of experiments where electromagnetic forces are used to accelerate, or speed up, particles or even whole nuclei to ridiculous speeds and smash them into each other or other things.
What did we find out? Lots of stuff but most importantly: – There appear to be 4 unique types of forces that affect matter. We will look at these “fundamental forces” later in this course. – We appear to have isolated a large but finite number of “fundamental particles” and amassed a great deal of knowledge about how they work together to comprise matter as we know it.
Fundamental Particles: Stuff which can’t be broken apart any further (maybe) Quarks Leptons Force Carriers This is about categorization people! Don’t just try to memorize this stuff, work out a way to fit it together. Even I get these twisted up sometimes. I’ll give you some graphics at the end that will help. Fermions (basically they follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle)
Quarks: Stuff that makes up “nucleons” Quarks are fundamental particles which combine in a variety of ways forming composite particles known as hadrons and mesons. You are familiar already with the most stable hadrons: The proton and neutron.
Properties of Quarks Fermionic Spin ½ Carries electric charge (values depend on the type of quark) Carries “Color Charge,” an interactive property (like electric charge, but completely different) that determines how quarks will align with other quarks 6 types: Up, Down, Charm, Strange, Top, Bottom – Type is determined by the quantum properties of the quark (above) – Anti-quarks exist for each of these (same absolute values but opposite signs for some properties). Participate in all 4 fundamental force interactions
Hadrons Baryons: – 3 quarks, generally 2 “regular” quarks and 1 anti- quark, or 2 anti’s and 1 regular. Proton and Neutron are most common and stable Full List: Mesons: – 2 quarks: 1 regular, 1 anti Exotic, not common in normal matter, very short half-lives Low energy mesons believed to participate in the nuclear (or “strong”) force process that holds the nucleus together High energy mesons believed to have played a role in the Big Bang, not normally associated with matter outside of high energy particle collisions in laboratory experimentation You really need to be careful how you spell that, lest you say awkward things…
Leptons: Think “electron” According to wikipedia, which has a nice article on the subject,: – A lepton is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. The best known of all leptons is the electron which governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed.
Charged Leptons Electron, Muon, Tau particle – Anti-particles exist of each type – Muon and Tau particles are rare in normal conditions, but have been substituted for electrons to form exotic atoms through various reactions.
Uncharged Leptons Neutrinos (electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) – Neutral charge – Very little mass (even compared to electrons) – Rarely interact with matter – First theorized/observed associated with unexplained energy loss during beta-decay process.
Lepton Properties (all types) Fermionic Spin 1/2 Electric charge NO color charge (unlike quarks) Do NOT participate in the strong (nuclear) force, but are affected by other forces.
Fundamental Forces 1) Gravitational Force: Interaction between masses. Any object with mass is attracted to other masses by the gravitational force. 2) Weak Interaction: A sub-atomic force that occurs most often during nuclear beta decay. 3) Electromagnetic Force: A force between charged objects or particles. Any object with a charge is attracted or repelled by other charges depending on the sign of the charge. 4) Strong (Nuclear force): An attractive force that holds nucleons (protons/neutrons) together.
Force carriers How does stuff react (know to move) as a result of other stuff? – Think about it: How does an electron repel from a nearby electron? – There is a LOT going on in this deceptively simple question, but the short answer is that fundamental particles exchange energy and therefore do work on each other through these fundamental force charge carriers – Also called Gauge Bosons
Types Photons – Fancy name for electromagnetic radiation, everything from radio waves, to gamma rays with light and everything else in between can be called a photon. – These are the force carrier associated with the electromagnetic force and thus the primary mode of force transmission between leptons, but is also seen between charged hadrons. So how does that electron (lepton) know that other electron (lepton) is out there and they should repel? Answer: They shoot beams of light at each other.
Gluons These particles allow for the communication of force between quarks. – Gluons are considered responsible for the strong force. They are the “glue” that keeps the nucleus of an atom from ripping apart.
W & Z Bosons Unlike many of these particles, bosons are not fermionic, meaning the same type of particle with the same energy and properties can occupy the same space at the same time. Let that sink in for a moment. – Responsible for the “weak force” – Associated with the emission and absorption of neutrinos from and into matter
Higgs Boson Proposed in 1964 and discovered* in 2012, the Higgs Boson is associated with the mechanism by which particles acquire mass and therefore by which gravitation affects matter – Zero charge, zero spin, zero color, approx. 126 times more massive than a proton, lifetime: about 1 zeptosecond
Putting it all together Here’s a pretty good article that may help: The standard model of particle physics
An overview of the various families of elementary and composite particles, and the theories describing their interactions Important for your testImportant so you are not scientifically illiterate Important for your test