# Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table.

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Chapter 5 Atomic Structure and The Periodic Table

Objective B: Just how small is an atom? http://imagecache5.art.com/p/LRG/6/667/USYC000Z/fedex-field--washington-d-c-.jpg Has anyone been to a professional football stadium or a major college football stadium? Has anyone been to a professional football stadium or a major college football stadium? If the nucleus of an atom was the size of a marble, sitting at the 50 yard line, the electrons would be about the size of really little gnats (bugs) whizzing around the top rows of the upper deck. If the nucleus of an atom was the size of a marble, sitting at the 50 yard line, the electrons would be about the size of really little gnats (bugs) whizzing around the top rows of the upper deck. So then, most of the atom is just “empty space.”

Objective B: Just how small is an atom? http://kara.allthingsd.com/files/2009/04/penny.jpeg Let’s use a penny as an example (picture, in slide show, is approximately life-size). A penny, if made of pure Cu (copper) would have 2.4 x 10 22 atoms. That’s 24,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms, btw. Let’s use a penny as an example (picture, in slide show, is approximately life-size). A penny, if made of pure Cu (copper) would have 2.4 x 10 22 atoms. That’s 24,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms, btw. If you lined up 100,000,000 atoms, they would make up a line of approximately 1 cm. So, 2.4 x 10 22 atoms, if lined up would make a line that was approximately 2.4 x 10 9 KILOMETERS long. If you lined up 100,000,000 atoms, they would make up a line of approximately 1 cm. So, 2.4 x 10 22 atoms, if lined up would make a line that was approximately 2.4 x 10 9 KILOMETERS long. Approx. 1 cm from arrow to arrow (in slide show mode)

Angstoms (Å) http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314F00/Lecture/Chapter7/ATRADIID.DIR_PICT0003.gif Even the largest atoms are very small. The diameter of a uranium atom is only about 0.345 nanometers. Even the largest atoms are very small. The diameter of a uranium atom is only about 0.345 nanometers. A special unit is sometimes used to describe atomic dimensions, such as atomic radius or atomic diameter. Note the trend as you go across a row and down a column. A special unit is sometimes used to describe atomic dimensions, such as atomic radius or atomic diameter. Note the trend as you go across a row and down a column. That is the Angstrom. We use a Å to represent Angstroms (if you want to type that it’s shift-alt-A on a Mac and control-shift-2, shift-A on a bogus, inferior, Windows or Vista based machine). That is the Angstrom. We use a Å to represent Angstroms (if you want to type that it’s shift-alt-A on a Mac and control-shift-2, shift-A on a bogus, inferior, Windows or Vista based machine).

Angstoms (Å) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/11/Hydrogen_Atom.jpg Even the largest atoms are very small. The diameter of a uranium atom is only about 0.345 nanometers. Even the largest atoms are very small. The diameter of a uranium atom is only about 0.345 nanometers. 0.345 nm = 3.45Å 0.345 nm = 3.45Å 1nm = 10Å 1nm = 10Å 1Å = 1 x 10 -10 meters 1Å = 1 x 10 -10 meters A hydrogen atom is the smallest atom. H has a diameter of only 0.74Å. About 13.5 billion hydrogen atoms could fit onto the edge of a meter stick. A hydrogen atom is the smallest atom. H has a diameter of only 0.74Å. About 13.5 billion hydrogen atoms could fit onto the edge of a meter stick.  Isotopes 

What does an atom look like? http://www.lanl.gov/orgs/pa/newsbulletin/images/Isotopes_logo.jpg In your notes, draw a simple picture of an atom. How about Lithium. In your notes, draw a simple picture of an atom. How about Lithium. What did you draw? What did you draw? AAA baseball club Albuquerque Isotopes logo (you need to know what isotopes are!)

Atoms http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg/270px- Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg.png http://www.solarsystempictures.net/ Most people probably drew a nucleus of some type with electrons orbiting around it. Most people probably drew a nucleus of some type with electrons orbiting around it. Possibly it looks a little like a mini solar system. Possibly it looks a little like a mini solar system. Atoms are composed of Atoms are composed of Protons Protons Neutrons Neutrons Electrons Electrons Neutron Proton Electron Lithium Sun=Nucleus Planets=Electrons

Subatomic Particles: Hint, you need to know this! ParticleRelative chargeRelative mass (1 amu = mass of a proton) Actual Mass of Particle Proton +11 amu1.67 x 10 -24 g Neutron 01 amu1.67 x 10 -24 g Electron 0 amu9.11 x 10 -28 g

Electrons Atoms can gain or lose electrons. Atoms can gain or lose electrons. Atoms can NEVER gain or lose protons! Atoms can NEVER gain or lose protons! If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a positive ION. If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a positive ION. Atoms can lose 1, 2 or 3 electrons Atoms can lose 1, 2 or 3 electrons If an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negative ion. If an atom gains an electron, it becomes a negative ion. Atoms can gain 1, 2, or 3 electrons Atoms can gain 1, 2, or 3 electrons

Protons http://www.periodictable.com/Items/020.6/index.html Protons determine the “identity” of an atom. The number of protons is a property called “atomic number.” Atomic numbers are on the periodic table. Protons determine the “identity” of an atom. The number of protons is a property called “atomic number.” Atomic numbers are on the periodic table. H has 1 proton H has 1 proton C has 6 protons C has 6 protons U has 92 protons U has 92 protons Atomic Number

# Protons = # Electrons Well yes, most of the time. Atoms are NEUTRAL (have the same number of protons and electrons). Well yes, most of the time. Atoms are NEUTRAL (have the same number of protons and electrons). If the charges don’t balance each other out, then you have an ion. If the charges don’t balance each other out, then you have an ion. Protons are located in the nucleus of the atom. (Where are the electrons?) Protons are located in the nucleus of the atom. (Where are the electrons?)

Neutrons http://www.ct.infn.it/~rivel/Archivio/chadwick.jpg http://kwisp.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/adventures-jimmy-neutron-300-032707.jpg Neutrons are also located in the nucleus of the atom. Neutrons are also located in the nucleus of the atom. The neutron was the last particle discovered, by James Chadwick, a former student of Rutherford. The neutron was the last particle discovered, by James Chadwick, a former student of Rutherford. He used paraffin wax to discover neutrons. This was done in 1932. He used paraffin wax to discover neutrons. This was done in 1932. Atoms can have different numbers of neutrons. These are called ISOTOPES. Atoms can have different numbers of neutrons. These are called ISOTOPES. Ooops, wrong neutron! Chadwick

The Nucleus http://www.chemicalelements.com/bohr/b0019.gif Since the neutrons are located in the nucleus, with the protons, substantially ALL of the mass of the atom is contained within the nucleus. Since the neutrons are located in the nucleus, with the protons, substantially ALL of the mass of the atom is contained within the nucleus. Mass of nucleus in diagram 0.0000000000000000000000651 g Mass of nucleus in diagram 0.0000000000000000000000651 g Mass of electrons 0.0000000000000000000000000173 g Mass of electrons 0.0000000000000000000000000173 g In other words, if the nucleus weighed 651 pounds, the electrons (combined) would weigh less than a McD’s quarter-pounder patty. In other words, if the nucleus weighed 651 pounds, the electrons (combined) would weigh less than a McD’s quarter-pounder patty. What element is this??

Strong Nuclear Force http://www.antonine-education.co.uk/Physics_AS/Module_1/Topic_5/strong_force.jpg But positively charged things repel other positively charged things, right? But positively charged things repel other positively charged things, right? Why do all the protons stick together in the nucleus? Why doesn’t it just spontaneously break apart? The answer is strong nuclear force. Why do all the protons stick together in the nucleus? Why doesn’t it just spontaneously break apart? The answer is strong nuclear force. It’s the strongest known force in the universe. It far, far stronger than gravity. It only can be felt when the particles are extremely close together, like when they are packed together in the nucleus. It’s the strongest known force in the universe. It far, far stronger than gravity. It only can be felt when the particles are extremely close together, like when they are packed together in the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are made of quarks. It’s thought that the quarks attract other quarks and hold the nucleus together, even though all of the protons are positively charged and would otherwise repel each other. Protons and neutrons are made of quarks. It’s thought that the quarks attract other quarks and hold the nucleus together, even though all of the protons are positively charged and would otherwise repel each other. The secret’s in the attractions between the quarks…

Models of the Atom http://www.fiu.edu/~zhangj/cartoon_quantum3.gif Scientists, starting with Dalton, came up with models of the atom, to help understand it and help to predict its behavior. Scientists, starting with Dalton, came up with models of the atom, to help understand it and help to predict its behavior. Solid Sphere Model Solid Sphere Model Plum Pudding Model Plum Pudding Model Nuclear Model Nuclear Model Planetary Model Planetary Model Quantum Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Do you remember who did each one? Do you remember who did each one?

Objective E We already know that the number of protons is what makes an atom unique. We already know that the number of protons is what makes an atom unique. Hydrogen has 1 proton. Hydrogen has 1 proton. Carbon has 6 protons. Carbon has 6 protons. Uranium has 92 protons. Uranium has 92 protons. The “atomic number” is the number of protons. We sometimes use a Z to represent atomic number. The “atomic number” is the number of protons. We sometimes use a Z to represent atomic number. So, if “ProtonMan” was a superhero, he’d have a “Z” on his suit??

Objective E So, for hydrogen, Z = 1 So, for hydrogen, Z = 1 For carbon, Z = 6 For carbon, Z = 6 For uranium, Z = 92. For uranium, Z = 92. What is the atomic number for What is the atomic number for Aluminum Aluminum Zinc Zinc Chlorine Chlorine Don’t memorize these…they are on the Periodic Table Find THEM!!

Objective F So, Z (atomic number) tells us how many protons an atom has. It does NOT tell you how many ELECTRONS you have (accurately) all the time! So, Z (atomic number) tells us how many protons an atom has. It does NOT tell you how many ELECTRONS you have (accurately) all the time! Unless you are TOLD that the atom has a charge, you should assume it has no charge, and therefore, # of protons = # of electrons. Unless you are TOLD that the atom has a charge, you should assume it has no charge, and therefore, # of protons = # of electrons. The number of protons cannot change. If the number of protons changes, it’s no longer the same element. Atoms can gain or lose electrons, but they can NOT gain or lose protons in any chemical reaction. The number of protons cannot change. If the number of protons changes, it’s no longer the same element. Atoms can gain or lose electrons, but they can NOT gain or lose protons in any chemical reaction.

Schwartz’s Law (a law I made up…hey, it’s my class) To calculate the number of electrons, use To calculate the number of electrons, use # of Electrons = Z – IC # of Electrons = Z – IC Where Z = atomic number and IC = ionic charge. Where Z = atomic number and IC = ionic charge. Ex: Suppose we have a sodium ion with a + 1 charge. How many electrons does it have? Atomic number (Z) is 11 (find this on Periodic Table) and ionic charge is 1. Ex: Suppose we have a sodium ion with a + 1 charge. How many electrons does it have? Atomic number (Z) is 11 (find this on Periodic Table) and ionic charge is 1. # electrons = 11 - 1 = 10 # electrons = 11 - 1 = 10 Ex: Suppose we have a sulfur ion with a - 2 charge. How many electrons does it have? Atomic number (Z) is 16 and ionic charge is -2. Ex: Suppose we have a sulfur ion with a - 2 charge. How many electrons does it have? Atomic number (Z) is 16 and ionic charge is -2. # electrons = 16 - (-2) = 16 + 2 = 18 # electrons = 16 - (-2) = 16 + 2 = 18

Objective F http://www.atomicarchive.com/Physics/Images/isotopes.jpg How do we calculate how many neutrons we have? How do we calculate how many neutrons we have? In order to do that, we need to look at another property, called atomic mass. The atomic mass of an atom = THE SUM of protons and neutrons. In order to do that, we need to look at another property, called atomic mass. The atomic mass of an atom = THE SUM of protons and neutrons. We will use another formula We will use another formula # Neutrons = A – Z # Neutrons = A – Z A = Mass Number A = Mass Number So, what is Z again? So, what is Z again? Hey these are isotopes again. Isotope = same # of protons but a different # of neutrons. 6 neutrons 8 neutrons

Objective F http://www.lbl.gov/abc/Basic.html#Nuclearstructure Let’s look at an example. An atom of Bromine (Br-80) has Z = 35 and Mass Number = 80. How many neutrons does it have? ( Br-80 doesn’t mean bromine with a charge of -80. When they write it like that, it’s a DASH and 80 is the mass number ) Let’s look at an example. An atom of Bromine (Br-80) has Z = 35 and Mass Number = 80. How many neutrons does it have? ( Br-80 doesn’t mean bromine with a charge of -80. When they write it like that, it’s a DASH and 80 is the mass number ) # Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number # Neutrons = Mass Number - Atomic Number # Neutrons = 80 - 35 = 45 # Neutrons = 80 - 35 = 45

Objective F An atom of Deuterium has Z = 1, and Mass Number = 2. How many neutrons does it have? An atom of Deuterium has Z = 1, and Mass Number = 2. How many neutrons does it have? Since Z = 1, deuterium must be some type of hydrogen. Hydrogen has Z = 1, and since every element has a unique number of protons, no two elements can have the same number of protons. Since Z = 1, deuterium must be some type of hydrogen. Hydrogen has Z = 1, and since every element has a unique number of protons, no two elements can have the same number of protons. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen. When deuterium reacts with oxygen it forms something called “heavy water.” Heavy water is represented with the formula D 2 O. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen. When deuterium reacts with oxygen it forms something called “heavy water.” Heavy water is represented with the formula D 2 O. # of Neutrons = Mass Number - Z = 2 - 1 = 1 # of Neutrons = Mass Number - Z = 2 - 1 = 1 Isotopes of hydrogen: 1 H = hydrogen 1 proton, 0 neutron 2 H = deuterium 1 proton, 1 neutron 3 H = tritium 1 proton, 2 neutrons Hydrogen is the only element with special names for isotopes. Special note

Objective G http://www.damninteresting.net/content/heavy_water_ice.jpg Here’s an interesting fact… Here’s an interesting fact… Ice cubes made out of “heavy water” will not float. They sink to the bottom. So it has different physical properties. Ice cubes made out of “heavy water” will not float. They sink to the bottom. So it has different physical properties. Although it PROBABLY tastes the same, you should NOT drink it though. Too much of it can really mess up your system. Although it PROBABLY tastes the same, you should NOT drink it though. Too much of it can really mess up your system.

Objective G http://www.usagold.com/images/gold-coins-images.jpeg http://finestimaginary.com/shop/images/medium/jewellery/au_MED.jpg How do isotopes differ from each other? (You should know this by now). How do isotopes differ from each other? (You should know this by now). Look at gold (Au) on the periodic table. It says that the mass = 196.967. Since mass number and atomic number are ALWAYS whole numbers, how do we get.967? Look at gold (Au) on the periodic table. It says that the mass = 196.967. Since mass number and atomic number are ALWAYS whole numbers, how do we get.967? The answer is that the atomic masses on the periodic table are averages. The answer is that the atomic masses on the periodic table are averages. They get that average atomic mass for Au by taking into account ALL of gold’s isotopes. They get that average atomic mass for Au by taking into account ALL of gold’s isotopes. Isotopes differ from each other in the number of neutrons. They behave the same CHEMICALLY because all isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons. Isotopes differ from each other in the number of neutrons. They behave the same CHEMICALLY because all isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons.

Objective H How do we calculate the average atomic mass? How do we calculate the average atomic mass? To do so, you need to know 2 things: To do so, you need to know 2 things: All possible isotopes for an element All possible isotopes for an element The percent abundance for each (in other words, how much of the whole is represented by each isotope). The percent abundance for each (in other words, how much of the whole is represented by each isotope). Math Alert

Objective H Let’s look at an example: Let’s look at an example: Chlorine has 2 isotopes Chlorine has 2 isotopes 35 Cl which is 75.77% of the total amount of chlorine. 35 Cl which is 75.77% of the total amount of chlorine. 37 Cl which is 24.23% of the total amount of chlorine. 37 Cl which is 24.23% of the total amount of chlorine. What is the average atomic mass of Chlorine? What is the average atomic mass of Chlorine?

Objective H Cl-35 accounts for 75.77% of the total chlorine. CL-37 accounts for the rest. Cl-35 accounts for 75.77% of the total chlorine. CL-37 accounts for the rest. Remember to convert percents into decimals, you have to move the decimal point 2 places to the left. Remember to convert percents into decimals, you have to move the decimal point 2 places to the left. You then mutiply the percentage (in decimal form) times the mass number for that isotope. You do that for the other isotope too, and then add the answers together. You then mutiply the percentage (in decimal form) times the mass number for that isotope. You do that for the other isotope too, and then add the answers together. Avg Atomic Mass = 35 (0.7577) + 37 (0.2423). Avg Atomic Mass = 35 (0.7577) + 37 (0.2423). Avg Atomic Mass = 26.52 + 8.97 = 35.49 Avg Atomic Mass = 26.52 + 8.97 = 35.49

Objective H In our class, we are always going to round average atomic masses to 1 decimal place. In our class, we are always going to round average atomic masses to 1 decimal place. So, we’ll round 35.49 to 35.5 and that’s the average atomic mass of Chlorine that we’ll use. So, we’ll round 35.49 to 35.5 and that’s the average atomic mass of Chlorine that we’ll use. Why can’t you just average 35 and 37 (the two isotopes) and get 36 as the average atomic mass? Why is that wrong? Why can’t you just average 35 and 37 (the two isotopes) and get 36 as the average atomic mass? Why is that wrong?

Na Find Na on the table. Find Na on the table. Na stands for sodium. Sodium is one of those elements that we’re going to use over and over this year. Might as well memorize it now. Na stands for sodium. Sodium is one of those elements that we’re going to use over and over this year. Might as well memorize it now. Na for Sodium makes no sense, unless you know that the Latin name for sodium is natrium, and then it makes a lot more. Na for Sodium makes no sense, unless you know that the Latin name for sodium is natrium, and then it makes a lot more. Why did we give it a Latin name? Well, this British guy named Sir Humphry Davis gave it that name back in 1807 when he discovered it. Why did we give it a Latin name? Well, this British guy named Sir Humphry Davis gave it that name back in 1807 when he discovered it. Not everything was discovered in the US. Not everything was discovered in the US.

K & W & Hg & Fe Right underneath sodium is K or potassium. Ok, does that have a Latin name too? Yes, Sir Davis discovered this too and he named it kalium. Right underneath sodium is K or potassium. Ok, does that have a Latin name too? Yes, Sir Davis discovered this too and he named it kalium. Some other interesting ones: Some other interesting ones: W named after the German word Wolfram W named after the German word Wolfram Hg named after the Greek word Hydragyrum, meaning liquid metal. Hg named after the Greek word Hydragyrum, meaning liquid metal. Fe named after the Latin word Ferrum. Iridium has the symbol Ir. IRON is Fe. Fe named after the Latin word Ferrum. Iridium has the symbol Ir. IRON is Fe.

Alkali Metals Sodium and potassium and all the rest of the elements in that group are alkali metals. Sodium and potassium and all the rest of the elements in that group are alkali metals. The alkali metals all have one valence electron. That similarity is what makes them behave the same chemically. The alkali metals all have one valence electron. That similarity is what makes them behave the same chemically. They are very reactive. Reactivity is highest on the outer edges of the table and elements get less reactive the closer they are to the center of the table. Lithium is the least reactive alkali metal and reactivity increases as you go down the group. They are very reactive. Reactivity is highest on the outer edges of the table and elements get less reactive the closer they are to the center of the table. Lithium is the least reactive alkali metal and reactivity increases as you go down the group.

Noble Gases The noble gases are very stable. They are unreactive because they are so stable. The noble gases are very stable. They are unreactive because they are so stable. The noble gases all have 8 valence electrons. Helium is an exception in that it only has 2. The noble gases all have 8 valence electrons. Helium is an exception in that it only has 2. The noble gases are obviously gases at STP The noble gases are obviously gases at STP STP = Standard Temperature and Pressure STP = Standard Temperature and Pressure

Alkaline Earth Metals & Halogens Group IIA or Group 2 are called “the alkaline earth metals.” They have 2 valence electrons. Group IIA or Group 2 are called “the alkaline earth metals.” They have 2 valence electrons. Group VIIA or Group 17 are called “the halogens.” The halogens all have 7 valence electrons, and like the alkali metals, they are very reactive (fluorine is most reactive and reactivity decreases as you go down the group). Group VIIA or Group 17 are called “the halogens.” The halogens all have 7 valence electrons, and like the alkali metals, they are very reactive (fluorine is most reactive and reactivity decreases as you go down the group). Iron is one of the least reactive elements known. It can take literally years for it to react. Iron is one of the least reactive elements known. It can take literally years for it to react.

Lewis Structures http://www.ausetute.com.au/lewisstr.html A Lewis structure can have a maximum of 8 dots. A Lewis structure can have a maximum of 8 dots. You put one dot on each side of the symbol (top, bottom, left and right), until each side has a dot. You put one dot on each side of the symbol (top, bottom, left and right), until each side has a dot. Then you can start pairing them up, until every side has 2 dots. Then you can start pairing them up, until every side has 2 dots. When every side has two dots, you can’t put any more dots on the structure. If you need to, you did something wrong. When every side has two dots, you can’t put any more dots on the structure. If you need to, you did something wrong. Oxygen Lewis structure

The End Next you should look at the Chemical History power point. Then… Advanced Chemistry should go to Chapter 28 powerpoint. Chemistry should go to the Special Topics for SOL 2 powerpoint.