Presentation on theme: "Detecting Radiation and Radiation Around You What is radiation? Radiation is the giving off of high amounts of energy in the form of particles and/or waves."— Presentation transcript:
Detecting Radiation and Radiation Around You What is radiation? Radiation is the giving off of high amounts of energy in the form of particles and/or waves.
The Electroscope The Geiger Counter Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Radiation in Household Products Radiation in Security Electroscope: instrument used for detecting electric charges or measuring small electric voltages or currents. Consists of: glass jar, metal rod that conducts electricity, two strips of gold leaf plates, metal knob on end of rod outside jar How it works: gold leaf plates repel each other or don’t, depending on charge of rays Scientist can measure the voltage of the charge in microvolts Used for detecting X rays, cosmic rays, and radiation from radioactive material. Can occur in gas, liquid, or solid form. Depending on the half-life of the radioactivity, some of it can last for years or other just for days. Ex: Element plutonium-239 has a half-life of 24,000 years and must be kept under watch for thousands of years. Some agencies involved in proper disposal are: Environmental Protection Agency The Nuclear Regulatory Commission The Department of Energy Waste categorized into high level waste, which includes spent nuclear fuel, and low level waste. Function is to detect radioactive emissions, that are most commonly either beta particles or gamma rays. Consists of a tube filled with inert gas Conductive of electricity when impacted by a high-energy particle Current created that generates an electrical impulse registered on the meter. Radiation can be in a product for 2 reasons 1.Needed to make the product functional 2.Mixed in naturally with the material needed to make the product Products that heat up or light up usually emit radiation Ex: Microwaves, cell phones, or smoke detectors Not all radiation is bad and some can benefit society People Screening A.K.A. Cabinet X-RAY, Computerized tomography, Electron Beam Machine Used in airports, prisons, museums Advanced imaging technology, full-body security scanners, people scanners Low dose of ionizing radiation-no limit required Image created from small amounts of waves
The Electroscope The Geiger Counter Disposal of Radioactive Wastes Radiation in Household Products Radiation in Security
The Geiger Counter Radiation in household products The Electroscope Disposal of radioactive wastes
The function of the Geiger Counter is to detect radioactive emissions, that are most commonly either beta particles or gamma rays. This machine consists of a tube filled with inert gas. It becomes a conductor for electricity when it is impacted by a high-energy particle. When the Geiger counter is exposed to ionizing radiation, the particles enter the tube and collide with the gas, releasing more electrons. The positive ions exit the tube, and the electrons are attracted to the high voltage wire. This creates an electric current that generates an electrical impulse that is registered on the meter.
Radiation in security
Radiation can be in some everyday products for mainly two reasons. It is needed to make the product functional or the radiation is mixed in naturally with the material needed to make the product. Many ceramics contain radiation from the glaze used to cover them. Products that heat up or light up usually emit radiation. This can include microwaves, cell phones, smoke detectors, televisions, laptops, clocks or watches that emit light, and tanning lights. In large, continuous quantities radiation can be harmful towards a person but not all of it is bad and some of it can greatly benefit society.
Radioactive waste is created from nuclear power generation, as well as other everyday industries such as defense and medicine. It is important to dispose of this waste properly to protect all living things and the planet’s environment, including the air, soil and water. Radioactive waste can occur in gas, liquid, or solid form. Depending on the half-life of the radioactivity, some of it can last for years or other just for days. Some of the agencies involved in the proper disposal of radioactive waste are the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Transportation. However each state also has its own specific regulations on how to dispose of the waste. Radioactive waste is categorized into high level waste, which includes spent nuclear fuel, and low level waste. Certain elements such as plutonium-239 have a half-life of 24,000 years. Since it takes so long to just lose half of its radioactivity, the element must be kept under watch for thousands of years.
There aren’t many types of security that you will find radiation in. One very common source though, would be scanners found at the airport. Before scanners, airport security used to use metal detectors to find any stashed guns, knives or any other stashed equipment. This radiation is not at all dangerous, in fact a person receives more radiation in 42 minutes from natural sources rather than the radiation from screening. Another type of security is an electron beam machine used on packages and mail. It uses high doses of radiation to kill dangerous biological substances. Whatever is being examined by this device, does not become radioactive following examination
An electroscope is an instrument used for detecting electric charges or measuring small electric voltages or currents. It consists of a glass jar, metal rod that conducts electricity, two strips of gold leaf plates, and a metal knob on the end of the rod outside of the jar. It works when a charge is brought to the metal knob that causes the gold leaf plates to repel each other. The electroscope is now considered charged. considered charged. By using a specially calibrated microscope to observe the movement of the strips, a scientist can measure the voltage of the charge in microvolts (millionths of a volt). When the electrical capacities of both the electroscope and the body producing the charge are known, electric currents moving through ionized air can be measured. Even when the capacities are not known, these currents can be detected. Therefore, the electroscope is used for detecting X rays, cosmic rays, and radiation from radioactive material. These rays ionize the air and pass through it as a kind of electric current. The current either charges or discharges an electroscope.
The Geiger counter, radiation in household products, the electroscope, disposal of radioactive waste, and radiation in security seem like completely different topics at first, but they are all related when you look at the larger picture. Radiation in household products and security both show ways that radiation can greatly improve society and how we are reliant on it today. Disposal of radioactive waste explains how society is kept safe from dangerous radioactive material created from the heavy use of radiation in today’s society. All three of these topics would not be able to be safely monitored without the use of the Geiger Counter and the electroscope to determine the amount of radiation and charge. These five topics relate to radiation by explaining how it is formed and utilized in things all around us every day. Also they show how radiation can be safely detected, monitored, and kept under control. How our topics are related to each other
Detecting Radiation and Radiation around you
Rebecca Novo, Sarah Goldshteyn, Vahid Drazanin, Shikhar Manchanda, Yash Mishra