What do all four animals have in common? 1.They reproduce asexually. 2.They are composed of cells. 3.They have similar means of locomotion. 4.They have the same internal structures
Which substance do all living things require to survive? 1.blood 2. water 3. carbon dioxide 4. organic soil
In order to survive, all organisms must have 1.chlorophyll 2. carbon dioxide 3. energy 4. blood
The sum of all chemical reactions in the human body is known as (1) feedback (2) metabolism (3) dynamic equilibrium (4) biological adaptation
Which sequence correctly shows the levels of organization for structure and function in a human? 1.cell → tissue → organ → organ system 2. organ system → cell → tissue → organ 3. tissue → organ → organ system → cell 4. cell → organ → tissue → organ system
Which diagram below represents one type of human tissue? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.)
Which life process is shown by the equation below? respiration
1. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction? In which part of the plant does most photosynthesis occur? A - leaves
1. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction? 2. Which structure absorbs water and minerals? A - leaves D - roots
Which part of the microscope is used to bring the image of the object on the slide into focus? Which part of the microscope helps to magnify the specimen? B A and D
Which two body systems most directly cause the arm to bend? 1.skeletal and muscular 2.reproductive and endocrine 3.respiratory and excretory 4.nervous and digestive
A cat jumps when startled by a loud noise. This is an example of an organism 1.sensing and responding to its external environment 2.sensing and responding to its internal environment 3.changing and controlling its external environment 4.changing and controlling its internal environment
1. Which term describes an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment? 2. Running to escape danger is an action that requires the nervous system to coordinate the interaction of which two body systems? 1.digestive and endocrine 2. muscular and skeletal 3. reproductive and excretory 4. circulatory and digestive Homeostasis/Regulation
Insulin and glucagon are hormones that affect blood sugar levels. The diagram below shows the feedback system used by the human body to increase and decrease blood sugar levels. This feedback system is one way that the human body (1) circulates gases (3) destroys viruses (2) maintains equilibrium (4) transports nutrients
1. The interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems to produce locomotion is coordinated by which human body system? 2. Infections may be caused by 1.mutations 2. microorganisms 3. toxic substances 4. climate changes Nervous system
The chart below identifies the function of several organs found in a human body system. Which human body system performs these functions? OrganFunction nose moistens and filters air lungsgas exchange diaphragm muscle that controls air intake Respiratory system
1. In humans, the amount of sugar in blood is controlled by the release of a hormone called insulin. This process is an example of 1.depletion 2. digestion 3. regulation 4. excretion 2. Which human organ system eliminates liquid and gaseous wastes from the body? (1) circulatory (3) excretory (2) endocrine (4) reproductive
In one serving of this macaroni and cheese, how many Calories come from fat? (1)12 (2) 65 (3) 110 (4) 250
How many of the organisms in the lab dish are insects? (1)1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4
The diagram below shows three generations of cell division. How many cells should exist in the fourth generation? 8
1. A broken bone heals through the process of 1.adaptation 2. mutation 3. cell division 4. chemical digestion 2. In animal skin tissue, cell division is responsible for 1. growth and repair 2. sexual reproduction 3. obtaining energy 4. production of sex cells
What advantage does a species that reproduces sexually have over a species that reproduces asexually? 1. There is greater variation among the offspring. 2. The offspring are identical to the parents. 3. Only one parent is necessary for reproduction. 4. No sex cells are needed for reproduction.
Which letter in the diagram represents fertilization? C
The diagram shows four stages in the development of a human after fertilization. Between stages A and D, which process must occur? 1. mutation 2. sexual reproduction 3. cell division 4. extinction
Which sequence of development is correct? 1.fertilized egg → tissues → organ systems → organs 2. fertilized egg →organ systems → organs → tissues 3. fertilized egg → organs → tissues → organ systems 4. fertilized egg → tissues → organs → organ systems
Which statement describes a method of sexual reproduction that occurs in plants? 1.Stem cuttings are placed in water and grow roots. 2. Seeds are produced from the flower of the plant. 3. Underground stems from a plant grow into new plants. 4. A leaf falls to the soil, develops roots, and grows
The diagram below shows a cross section of a bean seed. The function of part X in the bean seed is to 1. provide protection for the embryo 2. provide nutrients for the embryo 3. prevent mutations in the plant 4. fight off infections in the plant
1. Many cells have a nucleus that contains chromosomes. These chromosomes carry genes that are composed of 1.hormones 2. DNA molecules 3. minerals and water 4. undigested food molecules 2. Which term identifies a single unit of hereditary information? (1)egg cell (2) sperm cell (3) nucleus (4) gene
The diagram shows a model of human inheritance. 1. What is this model used to determine? 1.the possibility of having twins 2. the probability of a trait being passed on 3.the rate of mutation 4. the production of sex cells 2. What is the genetic makeup of the parents? 1.AA and aa 2. Aa and Aa 2.3. AA and AA 4. aa and aa 7
1. Each body cell of a goldfish contains 94 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are contained in a goldfish sex cell? 47 2. The drawing below represents a pair of chromosomes. The area labeled “bands” shows the location of 1.egg cells 2.sperm cells 3.reproductive hormones 4.specific genes
1. Cancer is most often the result of (1) abnormal cell division(2) natural selection (3) bacterial infection(4) biological adaptation 2. An organism is born with a genetic abnormality not present in any of its ancestors. This abnormality is most likely the result of (1) circulation (3) mutation (2) competition(4) respiration
Feathers, wings, and the hollow bones of birds are examples of 1.adaptations for flight 2. responses to stimuli 3. unnecessary body parts 4. reproductive structures
Letters A, B, and C represent three time periods. Which process does this diagram best represent? 1. ecological succession2. genetic engineering 3. natural selection 4. asexual reproduction
The diagram below shows the head structure of four different birds. The birds’ beaks show how the birds 1.compete for the same food in their community 2.require different amounts of food for survival 3.store food for the winter months 4.are adapted to get food from different sources
Although change in multicellular species usually takes thousands of years, some species of bacteria undergo major changes in just a few years. One reason for this difference is that these bacteria 1.are microscopic 2. do not contain DNA 3. reproduce very quickly 4. cause infectious diseases 2. Which group of organisms can show significant trait changes in the shortest period of time? 1. bacteria 2. birds 3. fish 4. reptiles
The illustration below traces the development of the corgi dog over several generations as a result of human activity. This is an example of 1.mutation 2.genetic engineering 3.selective breeding 4.natural selection
1. When the environment changes more quickly than a species can adapt, the species may become (1)extinct (2) dominant (3) diverse (4) overpopulated 2. Over time, these organisms evolved from a common ancestor. Which process best explains why they now have different characteristics? (1)extinction (2) metabolism (3) asexual reproduction (4) biological adaptation 3. Naturally occurring variations within a species are mainly the result of mutations and (1)sexual reproduction(2) dynamic equilibrium (3) metabolism(4) camouflage
The diagram shows how modern types of flowers developed from early types of flowers over the last 75 million years. What is the most likely reason why these early flowers gradually changed to many different types of flowers over time? (1) The flowers’ traits were genetically engineered. (2) The environments of the flowers stayed the same. (3) The genetic material of the flowers stayed the same. (4) The flowers adapted to environmental conditions.
Which statement describes a role of fungi in an ecosystem? 1. They transfer energy to decaying matter. 2. They release oxygen into the ecosystem. 3. They recycle chemicals from dead organisms. 4. They synthesize organic nutrients from inorganic substances.
The diagram below shows several different organisms found in an area. The worms in the diagram represent (1) a community (3) a habitat (2) an ecosystem (4) a population
The diagram below shows a food chain. What do the arrows in the diagram represent? (1) flow of energy (3) one community replacing another (2) life cycle stages (4) renewable resource depletion
Which process is illustrated in the diagrams? 1.ozone depletion 2. global warming 3. recycling resources 4. ecological succession
The diagram below shows a material being cycled between the living and nonliving environments. Which material is being cycled? 1.carbon dioxide 2. nitrogen 3. oxygen 4. water
1. Many cars today are designed to get better gas mileage than those made in the past. This change resulted from a need to 1.recycle materials 2. improve safety 3. produce chemicals 4. conserve resources 2. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable? 1. oil 2. moving water 3. sunlight 4. biomass
The diagram below shows a factory in the Midwest burning coal, the direction of prevailing winds, and an area in New York State. Which statement is best supported by the information shown in the diagram? 1. Most rain is caused by factories. 2. Human activities can cause pollution. 3. Acid rain is necessary for forest growth. 4. The Adirondack Mountains determine the direction of prevailing winds.
Most scientists agree that an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases entering Earth’s atmosphere causes (1) a decrease in sea level (2) a decrease in average surface temperatures (3) an increase in melting of polar ice caps (4) an increase in crustal plate movement
1. What is a disadvantage of using moving water to produce electricity? 1.Power is produced inexpensively. 2. Air pollution is produced. 3. Oil spills may occur. 4. The local ecosystem may be disrupted. 2. Pesticides and fertilizers can help farmers to produce more crops. However, overuse of these chemicals can result in (1) ecological succession (2) material recycling (3) environmental pollution (4) selective breeding
A student wanted to study the amount of mold growing on pizza at different temperatures. In the experiment, the student set up 4 identical pans of pizza. Each pan contained the same amount of pizza. The temperatures and light conditions are shown in the data table below. One error made in setting up the experiment was that the four pans of pizza 1.were at different temperatures 2.2. were different sizes 3. had different ingredients 4. received different amounts of light
A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow and arrow have the greatest amount of potential energy?
Which activity is an example of a chemical change? (1) dissolving table salt in water (2) hammering aluminum into thin sheets (3) melting gold to make jewelry (4) burning wood to produce ashes
The diagram represents four processes, labeled A, B, C, and D, that occur when water changes phase. 1. Which process is represented by B? (1) condensing (3) freezing (2) evaporating (4) melting 2. Which two processes increase the motion of the molecules? (1) A and B (3) C and D (2) B and C (4) D and A
Compared to the particles in a hardened lava sample, the particles in a liquid lava sample (1) have a lower temperature (2) have less kinetic energy (3) are moving faster (4) are closer together
1. Which form of energy are x rays and ultraviolet light? (1) nuclear (2) electromagnetic (3) heat (4) chemical 2. Sound will not travel in a (1) solid (2) gas (3) liquid (4) vacuum 3. A student pushes against a tree with a force of 10 newtons (N). The tree does not move. What is the amount of force exerted by the tree on the student? (1) 0 N (2) 10 N (3) 5 N (4) 20 N
The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the (1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity (2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction
A student is trying to dissolve 20 grams of sugar in a beaker containing 250 milliliters of water at room temperature. What can the student do to make the sugar dissolve faster in the water? (1) decrease the temperature of the water (2) use larger pieces of sugar (3) stir rapidly (4) use less water
1. The elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all found in the same group (17) on the table. These elements are grouped together because they (1)are metals (2)have the same atomic mass (3) react in similar ways (4) are noble gases 2. Water (H2O) is not found on the Periodic Table of the Elements because water is (1) an atom (3) a mixture (2) a liquid (4) a compound
The diagram below shows what occurs when a ray of light strikes and enters a pond. Which property of light is illustrated when the ray enters the pond? (1) refraction (3) absorption (2) reflection (4) emission
The gravitational force between two objects depends on the distance between the objects and each object’s (1) mass (3) pressure (2) volume (4) temperature
The diagram shows a bar magnet resting on top of a piece of white paper. The north and south poles of the magnet are labeled N and S. Points A, B, C, and D represent four locations around the magnet. If iron filings were sprinkled evenly across the entire paper circle, at which location would the greatest concentration of iron filings be found after 30 seconds? B
The diagram below shows two magnets. If the magnets are brought closer together, they will (1) attract each other with a stronger force (2) attract each other with a weaker force (3) repel each other with a stronger force (4) repel each other with a weaker force
Which diagram best represents molecules of matter in the solid phase?
During an experiment, a strip of magnesium (Mg) metal wrapped around a nichrome (nonreactive) wire is placed in a flask. The nichrome wire outside the flask is insulated. The contents of the flask are sealed off from the environment with a rubber stopper. When the nichrome wire is connected to a battery, an electric current passes through the wire, causing a white powder called magnesium oxide (MgO) to form.
The flask and its contents had a mass of 120 grams before the experiment and a mass of 120 grams after the experiment. Which conclusion can best be made from these measurements? (1)A phase change took place. (2) Matter was conserved. (3) Energy was destroyed. (4) New elements were formed.
The chemical change that occurred in the flask is most similar to (1)burning a piece of coal (2) breaking a piece of wood into many pieces (3) freezing water in a container (4) bending a wire to form a hook