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FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON ATTRACTIONS. IN ORDER TO STUDY CHEMISTRY, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND WHY ONE ATOM MIGHT HOLD ITS ELECTRONS MORE TIGHTLY.

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Presentation on theme: "FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON ATTRACTIONS. IN ORDER TO STUDY CHEMISTRY, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND WHY ONE ATOM MIGHT HOLD ITS ELECTRONS MORE TIGHTLY."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON ATTRACTIONS

2 IN ORDER TO STUDY CHEMISTRY, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND WHY ONE ATOM MIGHT HOLD ITS ELECTRONS MORE TIGHTLY THAN ANOTHER ATOM.IN ORDER TO STUDY CHEMISTRY, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND WHY ONE ATOM MIGHT HOLD ITS ELECTRONS MORE TIGHTLY THAN ANOTHER ATOM.

3 DURING THIS LESSON YOU WILL:DURING THIS LESSON YOU WILL: –1) Take notes from this presentation in your notebook, –2) Complete the “Attraction for Electrons worksheet”. FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON ATTRACTIONS

4 YOU WILL APPLY THIS KNOWLEDGE IN LATER DISCUSSIONS IN CHEMISTRY.YOU WILL APPLY THIS KNOWLEDGE IN LATER DISCUSSIONS IN CHEMISTRY. FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTRON ATTRACTIONS

5 ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS How a particle behaves is determined by its attraction for electronsHow a particle behaves is determined by its attraction for electrons

6 ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS How a particle behaves is determined by its attraction for electronsHow a particle behaves is determined by its attraction for electrons e-e- METAL NON-METAL weak attraction STRONG ATTRACTION e-e- Metals and non-metals behave differently because of differing attractions for electrons

7 THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS REMEMBER:REMEMBER: –THE NUCLEUS IS COMPOSED OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS. PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE.PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE. NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL.NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL.

8 THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS REMEMBER:REMEMBER: –THE NUCLEUS IS COMPOSED OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS. PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE.PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE. NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL.NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL. THEREFORE THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVE.THEREFORE THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVE.

9 THE CHARGE OF THE ELECTRONS REMEMBER:REMEMBER: –THE NUCLEUS IS COMPOSED OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS. PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE.PROTONS HAVE A POSITIVE CHARGE. NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL.NEUTRONS ARE NEUTRAL. THEREFORE THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVE.THEREFORE THE CHARGE OF THE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVE. –THE CHARGE OF THE ELECTRON IS NEGATIVE.

10 SKETCH A PICTURE OF A C-12 ATOM 6 p + 6 n 0 e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-

11 ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS is because of the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons.is because of the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons.

12 ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS is because of the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons.is because of the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons. NUCLEUS e-e- I like you, too. I like you.

13 The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS

14 e-e- The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS NUCLEUS e-e- Long distance relationships are so difficult An electron which is twice as far away has only one quarter the attraction.

15 FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction

16 FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS e-e- p + p+p+ p+p+ p+p+ p+p+ e-e- 4 protons have twice the attraction of 2 protons. The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction

17 The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction The number of electons in the nucleusThe number of electons in the nucleus –The more electrons, the less the attraction. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS

18 The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction The number of electons in the nucleusThe number of electons in the nucleus –The more electrons, the less the attraction. Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons.Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS

19 The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction The number of electons in the nucleusThe number of electons in the nucleus –The more electrons, the less the attraction. Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons.Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons. The inside electrons repel the outside electrons which is known as the shielding effect.The inside electrons repel the outside electrons which is known as the shielding effect. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS

20 The distance between the electron and the nucleus.The distance between the electron and the nucleus. –The farther away, the less the attraction. The number of protons in the nucleusThe number of protons in the nucleus –The more protons, the greater the attraction The number of electons in the nucleusThe number of electons in the nucleus –The more electrons, the less the attraction. Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons.Electrons are repelled by each other, therefore the more electrons make the electron cloud “crowded” and “unattractive” to the electrons. The inside electrons repel the outside electrons which is known as the shielding effect.The inside electrons repel the outside electrons which is known as the shielding effect. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS NUCLEUS You guys disgust me. Hey, move over. You’re crowding me. Go away. This one is mine. All mine. Get your own nucleus. Electrons repel each other. e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-

21 IN SUMMARY: The farther away, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons.The farther away, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons. The more protons, the greater the attraction for an atom’s electrons.The more protons, the greater the attraction for an atom’s electrons. The more electrons, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons.The more electrons, the less the attraction for an atom’s electrons. THESE FACTORS ARE IN ORDER OF IMPORTANCE. (The distance between the nucleus and electron is much more important than the number of electrons.) FACTORS AFFECTING THE ATTRACTION FOR ELECTRONS

22 WAYS OF MEASURING ELECTRON ATTRACTION There are three ways to measure an atom’s attraction for its electrons: IONIZATION ENERGYIONIZATION ENERGY ELECTRON AFFINITYELECTRON AFFINITY ELECTRONEGATIVITYELECTRONEGATIVITY

23 IONIZATION ENERGY IONIZATION ENERGYIONIZATION ENERGY –THE ENERGY REQUIRED TO REMOVE ONE VALENCE ELCTRON

24 IONIZATION ENERGY IONIZATION ENERGYIONIZATION ENERGY –THE ENERGY REQUIRED TO REMOVE ONE VALENCE ELCTRON ionization energy e-e- Ionization energy “shows” how hard you must “pull” in order to remove one electron from the atom. The more the atom attracts its electrons, the higher the ionization energy.

25 ELECTRON AFFINITYELECTRON AFFINITY –THE ENERGY GIVEN OFF WHEN THE ATOM GAINS ONE ELECTRON ELECTRON AFFINITY

26 ELECTRON AFFINITYELECTRON AFFINITY –THE ENERGY GIVEN OFF WHEN THE ATOM GAINS ONE ELECTRON electron affinity e-e- Electron affinity shows how much energy the atom is willing to “pay” to get another electron. The more the atom attracts electrons, the higher the electron affinity.

27 ELECTRONEGATIVITY ELECTRONEGATIVITYELECTRONEGATIVITY –THE ATTRACTION FOR SHARED ELECTRONS

28 ELECTRONEGATIVITY ELECTRONEGATIVITYELECTRONEGATIVITY –THE ATTRACTION FOR SHARED ELECTRONS e-e- Electronegativity shows how strongly an atom attracts the electrons that it is sharing with another atom. The more the atom attracts electron, the higher the electronegativity. COVALENT BOND

29 ELECTRONEGATIVITY Each of the ways of measuring electron attraction is important but the electronegativity is the most important to us.Each of the ways of measuring electron attraction is important but the electronegativity is the most important to us. Electronegativity is assigned to each element after considering its ionization energy, electron affinity, and several other factors.Electronegativity is assigned to each element after considering its ionization energy, electron affinity, and several other factors. Electronegativity is a relative measurement.Electronegativity is a relative measurement. –What does relative mean? –An atom with an electronegativity of 4 has twice the attraction for shared electrons as an atom with an electronegativity of 2. Electronegativity is used to compare the “strength” of one atom to the “strength” of another.Electronegativity is used to compare the “strength” of one atom to the “strength” of another.


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