2 FORM AND FUNCTIONEverything about a vascular plant is geared towards one process…PHOTOSYNTHESISCO2 + H2O C6H12O O2
3 PLANT CELLSRecall: plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts and large central water vacuole.
4 OVERVIEW – ROOT AND SHOOT SYSTEM Root system is below the groundShoot system is above the ground and can include stems, leaves and sometimes flowers.
5 ORGANS Leaf: primary site of photosynthesis Stem: conduction of water and dissolved minerals and sugars and structure and supportRoot: anchorage; absorption of water and dissolved mineralsFlower: seed production
6 TISSUESEach type of tissue is continuous throughout the plant structureEach tissue contains cells that are adapted to perform a specific function
7 GROUNDHas multiple functions and makes up most of the inside of a plantParenchyma: storage, photosynthesis, gas exchange, protection, tissue repair and replacement.Collenchyma: support surrounding tissues, provided flexibility for plant, tissue repair and replacementSchlerenchyma: support of the mature plant
8 DERMALthe outer layers of cells that form a protective covering for the plantIncludes the epidermis and the peridermGuard cells are cells found in the upper and lower epidermis of leaves and perform gas exchange through the stoma (hole)
9 Trichomes – tiny growths on the leaves and stems of some plants that can make the plant appear fuzzy or wooly. Help keep leaf surfaces cool and some secrete toxic substances that repel herbivores.
10 Root Hairs: fine hair like structures that cover the surface of the root of a plant. They increase the surface area available for gas exchange and absorption of water by the roots.
11 VASCULARSystem of tubes that run lengthwise throughout the stem of a plant and connect the roots to the leavesWhat system in animals does this remind you of?
12 XYLEM: transports water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves (ONE WAY!!) Consists of tracheids and vessel elements. Vessel elements are long continuous tubes formed from dead, hollow, cylindrical cells arranged end to end. Tracheids are dead cells that taper at the ends and overlap one anotherXYLEM IS DEAD!!
13 Pholem transports organic nutrients (sugars) often from the leaves (source) to wherever the sugars are needed (sink). The roots can store excess sugar, but actively growing regions may need the sugar. It just depends.This process is known as TRANSLOCATION
15 MERISTEMATIC TISSUE Its kind of like the stem cells for plants Undifferentiated embryonic plant tissue from which all other plant tissues developThese tissues contain cells which are undergoing rapid divisionApical or intercalary meristems – found along stems or at the base of leaf bladesLateral meristems – increases circumference or girth of stems