Presentation on theme: "Ch. 6 – Part 1: Covalent Bonding"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch. 6 – Part 1: Covalent Bonding Chemical BondingCh. 6 – Part 1: Covalent Bonding
2What is a chemical bond?mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms togetherWhy don’t noble gases do this?Already have filled s and p orbitalsstable octet: 8 valence e- (or 2 if, you’re helium)Atoms that don’t have a stable octet are more reactive
3Key Point #1: By forming bonds with each other, most atoms reduce their potential energy, becoming more stable.Because forming bonds involves the rearrangement of atoms to recreate new substances, this is considered a chemical change. All chemical changes involve energy changes.
4Types of Bonds What type of bonds can be formed? Ionic bond Covalent bondNonpolar covalentPolar covalentIonic bonding: bonds that result from electrical attractions between cations and anions1 atom losses electrons1 atom gains electronsCovalent bonding: sharing of electrons between 2 or more atoms
5Key Point 2: Rarely is bonding between atoms purely ionic or purely covalent. Instead, it usually falls somewhere between the two extremes. Why?Key Point 3: The extent of ionic or covalent bonding between two atoms can be estimated by calculating the difference in each elements’ electronegativity.
6Covalent BondingLarge difference in E.N.: bond has more ionic characterSmall difference in E.N: bond has more covalent characterTypes of Covalent BondsNon-polar covalent bonding: both electrons equally shared between atomsPolar covalent bonding: unequal attraction for the shared electrons
76.1 Practice Worksheet Part 1 The property of electronegativity, which is the measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons, can be used to predict the degree to which the bonding between atoms of two elements is ionic or covalent.The greater the electronegativity difference, the more ionic the bonding is.
8If the calculated electronegative difference is… > 1.7 : ionic bond is formed> 0.3 , < 1.7 : polar-covalent bond0 – 0.3 : non-polar covalent bondIncreasing difference in electronegativityNonpolarCovalentshare e-Polar Covalentpartial transfer of e-Ionictransfer e-
9Electronegativity Difference ElementsElectronegativityElectronegativity DifferenceBond TypeElement 1Element 2Mg to ClH to OC to ClN to HC to SK to FNa to ClH to H3.01.8Ionic188.8.131.52.4Polar covalent184.108.40.206Polar covalent3.02.1.9Polar covalent2.52.5Non-polar covalent.84.03.2Ionic.93.02.1Ionic2.12.1Non-polar covalent
10Polyatomic IonsIt is also possible if a compound contains polyatomic ions, for both types of bonding to be present.Monatomic Ions: Fe2+ , Na+, Cl-Polyatomic Ions: PO43-, NH4+ , NO-1Groups of atoms are bonded covalent together, but because of few or more than expected valence electrons they have an overall charge (so they can also bond ionically with other ions)Ex: Ca2+ and SO42- CaSO4 (metal & diff. nonmetals)
11Classify the following as ionic, covalent, or both 1. CaCl2 = __________5. BaSO4 = ___________(metal & nonmetal)(metal & diff. nonmetals)2. CO2 = __________6. H2O = ____________(nonmetal & nonmetal)3. MgO = __________7. SO3 = ___________4. HCl = ___________8. AlPO4 = ___________CovalentCovalentIonicCovalentCovalentBoth
13What is a molecule?Neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.Chemical formula: indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts.
14Formation of Covalent Bonds The electrons of one atom and protons of the other atom attract each another.The two nuclei and two electrons repel each other.These two forces cancel out toform a covalent bond at a lengthwhere the potential energy isat a minimum.
16Bond Length vs. Bond Energy Bond length (pm): distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energyBond energy (KJ/mol): energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms.Breaking bonds: absorbs (requires) energyForming bonds: releases energyA few general principles –Bond length increases with atomic sizeBond length and bond energy are inversesAs you increase the number of bonds (between 2 atoms), bond energy increases while bond length decreases
18Octet Rule Hydrogen forms bonds surrounded by only two electrons. Octet Rule: chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom has an octet of e-’s in its highest occupied energy levelExceptions to the octet rule:Atoms that cannot fit eight electronsAtoms that can fit more than eight electronsHydrogen forms bonds surrounded by only two electrons.Boron has just three valence electrons, so it tends to form bonds in which it is surrounded by six electrons.Phosphorus, Sulfur, & Xenon can form bonds with expanded valence, involving more than eight electrons.
19Writing Lewis Structures Lewis Structures: formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner shells, dot-pairs/dashes represent shared electron pairs, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared pairs of electrons.Structural formulas: represent kind, number, arrangement, and bonds in a molecule but not does not include unshared pairs of electrons.