4What do all four animals have in common? They reproduce asexually.They are composed of cells.They have similar means of locomotion.They have the same internal structures
5Which substance do all living things require to survive? blood2. water3. carbon dioxide4. organic soil
6In order to survive, all organisms must have chlorophyll2. carbon dioxide3. energy4. blood
7The sum of all chemical reactions in the human body is known as (1) feedback (2) metabolism (3) dynamic equilibrium (4) biological adaptation
8Which sequence correctly shows the levels of organization for structure and function in a human? cell → tissue → organ → organ system2. organ system → cell → tissue → organ3. tissue → organ → organ system → cell4. cell → organ → tissue → organ system
9Which diagram below represents one type of human tissue Which diagram below represents one type of human tissue? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.)
10Which life process is shown by the equation below? respiration
111. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction 1. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction? In which part of the plant does most photosynthesis occur?A - leaves
121. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction 1. Which part of the plant is directly involved in sexual reproduction? 2. Which structure absorbs water and minerals?A - leavesD - roots
13Which part of the microscope is used to bring the image of the object on the slide into focus? Which part of the microscope helps to magnify the specimen?BA and D
15Which two body systems most directly cause the arm to bend? skeletal and muscularreproductive and endocrinerespiratory and excretorynervous and digestive
16A cat jumps when startled by a loud noise. This is an example of an organismsensing and responding to its external environmentsensing and responding to its internal environmentchanging and controlling its external environmentchanging and controlling its internal environment
17Homeostasis/Regulation 1. Which term describes an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment?2. Running to escape danger is an action that requires the nervous system to coordinate the interaction of which two body systems?digestive and endocrine2. muscular and skeletal3. reproductive and excretory4. circulatory and digestiveHomeostasis/Regulation
18Insulin and glucagon are hormones that affect blood sugar levels Insulin and glucagon are hormones that affect blood sugar levels. The diagram below shows the feedback system used by the human body to increase and decrease blood sugar levels. This feedback system is one way that the human body (1) circulates gases (3) destroys viruses (2) maintains equilibrium (4) transports nutrients
191. The interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems to produce locomotion is coordinated by which human body system?2. Infections may be caused bymutations microorganisms3. toxic substances 4. climate changesNervous system
20The chart below identifies the function of several organs found in a human body system. Which human body system performs these functions?Respiratory systemOrganFunctionnosemoistens and filters airlungsgas exchangediaphragmmuscle that controls air intake
211. In humans, the amount of sugar in blood is controlled by the release of a hormone called insulin. This process is an example ofdepletion 2. digestion3. regulation 4. excretion2. Which human organ system eliminates liquid and gaseous wastes from the body?(1) circulatory (3) excretory(2) endocrine (4) reproductive
22In one serving of this macaroni and cheese, how many Calories come from fat? 12(2) 65(3) 110(4) 250
23How many of the organisms in the lab dish are insects? 1(2) 2(3) 3(4) 4
25The diagram below shows three generations of cell division The diagram below shows three generations of cell division. How many cells should exist in the fourth generation?8
261. A broken bone heals through the process of adaptation 2. mutation3. cell division 4. chemical digestion2. In animal skin tissue, cell division is responsible for1. growth and repair 2. sexual reproduction3. obtaining energy 4. production of sex cells
27What advantage does a species that reproduces sexually have over a species that reproduces asexually? 1. There is greater variation among the offspring. 2. The offspring are identical to the parents. 3. Only one parent is necessary for reproduction. 4. No sex cells are needed for reproduction.
28Which letter in the diagram represents fertilization?
29The diagram shows four stages in the development of a human after fertilization. Between stages A and D, which process must occur? 1. mutation 2. sexual reproduction 3. cell division 4. extinction
30Which sequence of development is correct? fertilized egg → tissues → organ systems → organs2. fertilized egg →organ systems → organs → tissues3. fertilized egg → organs → tissues → organ systems4. fertilized egg → tissues → organs → organ systems
31Which statement describes a method of sexual reproduction that occurs in plants? Stem cuttings are placed in water and grow roots.2. Seeds are produced from the flower of the plant.3. Underground stems from a plant grow into new plants.4. A leaf falls to the soil, develops roots, and grows
32The diagram below shows a cross section of a bean seed The diagram below shows a cross section of a bean seed. The function of part X in the bean seed is to 1. provide protection for the embryo 2. provide nutrients for the embryo 3. prevent mutations in the plant 4. fight off infections in the plant
342. Which term identifies a single unit of hereditary information? 1. Many cells have a nucleus that contains chromosomes. These chromosomes carry genes that are composed ofhormones 2. DNA molecules3. minerals and water 4. undigested food molecules2. Which term identifies a single unit of hereditary information?egg cell (2) sperm cell(3) nucleus (4) gene
35The diagram shows a model of human inheritance. 1. What is this model used to determine?the possibility of having twins2. the probability of a trait being passed onthe rate of mutation4. the production of sex cells2. What is the genetic makeup of the parents?AA and aa 2. Aa and Aa3. AA and AA 4. aa and aa7
361. Each body cell of a goldfish contains 94 chromosomes 1. Each body cell of a goldfish contains 94 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are contained in a goldfish sex cell?472. The drawing below represents a pair of chromosomes. The area labeled “bands” shows the location ofegg cellssperm cellsreproductive hormonesspecific genes
371. Cancer is most often the result of (1) abnormal cell division (2) natural selection (3) bacterial infection (4) biological adaptation 2. An organism is born with a genetic abnormality not present in any of its ancestors. This abnormality is most likely the result of (1) circulation (3) mutation (2) competition (4) respiration
39Feathers, wings, and the hollow bones of birds are examples of adaptations for flight2. responses to stimuli3. unnecessary body parts4. reproductive structures
40Letters A, B, and C represent three time periods Letters A, B, and C represent three time periods. Which process does this diagram best represent? 1. ecological succession 2. genetic engineering 3. natural selection 4. asexual reproduction
41The diagram below shows the head structure of four different birds. The birds’ beaks show how the birdscompete for the same food in their communityrequire different amounts of food for survivalstore food for the winter monthsare adapted to get food from different sources
42Although change in multicellular species usually takes thousands of years, some species of bacteria undergo major changes in just a few years. One reason for this difference is that these bacteriaare microscopic2. do not contain DNA3. reproduce very quickly4. cause infectious diseases2. Which group of organisms can show significant trait changes in the shortest period of time?1. bacteria 2. birds 3. fish 4. reptiles
43The illustration below traces the development of the corgi dog over several generations as a result of human activity. This is an example ofmutationgenetic engineeringselective breedingnatural selection
441. When the environment changes more quickly than a species can adapt, the species may become extinct (2) dominant(3) diverse (4) overpopulated2. Over time, these organisms evolved from a common ancestor. Which process best explains why they nowhave different characteristics?extinction (2) metabolism(3) asexual reproduction (4) biological adaptation3. Naturally occurring variations within a species are mainly the result of mutations andsexual reproduction (2) dynamic equilibrium(3) metabolism (4) camouflage
45The diagram shows how modern types of flowers developed from early types of flowers over the last 75 million years. What is the most likely reason why these early flowers gradually changed to many different types of flowers over time? (1) The flowers’ traits were genetically engineered. (2) The environments of the flowers stayed the same. (3) The genetic material of the flowers stayed the same. (4) The flowers adapted to environmental conditions.
46Which statement describes a role of fungi in an ecosystem. 1 Which statement describes a role of fungi in an ecosystem? 1. They transfer energy to decaying matter. 2. They release oxygen into the ecosystem. 3. They recycle chemicals from dead organisms. 4. They synthesize organic nutrients from inorganic substances.
48The diagram below shows several different organisms found in an area The diagram below shows several different organisms found in an area. The worms in the diagram represent (1) a community (3) a habitat (2) an ecosystem (4) a population
49The diagram below shows a food chain The diagram below shows a food chain. What do the arrows in the diagram represent?(1) flow of energy (3) one community replacing another(2) life cycle stages (4) renewable resource depletion
50Which process is illustrated in the diagrams? ozone depletion 2. global warming3. recycling resources 4. ecological succession
51The diagram below shows a material being cycled between the living and nonliving environments. Which material is being cycled?carbon dioxide2. nitrogen3. oxygen4. water
521. Many cars today are designed to get better gas mileage than those made in the past. This change resulted from a need torecycle materials 2. improve safety3. produce chemicals 4. conserve resources2. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable?1. oil moving water 3. sunlight 4. biomass
53The diagram below shows a factory in the Midwest burning coal, the direction of prevailing winds, and an area in New York State. Which statement is best supported by the information shown in the diagram?1. Most rain is caused by factories.2. Human activities can cause pollution.3. Acid rain is necessary for forest growth.4. The Adirondack Mountains determine the direction of prevailing winds.
54Most scientists agree that an increase in the amount of greenhouse gases entering Earth’s atmosphere causes (1) a decrease in sea level (2) a decrease in average surface temperatures (3) an increase in melting of polar ice caps (4) an increase in crustal plate movement
551. What is a disadvantage of using moving water to produce electricity? Power is produced inexpensively.2. Air pollution is produced.3. Oil spills may occur.4. The local ecosystem may be disrupted.2. Pesticides and fertilizers can help farmers toproduce more crops. However, overuse of thesechemicals can result in(1) ecological succession(2) material recycling(3) environmental pollution(4) selective breeding
57A student wanted to study the amount of mold growing on pizza at different temperatures. In the experiment, the student set up 4 identical pans of pizza. Each pan contained the same amount of pizza. The temperatures and light conditions are shown in the data table below.One error made in setting up the experiment was that the four pans of pizzawere at different temperatures2. were different sizes3. had different ingredients4. received different amounts of light
59A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow and arrow have the greatest amount of potential energy?
60Which activity is an example of a chemical change Which activity is an example of a chemical change? (1) dissolving table salt in water (2) hammering aluminum into thin sheets (3) melting gold to make jewelry (4) burning wood to produce ashes
61The diagram represents four processes, labeled A, B, C, and D, that occur when water changes phase. 1. Which process is represented by B? (1) condensing (3) freezing (2) evaporating (4) melting 2. Which two processes increase the motion of the molecules? (1) A and B (3) C and D (2) B and C (4) D and A
62Compared to the particles in a hardened lava sample, the particles in a liquid lava sample (1) have a lower temperature (2) have less kinetic energy (3) are moving faster (4) are closer together
631. Which form of energy are x rays and ultraviolet light 1. Which form of energy are x rays and ultraviolet light? (1) nuclear (2) electromagnetic (3) heat (4) chemical 2. Sound will not travel in a (1) solid (2) gas (3) liquid (4) vacuum 3. A student pushes against a tree with a force of 10 newtons (N). The tree does not move. What is the amount of force exerted by the tree on the student? (1) 0 N (2) 10 N (3) 5 N (4) 20 N
64The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the (1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity (2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction
65A student is trying to dissolve 20 grams of sugar in a beaker containing 250 milliliters of water at room temperature. What can the student do to make the sugar dissolve faster in the water? (1) decrease the temperature of the water (2) use larger pieces of sugar (3) stir rapidly (4) use less water
661. The elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are all found in the same group (17) on the table. These elements are grouped together because theyare metalshave the same atomic mass(3) react in similar ways(4) are noble gases2. Water (H2O) is not found on the Periodic Table of the Elements because water is(1) an atom (3) a mixture(2) a liquid (4) a compound
67The diagram below shows what occurs when a ray of light strikes and enters a pond. Which property of light is illustrated when the ray enters the pond? (1) refraction (3) absorption (2) reflection (4) emission
68The gravitational force between two objects depends on the distance between the objects and each object’s (1) mass (3) pressure (2) volume (4) temperature
69The diagram shows a bar magnet resting on top of a piece of white paper. The north and south poles of the magnet are labeled N and S. Points A, B, C, and D represent four locations around the magnet. If iron filings were sprinkled evenly across the entire paper circle, at which location would the greatest concentration of iron filings be found after 30 seconds? B
70The diagram below shows two magnets The diagram below shows two magnets. If the magnets are brought closer together, they will (1) attract each other with a stronger force (2) attract each other with a weaker force (3) repel each other with a stronger force (4) repel each other with a weaker force
71Which diagram best represents molecules of matter in the solid phase?
72During an experiment, a strip of magnesium (Mg) metal wrapped around a nichrome (nonreactive) wire is placed in a flask. The nichrome wire outside the flask is insulated. The contents of the flask are sealed off from the environment with a rubber stopper. When the nichrome wire is connected to a battery, an electric current passes through the wire, causing a white powder called magnesium oxide (MgO) to form.
73The flask and its contents had a mass of 120 grams before the experiment and a mass of 120 grams after the experiment. Which conclusion can best be made from these measurements?A phase change took place.(2) Matter was conserved.(3) Energy was destroyed.(4) New elements were formed.
74The chemical change that occurred in the flask is most similar to burning a piece of coal(2) breaking a piece of wood into many pieces(3) freezing water in a container(4) bending a wire to form a hook